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BAEDEKER'S guide books. 

BELGIUM and HOLLAND, with 6 Maps and 13. Plans. 
Third Edition. 1874 4 s. 

15 Maps and 16 Plans. Fifth Edition. 1873. 5 s. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 11 Maps and 27 Plans. 

Fifth Edition. ^^ 

with 28 Maps 


and ANCONA, 
6 Maps and 2 

Third Edition. 




ncluding the 

rinthia etc.), 
tion. 1873. 
8 s. 

SSICA, with 

1874. 6 s. 

and 9 Plans. 


rsions to the 

LIPARI ISLAl\UO, 1U1X10 yi^uruuiyv] , 

MALTA and ATHENS, with 7 Maps and 8 Plans. 
Fourth Edition. 1873 5 s. 

PARIS and NORTHERN FRANCE, with 2 Maps and 
21 Plans. Third Edition. 1872 5 s. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent portions of ITALY, 
SAVOY and the TYROL, with 22 Maps, 10 Plans 
and 7 Panoramas. Sixth Edition. 1873 . . .6 s. 

in English, German, French and Italian. Twenty- 
first Edition. 1873 3 s. 

January 1874. 


MONEY- TABLE (nemp. p. XI). 

Approximate Equivalents. 

Italian . 

Lire. I Centesimi. 


Dollars. I Cents 


L. fit. I Shillings. I 
























„ 5 ( = 
25 (= 

50 (= 

75 (= 



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2' | j 



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2>| 2 
9'| 4 



2>| 2 

9 3 |4 

7'| 2 


2>| 2 



1 : 1,960,000 

io u xt> is <ft 

jEhtjhsJi* Milts 

o IS JO M 30 

i 13 IS JO P.'. 3© A I 






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With 7 Maps and 28 Plans. 



'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.'' 



The object of the Handbook for Italy , like that of the 
Editor's other works of the same description, is to enable the 
traveller to dispense as far as possible with the services of 
guides, valets-de-place, and others of the same class, to 
supply him with a few remarks on the progress of civilisation 
and art among the people he is about to visit , and generally 
to aid him in deriving enjoyment and instruction from 
his tour. 

The Handbook will, moreover, inform the reader how to 
visit the chief objects of interest with the greatest possible 
economy of time, money, and, it may be added, temper; for 
in few countries is the traveller's patience more severely put 
to the test, than in Italy. The Editor will endeavour to ac- 
company the enlightened traveller through the streets of the 
Italian towns, to all the principal edifices and works of art; 
and to guide his steps amidst the exquisite scenery in which 
Italy so richly abounds. 

The Editor has repeatedly explored most of the places 
described, and the Handbook is mainly the result of his own 
observation.) The present edition has been carefully revised, 
and provided with the most recent information obtainable. 

The Editor will highly appreciate any bond fide information 
with which travellers may favour him and he gratefully 
acknowledges that already received, which in many instances 
has been most serviceable. 

The Maps and Plans , upon which special care has been 
bestowed, will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary 
traveller. The inexperienced are recommended, when steering 
their course with the aid of a plan, before starting, to mark 
with a coloured pencil the point for which they are bound. 
This will often enable them to avoid a circuitous route. Trav- 
ellers who desire a more minute acquaintance with Northern 


Italy will find the following maps most serviceable : Kiepert's 
Special Map of N. and Central Italy, pub. by D. Reimer, 
Berlin, 1860 (scale 1 : 800,000: price I1/3 Thlr., or 5 fr.) ; then 
Nos. IV. (S. Switzerland, Savoy, and Piedmont) , V. (S. E. 
Switzerland, S. Tyrol, Lombardy, and Venice) , VII. (S. E. 
France, Sardinia, Nice, Genoa), and VIII. (Parma, Modena, 
Emilia , Tuscany) of 6. Mayr's Atlas of the Alps , admirably 
executed, scale 1:450,000 (mounted, 2 Thlr. each). 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre = 0,938 Parisian ft.). 

Distances are given in English miles. The Italian 
'miglio' varies in different districts. Approximately it maybe 
stated that 1 Engl. M. = 6 /t Ital. migl. = l'/ u Roman migl. 

Time Tables. The most trustworthy are contained in 
the ' Guida-Orario ufficiale di tutte le strade ferrate a" Italia 
contenente anche le indicazioni dei Piroscaji, Carrier i, Viligenze', 
etc., with map, published at Milan (price 40c). 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary more than in Italy , and 
attempts at extortion are perhaps nowhere so outrageous; 
much improvement, however, in this respect has taken place 
of late years, and good hotels will now be found at most of the 
principal resorts of travellers. The asterisks prefixed to the 
names of hotels indicate those which the Editor believes to 
be comparatively respectable . clean , and reasonable. Hotel 
and other charges are liable to constant fluctuation, but those 
stated in the Handbook will at least enable the traveller to 
form a fair estimate of the demands which can be justly made. 




I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System ... XI 

II. Period and. Plan of Tour XII 

III. Language XIII 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage .... XIII 
V. Public Safety. Mendicancy XIV 

VI. Intercourse -with Italians XIV 

VII. Conveyances XV 

VIII. Hotels XVII 

IX. Restaurants and Cafe's XVIII 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc XIX 

XI. Postal Arrangements XX 

XII. Calculation of Time XXI 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Living XXI 

XIV. Dates of Recent Events XXII 

XV. History of Art XXIII 

Koute R0UtM t0 ttaly- p age 

1. From Paris to Nice by Lyons and Marseilles .... 1 

1. From Strassburg (Bale) to Lyons 5 

2. From Geneva to Lyons 6 

3. From Sorgues to Cnrpentras 13 

4. Vaucluse 15 

5. St. Reiny. Nimes 16 

6. Montpellier 18 

7. Aix . . . . ' 21 

8. Hyeres 26 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mout Cenis .... 28 

1. From Geneva to Culoz 29 

2. Haute Combe 30 

3. From Martigny over the Simplon to Arona on the Lago 
Maggiore (and Milan) 33 

4. From Lucerne over the St. Gotthard to Como (and Milan) 35 

1. Monte Camoghe 41 

5. From Coire over the Spliigen to Colico (and Milan) . . 42 

6. From Spliigen to Bellinzona. Bernardino Pass ... 46 

7. From Innsbruck over the Stelvio to Colico (and Milan) 47 

8. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner .... 52 

1. From Trent to Venice by the Val Sugana 56 

2. From Trent to Verona by Riva and the Lago di Garda . 57 

9. From Vienna to Trieste. Semmering Railway ... 59 

1. Quicksilver Mines of Idria 62 

2. The Stalactite Caverns of Adelsberg 62 

3. From Trieste to Pola, Fiume, and Dalmatia .... 65 


Northern Italy. 

Route Page 

10. Turin 68 

1. The Superga 78 

2. From Turin to Torre Luserna by Pignerol .... 78 

11. From Turin to Aosta 78 

12. From Turin to Piacenza by Alessandria 81 

1. From Tortona to Novi 81 

2. From Piacenza to Robbio 83 

3. Velleia 83 

13. From Turin to Genoa 83 

14. Genoa . . . 84 

1. Villa Pallavicini at Pegli 94 

15. From Genoa to Nice by the Riviera di Ponente ... 94 

1. The Berceau 102 

2. From Mentone to Nice by the Route de la Corniche . 102 

16. Nice and its Environs 103 

17. From Nice to Turin by the Col di Tenda 103 

1. Certosa di Val Pesio. Baths of Valdieri .... 110 

2. From Savigliano to Saluzzo Ill 

3. From Cavalier Maggiore to Bra and Alessandria . . Ill 

4. From Villastellone to Carignano Ill 

18. From Turin to Milan by Novara 112 

1. From Santhia to Biella 112 

2. From Vercelli to Valenza . . . 112 

3. From Novara to Gozzano . 113 

19. Milan 113 

20. From Milan to Como. The Brianza 126 

1. From Monza to Lecco 127 

2. From Seregno to Bellaggio through the Brianza . . 127 

3. Monte S. Primo 12S 

4. From Como to Lecco bv Erba 129 

21. Lake of Como ... 1 130 

1. Lake of Lecco 135 

22. From the Lake of Como to the Lake of Lugano and the 
Lago Maggiore 136 

1. From Como to Laveno direct 136 

1. From Varese to Gallarate 137 

2. From Como to Luino by Lugano 137 

1. Monte Generoso 137 

2. Monte S. Salvatore 140 

3. Monte Bre. Monte Caprino 140 

4. Grotto of Osteno 141 

3. From Cadenabbia or Menaggio by Porlezza and Lugano 

to Laveno 141 

1. Madonna del Monte 142 

23. Lago Maggiore. Borromean Islands. From Arona to Milan 142 

24. From Stresa to Varallo. Monte Motterotie. Lake of Orta. 

Val di Sesia 147 

1. The Sacro Monte near Orta 149 

2. The Sacro Monte near Varallo . 150 

25. From Arona to Genoa 150 

1. From Mortara to Milan by Vigevano . 151 

2. From Alessandria to Acqui 151 


Route Page 

26. From Milan to Genoa by Pavia. Certosa di Pavia . . 152 

1. From Pavia to Valenza 155 

27. From Milan to Verona 156 

1. From Bergamo to Lecco 157 

28. The Lago di Garda 158 

1. Fall of the Ponale. Monte Brione. Monte Baldo. Valle di 
Ledro. Lago d'Idvo 160 

2. From Riva to Mori 161 

29. From Pavia to Brescia by Cremona 161 

30. Brescia * 162 

31. From Brescia to Tirano in the Valtellina. Lago d'Iseo. 
Monte Aprica 166 

1. The Tonale Route 108 

32. From Milan to Cremona 169 

1. Soncino 171 

2. From Cremona to Parma and Piaeenza . . . . . 171 

33. Verona 171 

34. From Verona to Modena by Mantua. From Mantua to 
fieggio, Parma, Cremona, or Brescia 178 

1. PietSle^ , . . . . 180 

2. Mirandbla 181 

35. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza 181 

1. Baths of Recoaro 185 

36. Padua 185 

37. From Padua to Bologna by Ferrara . 190 

1. The Monti Euganei ' 190 

2. Adria 192 

3. Cento 196 

38. Venice ... 196 

1. Murano. Torcello. Chioggia 232 

39. From Venice to Trieste 233 

a. By Land via Udine 233 

1. From Conegliano to Belluno 233 

2. Aquileia 235 

b. Sea Voyage to Trieste 235 

40. From Milan to Bologna 236 

1. Scandiano 238 

2. Correggio 238 

3. Canosaa 238 

41. Parma . 239 

42. Modena 243 

1. Vignola 240 

2. Sassnolo 240 

43. Bologna 246 

44. Erom Bologna to Ravenna 259 

1. From Ravenna to Rimini 268 

45. From Bologna to Ancona 268 

1. S. Marino 273 

2. Urbino 27:) 

46. Ancona and its Environs, Osimo. Loreto .... 278 

47. From Bologna to Florence 283 

48. From Genoa to Florence (by sea) by Leghorn, Pisa, and 
Empoli 284 


Route Page 

49. From Genoa to Pisa (by land) by La Spezia .... 288 

1. From Avenza to Carrara 990 

50. Pisa , 292 

1. Environs of Pisa 300 

51. From Pisa to Florence by Lucca and Pistoja .... 301 

1. The Baths of Lucca 305 

52. Florence 311 

53. Environs of Florence . ,. 359 

a. S. Miniato 359 

b. Poggio Imperiale. Torre del Gallo. Villa del Galileo . 361 

c. Certosa in the Val d'Ema 361 

d. Bello Sguardo 362 

e. Monte Oliveto 363 

f. The Cascine. Villa Demidoff. Villa Careggi. Villa della 
Petraja 363 

g. Fiesole 364 

h. S. Salvi 366 

i. Vallombrosa 366 

k. Camaldoli and Alvernia. The Casentino .... 368 

54. Island of Corsica 370 

Ajaccio 372 

From Ajaccio to Bonifacio, and to Bastia by the E. Coast 375 

From Ajaccio to Bastia 375 

Corte and the Monte Rotondo 377 

Bastia 378 

From Bastia to Capo Corso, S. Fiorenzo and Calvi . . 379 

Index 380 

Maps and Plans. 

1. General Map of N. Italy: before the title-page. 

2. Environs of Sick: between pp. 106, 107. 

3. Italian Lakes: between pp. 130, 131. 

4. Laoo i>i fiAKDA: between pp. 158, 159. 

5. Environs of Florence : between pp. 360, 361. 

6. Island of Corsica: between pp. S70, 371. 

7. Railway Map of N. Italy : after the Index. 

Plans of: 1. Ancona. 2. Avignon. 3. Bergamo. 4. Bologna. 5. Brescia. 
6. Cremona. 7. Ferrara. 8. Florence. 9. Genoa. 10. Lucca. 11. Lyons. 
12. Mantua. 13. Marseilles. 14. Milan. 15. Modbba. 16. Nice. 
17. Nimes. 18. Padua. 19. Parma. 20. Pavia. 21. Pisa. 22. Ravesna. 
23. Trieste. 24. Turin. 25. Venice. 26. Verona. 27. Vicenza. 


M. = Engl, mile; hr. = hour; niin. = minute; r. = right; 1. = left; 
fl. = north, northwards, northern; S. = south, etc.; E. = east, etc.; 
W. = west, etc.; R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; A. = atten- 
dance; L. = light. 


denote objects deserving of special attention. 


'Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
.Of all Art yields, and Nature can decree; 
Even in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes' fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot be defaced.' 


From the earliest ages down to the present time Italy has ever 
exercised a powerful influence on the denizens of more northern 
lands , and a journey thither has often been the fondly cherished 
wish of many an aspiring traveller. That wish may now be gratified 
with comparative facility. A great network of railways now over- 
spreads the entire peninsula ; and even the more remote towns may 
be visited with little sacrifice of time. Northern Italy, in particular, 
with Milan, Venice, and Genoa, is of very easy access to travellers 
in Switzerland and the Tyrol ; and although its attractions are doubt- 
less inferior to those of Florence, Rome , and Naples, it is replete 
with interest and instruction for the ordinary traveller , as well as 
for those whose object is scientific research. Rapidity of locomotion 
is not , however , the only advantage which has been recently at- 
tained. A single monetary system has superseded the numerous 
and perplexing varieties of coinage formerly in use ; the annoyance 
inseparable from passport and custom-house formalities, with which 
the traveller was assailed at every frontier, and even in many an in- 
significant town , has been gTeatly mitigated ; and energetic mea- 
sures have been adopted in order to repress the extortions of vet- 
turini, facchini, and other members of this irritating class. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Monetary System. 

Travelling in Italy is hardly more expensive than in the most 
frequented parts of Germany and Switzerland. The average expen- 
diture of a single traveller may be estimated at 25 — 30 fr. per 
diem, or about half that sum when a prolonged stay is made at one 
place ; but a moderate degree of familiarity with the language and 
customs of the couutry will enable him to reduce his expenses to 
an even lower average. 

In the Kingdom of Italy the French monetary system is now 
universal. The franc (lira or franco) is worth 9 3 / 4 d. Engl. , and 
contains 100 ccntesimi : 1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 10 silbergroschen = 
35 S. German kreuzer = 50 Austrian kreuzer. The silver coins in 


common circulation are Italian pieces of 1 and 2 fr. , and Italian or 
French 5 fr. pieces ; the commonest gold coins are Italian or French 
10 and 20 fr. pieces (those of 5 and 40 fr. rare). The 5-centime 
piece , or sou , is termed soldo. Since the war of 1866 a paper- 
currency, at a compulsory rate of exchange, has heen introduced, 
in consequence of which the valuable metals have entirely dis- 
appeared from ordinary circulation, copper-coins and banknotes 
down to 1 fr. being their usual substitutes. Besides this paper- 
currency issued by government, several towns and provinces issue 
notes of 50 c. and 1 fr. , which are worthless in other parts of the 
country. The change for gold or silver should always be given in 
silver ; and paper should be declined , unless 3 — 5 per cent in 
excess of the value be proffered , a premium which the money- 
changers always give. In the same way paper may be exchanged 
for gold or silver, at a loss of 4 — 6 per cent. In exchanging gold 
or silver for notes it should be observed : (1) that small notes (of 
1 — 5 fr.) are preferable, owing to the difficulty of changing those 
of greater value in ordinary traffic ; and (2) that public and railway 
offices refuse to give change when payment is made in paper. In 
this case the traveller should always be prepared to tender the pre- 
cise sum. To provide for emergencies, he should of course also 
carry a reserve of silver. 

The traveller should , before entering Italy , provide himself 
with French Gold, which he may procure in England , France, or 
Germany on more advantageous terms than in Italy. Sovereigns 
are received at the full value (25 fr. in silver, 25 l / 2 — 26'/. 2 fr. in 
paper) by the principal hotel-keepers in the more frequented 
districts. For the transport of large sums the 10 I. circular notes 
issued by the London bankers will be found convenient. 

II. Period and Flan of Tour. 

The season selected for a tour, and its duration, must of course 
depend on the traveller himself. As a general rule the spring and 
autumn months are the most favourable, especially September, 
when the heat of summer has considerably abated. Nice and the 
whole of the Riviera di Ponente, Pisa, and Venice afford the most 
sheltered quarters for the cold season. The height of summer can 
hardly be recommended for travelling. The scenery, indeed, is 
then in perfection , and the long days are hailed with satisfaction 
by the enterprising traveller ; but the fierce rays of an Italian sun 
seldom fail to impair the physical and mental energies. This result 
is not occasioned so much by the intensity as by the protracted 
duration of the heat, the sky being frequently cloudless and not a 
drop of rain falling for several months in succession. The first 
showers which refresh the parched atmosphere in autumn generally, 
fall about the end of August. 


III. Language. 

The time and labour which the traveller has bestowed on the 
study of the Italian language at home will be amply repaid as he 
proceeds on his journey. It is by no means impossible to travel 
through Italy without an acquaintance with Italian or French , but 
in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate from the ordi- 
nary track, and is moreover invariably made to pay 'alia Inglese" 
by hotel-keepers and others, i. e. considerably more than the ordi- 
nary prices. Acknowledge of French is very useful, as the Italians 
are extremely partial to that language, and take every opportunity 
of speaking it. For those , however , who desire to confine their 
expenditure within the average limits , a slight acquaintance with 
the language of the country is indispensable, f 

IV. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 

On entering the kingdom of Italy, the traveller's passport is 
rarely demanded, but it is unwise not to be provided with one of 
these documents , as it may occasionally prove useful. Registered 
letters, for example, will not he delivered to strangers, unless they 
exhibit a passport to prove their identity. 

The examination of luggage at the Italian custom-houses is 
generally lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the articles chiefly sought 
for. At the gates of most of the Italian towns a tax is levied on 
comestibles, but travellers' baggage is passed on a simple declara- 
tion that it contains no such articles. 

The traveller is particularly cautioned against parting from his 
luggage where a frontier is to be crossed. Goods-agents will not be 
responsible for the damage, pilferage, custom-house examination, 
vexatious delays, and other annoyances to which the sender of lug- 
gage across a frontier is invariably exposed. It is therefore far pre- 
ferable to have one's luggage safe in the railway-van or on the top 
of the diligence , even at the expense of a heavy payment for over- 
weight, and to superintend its examination at the frontier in person. 

+ "Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in four languages (English, French, 
German and Italian) with vocabulary, etc." (21st edit.) will be found ser- 
viceable for this purpose, and, with the addition of a pocket-dictionary, 
will enable the traveller to encounter the difficulties of the situation. A 
few brief remarks on the pronunciation may be made here for the benefit 
of those unacquainted with the language. C before e and i is pronounced 
like the English ch, g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and 
g are hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard-, sc be- 
fore e or i is pronounced like sh, gn and gl between vowels like ny and 
ly. In other respects the pronunciation of Italian more nearly resembles 
that of German than that of French or English. — In addressing persons 
of the educated classes 'lei 1 with the 3rd pers. sing, should always be 
employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi' 
is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'hi 1 by those only who are 
proficient in the language. 


V. Public Safety. Mendicancy. 

Italy is still sometimes regarded as the land of Fra Diavolo's 
and Rinaldo Rinaldini's, and the impression is fostered by tales of 
travellers and sensational letters to newpapers ; but at the present 
day travelling in Northern and Central Italy is hardly attended 
with more hazard than in any of the more northern European 

Mendicancy , which was countenanced and encouraged under 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 
national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
The system is energetically opposed by the new regime , but in 
Venetia and many of the smaller towns it prevails to the same 
extent as formerly. Begging in Italy is a regular trade. The best 
mode of getting rid of importunate applicants it to bestow a small 
donation, a supply of the smallest coin of the realm being kept 
ready for the purpose. A beggar, who on one occasion in return 
for a donation of 2 c. thanked the donor with the usual bene- 
dictions, was on another presented with 50 c. , but this act of libe- 
rality, instead of being gratefully accepted , only called forth the 
remark in a half-offended tone : 'ma Signore e molto poco ! ' Those 
who have sufficient moral courage to abstain entirely from giving 
may either make a decided gesture of refusal , or dismiss the ap- 
plicant with the words 'non c'e niente !' 

VI. Intercourse with Italians. 

With Italian sellers the pernicious custom of demanding consi- 
derably more than will ultimately be accepted is the almost invar- 
iable rule; but a knowledge of the custom, which is based entirely 
upon the presumed ignorance of one of the contracting parties, 
tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 

Where tariffs and fixed charges exist , they should be carefully 
consulted ; and when a certain average price is established by custom, 
the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect to the 
article to be bought or the service to be rendered , and never rely 
on the equity of the other party. The prices which are stated with 
all possible accuracy in the following pages will afford the trav- 
eller an idea of his approximate expenditure and often prove a 
safeguard against gross extortion. 

Those individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, 
or to their own honesty, or who, as rarely happens, are offended by 
the traveller's manifestation of distrust , may well be answered in 
the words of the proverb, 'patti chiari, amicizia lungri'. The equa- 
nimity of the traveller s own temper will of course greatly assist 
him if involved in a dispute or a bargain , and no attention what- 
ever should be paid to vehement gesticulations or an offensive de- 
meanour. The slighter his knowledge of the Italian language, the 


more careful should the traveller be not to involve himself in a 
war of words in which he is necessarily at a great disadvantage. 

No weight should be attached to the representations of drivers, 
guides, etc. in matters in which they have an interest , and even 
the inhabitants of the place often appear to act in concert with 
them. It must, however, be admitted, that when the terms of a 
bargain are once adjusted, persons of this class are often more 
trustworthy than would be expected. 

The traveller^ should always be abundantly supplied with cop- 
per coin in a country where trifling donations are in constant 
demand. Drivers, guides, porters, donkey-attendants, etc. invari- 
ably expect , and often demand as their right , a gratuity (buona 
memo, mancia, da here, bottiglia, caffe, fumata) in addition to the 
hire agreed on , varying according to circumstances from 2 — 3 sous 
to a franc or more. The traveller need feel no scruple in limiting 
his donations to the smallest possible sums. Liberality frequently 
becomes a source of annoyance and embarrassment. Thus, if half- 
a-frane is bestowed where two sous would have sufficed , the fact 
speedily becomes known , and the donor is sure to be besieged by 
numerous other applicants whose demands it is impossible to satisfy. 

The demeanour of the stranger towards the natives must be 
somewhat modified in accordance with the various parts of the 
country through which he travels. In Northern Italy , with the 
exception perhaps of Venice, he will find less necessity for distrust 
than farther southwards. As a rule , the inhabitants of this part 
of the country are polite and obliging , attempts at extortion are 
rarer than formerly , and fixed scales of charges at the hotels and 
shops are becoming more universal. 

VII. Conveyances. 

Railways. With regard to the facilities of communication now 
afforded by the railways in Italy the remarks already made (p. XI) 
may suffice. It may be added that the speed of the trains is gener- 
ally very moderate. 

The traveller should always, if possible, be prepared to pay the 
exact fare without requiring change , in addition to which a tax of 
5 e. is levied on each ticket. In order to prevent over-charges or 
mistakes in the booking or transport of luggage , it is desirable 
that the traveller should beforehand know its approximate weight 
(1 kilogramme = 2 l / 12 lb. Engl.). 

The best time-tables are contained in the ' Ouida orario ufficinle' 
(see p. VI) , with which the traveller should not fail to provide 
himself. ('Si cambia convoglio' means 'change carriages'). 

Steamboats. Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in 
person at the office of the company, and no attention paid to the 
proffered services of loiterers in the vicinity. The tickets of the 


Messageries Maritimes are available for four months, and the voy- 
age may he broken at discretion. The saloons and berths of the 
first class are comfortably fitted up, those of the second tolerably. 

Luggage. First-class passengers are allowed 100 kilogr. (= 2 
cwt.), second-class 60 kilogr. (= 133 lbs.); but articles not in- 
tended for the passenger's private use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is included in the 
first and second-class fares, the difference between that of the two 
classes being inconsiderable. Refreshments may of course be pro- 
cured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12 — 24 hrs., 
or more if the passenger has made unusual demands upon his 

Embarcation. Passengers should be on board an hour before 
the advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to the 
steamboat (usually 1 fr. for each pers. with luggage) are fixed by 
tariff at all the sea-ports, and will be found in the Handbook. Pas- 
sengers should therefore avoid all discussion on the subject with 
the boatmen, and simply direct them to row 'alia Bella Venezia', 
or whatever the name of the vessel may be. On arriving at the 
vessel, payment should not be given to the boatman until the trav- 
eller and his luggage are safely deposited on deck. 

Diligences in Italy generally belong to private companies, and 
travel with tolerable rapidity. Where several run in competition, 
the more expensive are to be preferred. As the carriages are often 
uncomfortable, and the company far from select, the coupe" should 
if possible be secured, especially if ladies are of the party. Regular 
communication cannot be depended on, except on the principal 
routes. The importunities of the drivers at the end of each stage 
may be disregarded , but it is usual to give a fee of 2 soldi to the 
ostler who changes the horses. 

The Vetturini who formerly afforded the only communication 
between many towns in Italy are now almost entirely superseded 
by diligences and railways, and the ordinary traveller will rarely 
come in contact with them. One-horse carriages may be hired 
almost everywhere for 80 c. ot 1 fr. per Engl. M. 

Prolonged walking-tours and fatiguing excursions , such as are 
undertaken in more northern climates, will be found wholly unsuit- 
able to the Italian climate. Cool and clear weather should if pos- 
sible be selected, and the sirocco carefully avoided. The height of 
summer is totally adverse to tours of this kind. 

A horse (cavallo) or donkey (sommaro) may generally be hired 
at moderate cost, the difference of expense between them being 
inconsiderable. Riding will be found a plea sant mode of travelling 
when the beaten track of tourists is quitted, and especially in 
mountainous districts, where the attendant (pedone) acts both as a 
guide and as a servant for the time being. 


VIII. Hotels. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Italy is in arrear of the age, 
dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by tlve 
brilliancy of their climate. The traveller will not have much 
occasion for complaint in hotels and lodgings of the best class, but 
he must be prepared for privations if he deviates from the ordinary 
routes. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia, or contro gli insetti) or 
powdered camjjhor may be used as an antidote to the advances of 
nocturnal intruders. Mosquitoes (zanzare) are a source of great 
annoyance, and often suffering, during the autumn months. Win- 
dows should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced 
into the room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, 
masks for the face, and gloves are sometimes used to ward off the 
attacks of these pertinacious tormentors. 

Good hotels of the first class, equal in comfort to those in other 
parts of Europe , and frequently kept by German or Swiss land- 
lords, are always to be found at the most frequented places. Room 
2^2 — 5 ft-) bougie 75 c. — 1 fr., attendance 1 fr., table d'hote 4 fr., 
and so on. Families , for whose reception the hotels are often 
specially fitted up, should make an agreement with the landlord 
with regard to pension (8 — 12 fr. each). French is spoken every- 
where. Cuisine a mixture of French and Italian. 

The second-class inns are thoroughly Italian , and rarely very 
clean or comfortable ; charges about one-half the above ; no table 
d'hote, but a trattoria is generally connected with the house, where 
refreshments a la carte may be procured at any hour. These houses 
will often be found convenient and economical by the 'voyageur 
en garcon', but are of course rarely visited by ladies. 

Hdtels Garnis are recommended to those whose stay extends to 
10 — 14 days and upwards, as they afford greater quiet and inde- 
pendence than the ordinary hotels , and the charges are consider- 
ably more moderate. Attendance about 1/2 fr. per diem. 

Lodgings , of various degrees of comfort , may also be procured 
for a prolonged residence. Here, too, a distinct agreement with 
regard to rent should be made beforehand. If a whole suite of 
apartments be hired , a written contract should be drawn up with 
the aid of some one acquainted with the language and customs of 
the place (e. g. a banker). For single travellers a verbal agree- 
ment as to attendance, linen, stoves and carpets in winter, recep- 
tacle for coal, etc., will generally suffice. 

The following hints may be added for the benefit of the less 
experienced : 

If a prolonged stay be made at a hotel, the bill should be demanded 
every three or four days, in order that errors, whether accidental or de- 
signed, may the more easily be detected. When the traveller contem- 
plates starting at an early hour in the morning, the bill should be ob- 

Bjedekek. Italy I. 3rd Edit. b 



tained on the previous evening. It sometimes happens that the bill is 
withheld till the last moment, when the hurry and confusion render 
overcharges less liable to discovery. 

The mental arithmetic of waiters is apt to be exceedingly faulty, 
their mistakes being rarely in favour of the traveller. A written enumer- 
ation of the items charged should therefore invariably be required, and 
accounts rejected in which 'colazione, pranzo, vino, cuffi , etc.' figure in 
the aggregate. 

Information obtained from inferior waiters , commissionaires , and 
others of a kindred class can seldom be implicitly relied upon. Enquiries 
should be addressed to the landlords or head-waiters alone, and even 
their statements received with caution. 

IX. Restaurants and Cafes. 

Trattorie, or restaurants, are chiefly frequented by Italians and 
by travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtained 
'a la carte' at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l 1 /.? — 3 fr. 
The waiters expect a gratuity of 2 — 4 soldi. The diner who desires 
to confine his expenses within reasonable limits should refrain from 
ordering dishes not comprised in the bill of fare. A late hour for 
the chief repast of the day should be selected in winter, in order 
that the daylight may be profitably employed , but an early dinner 
is preferable in summer when the midday heat precludes exertion. 
Importunities on the part of the waiters may be disposed of by the 
expression 'non seccarmi'. 

The following list comprises most of the ordinary dishes : 

Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Sant'e or minestra , soup with 
green vegetables and bread. 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter ; 
al pomi d'oro, with tomatas. 

Manzo, boiled beef. 

Fritto, fried meat. 

Arrosto, roasted meat. 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 

Coscielto, loin. 

Arrosto di vitello, or dimongana, 
roast veal. 

Testa di vitello, calf's head. 

Fegato di vitello, calf's liver. 

Braccioletta di vitello, veal-cutlet. 

Costoletta alia minutu , veal- 
cutlet with calf's ears and 

Patate, potatoes. 

Quaglia, quail. 

Tordo, field-fare. 

Onocchi, small puddings. 

Riso con piselli, rice-soup with 

Risotto, a species of rice pudding 

Fave, beans. 
Fagiuolini or corneti , French 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Senape, hot mustard. 
Ostriche, oysters (good in winter 

Giardinetto, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind 

of pastry. 
Fragole, strawberries. 
Per a, pear. 
Pomi, apples. 
Persiche, peaches. 
Voa, bunch of grapes. 
Lhnone, lemon. 



Lodola, lark. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 

Principi alia tavola, hot relishes. 

Polio, fowl. 

Oallinaceio, turkey 1 . 

Vmida, meat with sauce. 

Stufatino, ragout. 

Erbe, vegetables. 

Carciofi, artichokes. 

Pinelli, peas. 

Lenticchie, lentils. 

Cavoli fiori, cauliflower. 

Portogallo, orange. 

Finocchio, root of fennel. 

Pane francese, bread made with 

yeast (Italian made without). 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too 

Presciuto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Formaggio, cheese. 
Vino nero, red wine; bianco, 

white ; asciutto, dry ; dolce . 

sweet ; nostrale, table-wine. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and lunch, and in the even- 
ing by numerous consumers of ices. Caffe nero, or coffee without 
milk, is generally drunk (20 — 30 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee 
mixed with milk before served (20 — 30 c), caffe e latte is with 
the milk served separately (30 — 40 c). Mischio, a mixture of 
coffee and chocolate (20 — 30 c), is considered wholesome and 
nutritious. The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, 
and eggs (uova da here, soft; toste, hard; uova al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto or gelato) of every possible variety are supplied at 
the cafes at 30 — 90 c. per portion ; or a half-portion (mezzo) may 
be ordered. Oranita, or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons; 
aranciata, of oranges), is much in vogue in the forenoon. The 
waiter (bottega), who expects a sou or more according to the amount 
of the payment , is occasionally inaccurate in changing money, if 
not narrowly watched. The principal Parisian newspapers are to 
be found at all the larger cafes, English rarely. 

X. Churches, Theatres, Shops, etc. 

Churches are open till noon, and generally again from 4 to 7 p. 
m. Visitors may inspect the works of art even during the hours of 
divine service , provided they move about noiselessly , and keep 
aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. The verger 
(sagrestano, or nonzolo) receives a fee of l fe fr. or upwards , if his 
services are required . 

Theatres. Performances in the large theatres begin at 8, and 
terminate at midnight or later, operas and ballets being exclu- 
sively performed. The first act of an opera is usually succeeded by 
a ballet of three acts or more. Verdi is the most popular composer. 
The pit (platea) is the usual resort of the men. A box (palco) 
must always be secured in advance. — A visit to the smaller the- 
atres , where dramas and comedies are acted , is chiefly recom- 
mended for the sake of habituating the ear to the language. Per- 
formances in summer take place in the open air, in which case 
smoking is allowed. The charming comedies of Goldoni are still 



among the most popular. Tlie theatre is a favourite evening lounge 
of the Italians, who never observe strict silence during the perfor- 
mance of the music. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price demanded should be offered. The same rule 
applies toartizans, drivers, and others. 'Non volttef (then you 
will not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of bringing 
the matter to a speedy termination. Purchases should never be 
made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de-place. 
These individuals , by tacit agreement, receive from the seller at 
least 10 per cent of the purchase-money , a bonus which of course 
comes out of the pocket of the purchaser. This system of extortion 
iscarried so far that, when a member of the above class observes a 
stranger enter a shop, he often presents himself at the door and 
afterwards claims his percentage under the pretext that by his 
recommendation the purchase has been made. In such cases it is 
by no means superfluous to call the attention of the shopkeeper 
to the imposition ('■non conosco quest' uomd). 

Valets de Place (servitori di piazza) may be hired at 5 fr. per 
day, the employer distinctly specifying beforehand the services to 
be rendered. They are generally trustworthy and respectable, but 
implicit reliance should not be placed on their statements respect- 
ing the places most worthy of a visit. These the traveller should 
ascertain from his guide-book or other source. Their services may 
always be dispensed with, unless time is very limited. Travellers 
are cautioned against employing the sensali , or commissionaires of 
inferior class, who pester the stranger with offers of every descrip- 
tion. Their intervention invariably tends to increase prices, and 
is often productive of still more serious annoyances. This remark 
applies especially to villages and small towns, whether on or out of 
the regular track. 

Cigars in Italy . as in France and Austria , are a monopoly of 
Government, ranging in price from 5 to 50 c. ; those under 20 — 30 c. 
are scarcely sniokable. Passers-by freely avail themselves of the 
light which burns in every cigar-shop, without making any purchase. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

The address of letters (whether 'poste restante, Italian -ferma 
in posta', or to the traveller's hotel ) should, as a rule, be in Italian 
or French, and written in a round and legible hand. Postage- 
stamps are sold at all the tobacco-shops. Letters to England cost 
60 c, to France 40 c, Germany 40 c, Switzerland 30 c. Belgium 
40 c, Holland (via France) 50c, Denmark 50c. Norway and 
Sweden 75 c, Russia (via Austria) 70 c, America (United-States) 
via England 80 c, via France 1 fr. 20 c. 


Letters by town-post 5 o. ; within the kingdom of Italy 20 c. 
prepaid, 30 c. unpaid. 

Telegram of 20 words to England 9 , N. Germany 6, S. Ger- 
many 4y 2 , France 4 , Switzerland 3 , Austria 3 — 4 , Belgium 5, 
Holland 5, Denmark 6'/ 2 , Sweden 8 , Norway 8y 2 , America (10 
words) 50 fr. — Within Italy 15 words 1 fr. , if with extra speed 
5 fr. ; each additional word 10 or 50 c. ; registered telegrams 

XII. Calculation of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused, 
except by the lower classes. Ave Maria , or sunset = 24 , regu- 
lates all the other hours ; but to avoid too frequent change , the 
clocks are set about once a fortnight only. The ordinary reckoning 
of other 7iations is termed ora francese. The traveller will And 
little difficulty in employing the Italian reckoning should he have 
occasion to do so. 

XIII. Climate. Mode of Living. 

Travellers from the north must in some degree alter their mode 
of living while in Italy , without however implicitly adopting the 
Italian style. Strangers generally become unusually susceptible 
to cold in Italy, and should therefore be well supplied with 
warm clothing for the winter. Carpets and stoves , to the com- 
forts of which the Italians generally appear indifferent , are in- 
dispensable in winter. A southern aspect is an absolute essential 
for the delicate , and highly desirable for the robust. Colds are 
most easily caught after sunset and in rainy weather. Even in 
summer it is a wise precaution not to wear very light clothing. 
Flannel is strongly recommended. 

Exposure to the summer-sun should be avoided as much as 
possible. According to a Roman proverb, dogs and foreigners 
(Inglesi) alone walk in the sun, Christians in the shade. Um- 
brellas and coloured spectacles (grey , concave glasses to protect 
the whole eye are best) may be used with advantage when a walk 
in the sun is unavoidable. Repose during the hottest hours is 
advisable , and a siesta of moderate length refreshing. Windows 
should be closed at night. 

English and German medical men are to be met with in the 
larger cities. The Italian therapeutic art does not enjoy a very- 
high reputation in the rest of Europe. English or German chemists, 
where available, are recommended in preference to the Italian. It 
may, however, be sometimes wise to employ native skill in mala- 
dies arising from local causes. 


XIV. Chronogical Table of Recent Events. 

1846. June 16. Election of Pius IX. 

1848. March 18. Insurrection at Milan. 

22. Charles Albert enters Milan. 

22. Republic proclaimed at Venice. 

May 15. Insurrection al Naples quelled by Ferdinand II. ('ReBomba'). 

29. Radetzky's victory at Curtatone. 

30. Radetzky defeated at Goito; capitulation of Peschiera. 
July 25. Radetzky's victory at Custozza. 

Aug. 6. Radetzky's victory at Milan. 

9. Armistice. 
Nov. 15. Murder of Count Rossi at Rome. 

25. Flight of the Pope to Gaeta. 

1849. Febr. 5. Republic proclaimed at Rome. 

17. Republic proclaimed in Tuscany, under Guerazzi. 
March 16. Charles Albert terminates the armistice (ten days' campaign). 

23. Radetzky's victory at Novara. 

24. Charles Albert, abdicates (d. at Oporto on 26th July); 
accession of Victor Emmanuel II- 

26. Armistice; Alessandria occupied by the Austrians. 

31. Haynau conquers Brescia. 

April 5. Republic at Genoa overthrown by La Marmora. 

11. Reaction at Florence. 

30. Garibaldi defeats the French under Oudinot. 
May 11. Leghorn stormed by the Austrians. 

15. Subjugation of Sicily. 

16. Bologna stormed by the Austrians. 
July 4. Rome capitulates. 

Aug. 6. Peace concluded between Austria and Sardinia. 
22. Venice capitulates. 

1850. April 4. Pius IX. returns to Rome. 

1855. Sardinia takes part in the Crimean War. 

1856. Congress at Paris. Cavour raises the Italian question. 

1859. May 20. Battle of Montebello. 
June 4. Battle of Magenta. 

24. Battle of Solferino. 
July 11. Meeting of the emperors at Villalranca. 
Nov. 10. Peace of Zurich. 

1860. MarchlS. Annexation of the Emilia (Parma, Modena, Romagha). 

22. Annexation of Tuscany. 
24. Cession of Savoy and Nice. 
Mav 11. Garibaldi lands at Marsala. 

27. Taking of Palermo. 
July 20. Battle of Mclazzo. 
Sept. 7. Garibaldi enters Naples. 

18. Battle of Castelfidardo. 

29. Ancona capitulates. 
Oct. 1. Battle of the Volturno. 

21. Plebiscite at Naples. 
Dec. 17. Annexation of the principal ities,Uuibrb', and the two Sicilies. 

1861. Febr. 13. Gaeta capitulates after a four months' siege. 
March 17. Victor Emmanuel assumes the title of king of Italy. 

1864. Sept. 15. Convention between F'rancc and Italy. 

1866. June 20. Battle of Custozza. 
July 5. Cession of Venetia. 

20. Naval battle of Lissa. 

1867. Nov. 3. Battle of Mentana. 

1870. Sept. 12. Occupation of the States of the Church by Italian troops. 
20. Occupation of Rome. 

Italian Art. 

An Historical Sketch hy Professor A. Springer. 

One of the primary objects of the enlightened traveller in Italy 
is usually to form some acquaintance with its treasures of art. Even 
those whose ordinary vocations are of the most prosaic nature un- 
consciously become admirers of poetry and art in Italy. The tra- 
veller here finds them so interwoven with scenes of everyday life, 
that he encounters their impress at every step, and involuntarily 
becomes susceptible to their influence. A single visit can hardly 
suffice to enable any one to acquire a just appreciation of the 
numerous works of art he meets with in the course of his tour, nor 
can a guide-book teach him to fathom the mysterious depths of Ita- 
lian creative genius, the past history of which is particularly attract- 
ive ; but the perusal of a few remarks on this subject will be found 
materially to enhance the pleasure and facilitate the researches of 
even the most unpretending lover of art. Works of the highest class, 
the most perfect creations of genius, lose nothing of their charm by 
being pointed out as specimens of the best period of art; while 
those of inferior merit are invested with far higher interest when 
they are shown to be necessary links in the chain of development, 
and when, on comparison with earlier or later works, their relative 
defects or superiority are recognised. The following observations, 
therefore, can hardly be deemed out of place in a work designed to 
aid the traveller in deriving the greatest possible amount of enjoy- 
ment and instruction from his sojourn in Italy. 

The two great epochs in the history of art which principally 
arrest the attention are those of classic antiquity, and of the 16th 
century, the culminating period of the so-called Renaissance. The 
intervening space of more than a thousand years is usually, with 
much unfairness, almost entirely ignored; for this interval not 
only continues to exhibit vestiges of the first epoch, but gradually 
paves the way for the second. It is a common error to suppose 
that in Italy alone the character of ancient art can be thoroughly 
appreciated. This idea dates from the period when no precise 
distinction was made between Greek and Roman art, when the 
connection of the former with a particular land and nation, 
and the tendency of the latter to pursue an independent course 
were alike overlooked. Now , however , that we are acquainted 
with more n merous Greek originals , and have acquired a 


deeper insight into the development of Hellenic art, an indis- 
criminate confusion of Greek and Roman styles is no longer to be 
apprehended. We are now well aware that the highest perfection 
of ancient architecture is visible in the Hellenic temple alone. 
The Doric order, in which majestic gravity is expressed by massive 
proportions and symmetrical decoration, and the Ionic structure, 
with its lighter and more graceful character, exhibit a creative spirit 
entirely different from that manifested in the sumptuous Roman 
edifices. Again, the most valuable collection of ancient sculptures 
in Italy is incapable of affording so admirable an insight into 
the development of Greek art as the sculptures of the Parthenon 
and other fragments of Greek temple - architecture preserved in 
the British Museum. But, while instruction is afforded more 
abundantly by other than Italian sources, ancient art is perhaps 
thoroughly admired in Italy alone, where works of art encounter 
the eye with more appropriate adjuncts, and where climate, scenery, 
and people materially contribute to intensify their impressiveness. 
As long as a visit to Greece and Asia Minor is within the reach of 
comparatively few travellers, a sojourn in Italy may be recommended 
as best calculated to afford instruction with respect to the growth 
of ancient art. An additional facility, moreover, is afforded by the 
circumstance, that in accordance with an admirable custom of 
classic antiquity the once perfected type of a plastic figure was not 
again arbitrarily abandoned, but rigidly adhered to, and continually 
reproduced. Thus in numerous cases, where the more ancient 
Greek original had been lost, it was preserved in subsequent copies ; 
and even in the works of the Roman imperial age Hellenic creative 
talent is still reflected. 

The non-scientific traveller will hardly be disposed to devote 
much of his attention to the works of the earliest dawn of art, to 
the so-called Cyclopean walls, constructed of polygonal blocks of 
stone (as those of Pyrgi, Cosa , Saturnia, but more commonly met 
with in Lower Italy), or to the artistic progress of the mysterious 
Etruscan nation (manifested in their tombs, cinerary urns, imple- 
ments of metal, and mural paintings); but the eye will not fail to 
rest with interest upon their magnificent golden ornaments , their 
beautiful designs engraved on metal (bronze-mirrors; the finest 
engraved design handed down by antiquity is on the Ficoronian 
cista in the Museo Kircheriano at Rome), and their numerous 
painted vases. The latter not only disclose to the observer a 
wide sphere of ancient artistic ideas , and prove how intimately 
a love of the beautiful and graceful was associated with the 
pursuit of a mere trade , but at the same time present one of 
the earliest instances of artistic, industry. Although most of 
these vases were discovered in Etruscan tombs, they are not all 
of Italian workmanship, for many of them were imported from 
(ireece, where they were systematically manufactured, originally 


perhaps at Corinth , and subsequently at Athens (vases with red 

The artistic dependence of ancient Italy on Greece was not 
confined to this single, and comparatively subordinate branch of 
art, but gradually extended to every other department , including 
architecture and sculpture. This supremacy of Greek intellect 
in Italy was established in a twofold manner. In the first place 
Greek colonists introduced their ancient native style into their new 
homes. This is proved by the existence of several Doric temples in 
Sicily, such as those of Selinunto (but not all dating from the same 
period), and the ruined temples at Syracuse, Girgenti, and Segesta. 
On the mainland the so-called Temple of Neptune at Paestum , as 
well as the ruins at Metapontum, are striking examples of the fully 
developed elegance and grandeur of the Doric order. But , in the 
second place, the art of the Greeks did not attain its universal suprem- 
acy in Italy till a later period, when Hellas , nationally ruined, 
had learned to obey the dictates of her mighty conqueror, and the 
Romans began to combine with their political superiority the refine- 
ments of more advanced culture. The ancient scenes of artistic 
activity in Greece (Athens for example) became re-peopled at 
the cost of Rome; Greek works of art and Greek artists were in- 
troduced into Italy ; and ostentatious pride in the magnificence of 
booty acquired by victory led by an easy transition to a taste for 
such objects. To surround themselves with artistic decoration thus 
gradually became the universal custom of the Romans , and the 
foundation of public monuments came to be regarded as an in- 
dispensable duty of government. 

Although the Roman works of art of the imperial epoch are 
deficient in originality compared with the Greek , yet their authors 
never degenerate into mere copyists, or entirely renounce inde- 
pendent effort. This remark applies especially to their Archi- 
tecture. Independently of the Greeks, the ancient Italian na- 
tions , and with them the Romans , had acquired a knowledge of 
stone-cutting, and discovered the method of constructing arches 
and vaulting. "With this technically and scientifically important 
art they aimed at combining Greek forms , the column supporting 
the entablature. The sphere of architecture was then gradually ex- 
tended. One of the chief requirements was now to construct edifices 
with spacious interiors , and several storeys in height. No precise 
model was afforded by Greek architecture , and yet the current 
Greek forms appeared too beautiful to be lightly disregarded. The 
Romans therefore preferred to combine them with the arch-prin- 
ciple, and apply this combination to their new architectural designs. 
The individuality of the Greek orders, and their originally un- 
alterable coherence were thereby sacrificed, and divested of much 
of their importance; that which once possessed a definite organic 
significance frequently assumed a superficial and decorative charac- 


ter; but the aggregate effect is always imposing, the skill in blend- 
ing contrasts, and the directing taste admirable. The lofty gravity 
of the Doric y style must not be sought for at Rome. The Doric 
column in the hands of Roman architects lost the finest features 
of its original character, and was at length entirely disused. The 
Ionic column also, and corresponding entablature, were regarded 
with less favour than those of the Corinthian order, the sumptuous- 
ness of which was more congenial to the artistic taste of the 
Romans. As the column in Roman architecture was no longer 
destined exclusively to support a superstructure, but formed a 
projecting portion of the wall, or was of a purely ornamental 
character, the most ornate forms were the most sought after. The 
graceful Corinthian capital, consisting of slightly drooping 
acanthus-leaves, was at length regarded as insufficiently enriched, 
and was superseded by the so-called Roman capital (iirst used 
in the arch of Titus j , a union of the Corinthian and Ionic. An 
impartial judgment respecting Roman architecture cannot, however, 
be formed from a minute inspection of the individual columns, 

t Those unacquainted with architecture will easily learn to distinguish 
the different Greek styles. In the Doric the shafts of the columns 
(without bases) rest immediately on the common pavement, in the Ionic 
they are separated from it by bases. The ilutings of the Doric column 
immediately adjoin each other, being separated by a sharp ridge, while 
those of the Ionic are disposed in pairs, separated by broad untluted 
intervening spaces. The Doric capital, expanding towards the summit, 
somewhat resembles a crown of leaves, and was in fact originally adorned 
with painted representations of wreaths-, the Ionic capital is distinguished 
by the volutes (or scrolls) projecting on either side, which may be re- 
garded rather as an appropriate covering of the capital than as the cap- 
ital itself. The entablature over the columns begins in the Doric style 
with the simple, in the Ionic with the threefold architrave; above which 
in the Doric order are the metopes (originally openings, subsequently 
receding panels) and triglyphs (tablets with two angular channels in front, 
and a half channel at each end, resembling extremities of beams), and in 
the Ionic the frieze with its sculptured enrichments. In the temples of 
both orders the front culminates in a pediment. The so-called Tuscan, 
or early Italian column, approaching most nearly to the Doric, exhibits 
no decided distinclive marks; the Corinthian, with the rich capital 
formed of acanthus-leaves , is essentially of a decorative character only. 
The following technical terms should also be observed. Temples in 
which the columns arc on both sides enclosed by the projecting walls 
arc termed 'in antis' (antse = end-pilasters); those which have one ex- 
tremity only adorned by columns, prostyle; those with an additional 
pediment in the rear, supported by columns, amphiprostyle ; those entirely 
surrounded by columns, peripteral. In some temples it was imperative 
that the image of the god erected in the cella should be exposed to the 
rays of (he sun. In this case an aperture was left in the ceiling and 
roof, and such temples were termed hypadhral. Temples are also named 
tetrastyle, hexastyle, octastyle, etc. according to the number of columns 
at each end. — A most attractive study is that of architectural mouldings 
and enrichments, and of those constituent members which indicate super- 
incumbent weight, or a free and independent existence. Research in 
these matters will enable the traveller more fully to appreciate the strict 
harmony of ancient architecture. 


nor is the highest rank in importance to be assigned to |the Konian 
temples, -which, owing to the different (projecting) construction of 
their roofs, are excluded from comparison with the Greek. Atten- 
tion must be directed to the several-storeyed structures , in which 
the tasteful ascending gradation of the component parts , from 
the more massive (Doric) to the lighter (Corinthian}, chiefly 
arrests the eye ; and the vast and artistically vaulted interiors, as 
well as the structures of a merely decorative description , must 
also be examined} in order that the chief merits of Roman art 
may be understood. In the use of columns in front of closed 
walls (e. g. as members of a facade), in the construction of domes 
above circular interiors, and of cylindrical and groined vaulting 
over oblong spaces, the Roman edifices have served as models to 
posterity , and the imitations have often fallen short of the origi- 
nals. No dome-building has yet been erected which will bear 
comparison with the simple and strikingly effective Pantheon, 
which originally belonged to the Thermae of Agrippa ; nor does 
there exist any edifice so sumptuous , with so varied an aggregate 
of structures, and yet so harmonious and monumental in character, 
as the Therma? of Caracalla and Diocletian must once have been. 
Boldness of design , skill in execution , accurate estimation of re- 
sources, consistent prosecution of the object in view, and practical 
utility combined with splendour characterise most of the Roman 
fabrics , whether destined for public business like the basilicas 
of the fora, to gratify the popular love of pageantry like the 
amphitheatres , theatres , and circuses , to commemorate the 
achievements of the living by means of triumphal arches , or to 
perpetuate the memory of the dead by monumental tombs. Finally 
it is worthy of note that architecture resisted degradation longer 
than any other art , and does not betray palpable signs of 
declension until the beginning of the 4th century , after having 
attained its culminating point under the Flavii, considerably 

The history of the art of Sculpture among the Romans, 
which never evidenced their national greatness in the same 
degree as architecture , is of briefer duration. Two different 
methods of investigation may here be pursued. Those who pos- 
sess sufficient preliminary information , and do not shrink from an 
arduous although interesting task , should examine the numerous 
statues of gods and heroes copied from Greek models , of which 
we possess written records , and compare them with the descrip- 
tions. In the statue of Zeus from the house of the Verospi, and 
in the bust of Otricoli (Vatican) , the lineaments of the Olympic 
Zeus created by Phidias will be sought for, in the statues of 
Hercules their derivation from the ideal of Lysippus , in the 
Juno Ludovisi , and the other head of Hera in the Museum at 
Naples, their descent from the Juno of Polycletes ; while the dis- 


•■.us-throwers of Myron, the Amazons of Phidias, Ctesilaus, etc., 
the Ares and Apollo of Scopas , the statues of Venus by Praxiteles 
and others will he recognised in their imitations and slightly vary- 
ing copies. By these means a correct judgment will he formed 
with regard to the position of the individual work in the develop- 
ment of ancient art, and the relation of the later sculpture of the 
Romans to that of the earlier Greeks will be clearly understood. By 
means of this systematic criticism the science of archaeology has 
of late years led to most interesting results ; it has proved that a 
series of Greek works , once regarded as irrecoverably lost , still 
survive in their copies, and it has correctly explained other mis- 
interpreted sculptures ( e. g. the Apollo Belvedere). The amateur, 
however, will probably prefer to adhere to the course which 
was formerly pursued by the scientific, and be satisfied with con- 
templating the mere artistic beauty of the sculptures, irrespective 
of their historical significance. This aesthetic mode of investigation 
is justified by the fact that the sculpture of antiquity presents to 
the eye a harmonious whole, in which the same principles and the 
same tendency of imagination almost invariably recur. Strongly 
marked as the distinction is between Greek and Roman views of 
art, and between the earlier and later development of the art of 
sculpture, yet the existence of numerous common elements , and 
the voluntary subordination of the later artists to the once estab- 
lished types cannot be disputed. This will be rendered clearer by an 
illustration. A universally predominant ideal of the Madonna, on 
which the images of mediaeval and modern art are based , cannot 
possibly be discovered. Between the Madonnas of Raphael, and 
Our Lady of the old German and Dutch schools , not the faintest 
resemblance can be traced; were the former lost, their character 
could never be divined from the latter. In ancient art , on the 
contrary, the image of a god, even of the later Roman period, con- 
tinues to exhibit the distinctive character of the original ideal, and 
often serves admirably to throw light upon defects in the earlier 
images ; moreover every plastic work of antiquity , whether remote 
or more recent, faithfully embodies for us the precepts of sculpture, 
and teaches us the treatment of the nude , the disposition of 
drapery , and the just standard of expression and movement. 
Whether archaeological or a;sthetical interest be placed in the 
foreground, opportunities will always present themselves for an 
examination of the characteristic features of Roman sculpture. 
This art developed itself most freely between the reigns of Augustus 
and Hadrian, flourishing contemporaneously with the most brilliant 
perip,d of the Umpire, and constituting its artistic adornment. Apti- 
tude in imparting a living and attractive character to allegorical 
representations, as is well exemplified by the charming group of 
the Nile {Vatican), is not to be regarded as a peculiar feature 
of Roman art so much as the strikingly individuali expressed in 


portrait-busts and statues , and the realistic element from which 
the creation of historical reliefs has emanated. Specimens of this 
faithful and detailed historical representation, which however occa- 
sionally deviates from the plastic standard , are afforded by the 
triumphal arches of Titus and Constantine (reliefs partly transferred 
from the arch of Trajan), and the columns of Trajan and Marcus 
Aurelius. As late as the time of Hadrian a new ideal was sought 
in Antinous, but after that period the art rapidly declined, although 
even down to th« latest era of the Empire great technical skill 
was still frequently exhibited. The most interesting of these later 
works are sarcophagus-sculptures , owing to their almost encyclo- 
piedic richness in representations , and the extensive sphere of 
ideas which they embrace. They formed the principal school of art 
for subsequent generations , and are therefore of great historical 
importance ; but the same cannot be said of the later monumen- 
tal architecture , although it now exhibits the most diversified and 
attractive picture of the artistic life of antiquity. The ruins of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii prove more forcibly than any record, 
how universally art was applied in the ancient world , and how 
even the humblest implements were ennobled by artistic forms ; 
they form an inexhaustible mine of decorative enrichments , and 
refute the prevailing idea that an entirely subordinate rank is to 
be assigned to ancient painting. As they were not rescued from 
oblivion till the 18th century, they exercised no influence on the 
art of the middle ages or the Renaissance ; but, on the other hand, 
we no longer possess the decorative paintings of the Roman Therime, 
which so powerfully influenced the artistic imagination as lately 
as the 16th century. 

In the 4th century the heathen world , which had long been in 
a tottering condition , at length became Christianised , and a new 
period of art began. This is sometimes erroneously regarded as 
the result of a forcible rupture from the ancient Roman art, and 
a sudden and spontaneous invention of a new style. But the eye 
and the hand adhere to custom more tenaciously than the mind. 
While new ideas , and altered views of the character of the Deity 
and the destination of man were entertained , the wonted forma 
were still necessarily employed in the expression of these thoughts. 
Moreover the heathen sovereigns had by no means been unremit- 
tingly hostile to Christianity (the most bitter persecutions did not 
take place till the 3rd century) , and the new doctrines were per- 
mitted to expand, take deeper root, and organise themselves in the 
midst of heathen society. The consequence was, that the transition 
from heathen to Christian ideas of art was a gradual one, and that 
in point of form early Christian art continued to prosecute the 
tasks of the- ancient. The best proof of this is afforded by the 
paintings of the Roman Catacombs. These , forming as it were a 
subterranean belt around the city, were by no means originally the 


secret and anxiously concealed places of refuge of the primitive 
Christians, but constituted their legally recognised, publicly 
accessible burial-places (e. g. the catacombs of Nicomedes and of 
Fl. Domitilla), and were not enveloped in intentional obscurity 
until the periodically recurring persecutions of the 3rd century. 
Reared in the midst of the customs of heathen Rome, the Christian 
community perceived no necessity to deviate from the artistic 
principles of antiquity. In the embellishment of the catacombs 
they adhered to the decorative forms handed down by their an- 
cestors ; and in design , choice of colour , grouping of figures , and 
treatment of subject, they were entirely guided by the customary 
rules. The earlier the date of the paintings in the catacombs , the 
more nearly they approach the ancient forms. Even the sarcophagus- 
sculptures of the 4th and 5th centuries differ in purport only , and 
not in technical treatment, from the type exhibited in the tomb- 
reliefs of heathen Rome. Five centuries elapsed before a new 
artistic style was awakened in the pictorial , and the greatly neg- 
lected plastic arts. Meanwhile architecture had developed itself 
commensurately with the requirements of Christian worship , and. 
in connection with the new modes of building, painting acquired a 
different character. 

The term Basilica-Style is often employed to designate early 
Christian architecture down to the 10th century. The name is of 
great antiquity, but it is a mistake to suppose that the early Chris- 
tian basilicas possessed anything beyond the mere name in com- 
mon with those of the Roman fora. The latter structures , which 
are proved to have existed in most of the towns of the Roman 
empire , and served as courts of judicature and public assembly- 
halls, differ essentially in their origin and form from those of the 
Christian church. The forensic basilicas were neither fitted up 
for the purposes of Christian worship, nor did they serve as models 
for the construction of Christian churches. The latter are rather 
to be regarded as extensions of the private dwelling-houses of the 
Romans, where the first assemblies of the community were held, 
and the component parts of which were reproduced in ecclesiastical 
edifices. The most faithful representative now extant of the 
architectural character and internal arrangements of an early Chris- 
tian basilica is the church of S. Clemente at Rome. A small 
portico borne by columns leads to the anterior court (atrium), 
surrounded by colonnades and provided with a fountain (cantharus) 
in the centre ; the eastern colonnade is the approach to the interior 
of the church, which usually consisted of a nave and two aisles 
the latter lower than the former, and separated from it by two rows 
of columns, the whole terminating in a semicircle (apsis). In front 
of the apse there was sometimes a transverse space (transept)- the 
altar, surmounted by a columnar structure, occupied a detached 
position in the apse; the space in front of it, bounded by cancelli 


or railings, was destined for the choir of officiating priests , and 
contained the two pulpits (ambones) where the gospel and epistles 
were read. Unlike the ancient temples, the early Christian basili- 
cas exhibit a neglect of external architecture, the chief importance 
being attached to the interior, the decorations of which , however, 
especially in early mediaeval times, were often procured by plun- 
dering the ancient Roman edifices, and transferring them to the 
churches with little regard to harmony of style and material. Thus 
the churches of S. Maria in Trastevere and S. Lorenzo fuori le 
Mura each possess columns of entirely different workmanship and 
materials. Other instances of a similar transference of columns 
are afforded by the churches of S. Sabina, S. Maria Maggiore, etc. 
The most appropriate ornaments of the churches were the metallic 
objects, such as crosses and lustres, and the tapestry bestowed 
on them by papal piety ; while the chief decoration of the walls 
consisted of mosaics , especially those covering the background of 
the apse and the (triumphal) arch which separates the apse from 
the nave. The mosaics, as far at least as the material was concer- 
ned, were of a sterling monumental character , and contributed to 
give rise to a new style of pictorial art; in them ancient tradition 
was for the first time abandoned , and the harsh and austere style 
erroneously termed Byzantine gradually introduced. Some of the 
earliest mosaics (composed of fragments of glass) are in the church 
of S. Pudenziana, dating , like those of S. Costanza and the Bap- 
tistery of Naples , from the 4th century, while those of S. Maria 
Maggiore and S. Sabina belong to the 5th. The mosaics in the 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano in the Forum (date 526 — 530) are 
regarded as the finest compositions of the kind. 

Christian art originated, at Rome, but its development was 
actively promoted in other Italian districts , especially at Ravenna, 
where during the Ostrogothic supremacy (493 — 552), as well a* 
under the succeeding Byzantine empire, architecture was zealously 
cultivated. The basilica-type was there more highly matured , the 
external architecture enlivened by low arches and projecting but- 
tresses, and the capitals of the columns in the interior appro- 
priately moulded with reference to the superincumbent arches. At 
Ravenna the occidental style also appears in combination with the 
oriental , and the church of S. Vitale (dating from 547) may be 
regarded as a fine example of a Byzantine structure. The term 
'Byzantine' is often totally misapplied. Every work of the 
so-called dark centuries of the middle ages , everything in archi- 
tecture that intervenes between the ancient and the Gothic, every- 
thing in painting which repels by its uncouth, ill-proportioned 
forms, is apt to be termed Byzantine ; and it is commonly supposed 
that the practice of art in Italy was entrusted exclusively to By- 
zantine hands from the fall of the Western Empire to an ad- 
vanced period of the 13th century. This belief in the universal 


and unqualified prevalence of the Byzantine style, as well as the 
idea that it is invariably of a clumsy and lifeless character , is 
entirely unfounded. The forms of Byzantine architecture are 
at least strongly and clearly defined. While the basilica is a 
long - extended hall , over which the eye is compelled to range 
until it finds a natural resting-place in the recess of the apse, 
every Byzantine structure may be circumscribed with a curved 
line. The aisles , which in the basilica run parallel with the 
nave, degenerate in the Byzantine style to narrow and in- 
significant passages ; the apse loses its intimate connection with 
the nave, being separated from it; the most conspicuous feature 
in the building consists of the central square space , bounded 
by four massive pillars which support the dome. These are 
the essential characteristics of the Byzantine style, which cul- 
minates in the magnificent church of S. Sophia, and prevails 
throughout oriental Christendom , but in the West , including 
Italy , only occurs sporadically. With the exception of the 
churches of S. Vitale at Ravenna, and St. Mark at Venice, the 
edifices of Lower Italy alone show a frequent application of this 
style. When baptisteries and mortuary chapels are styled Byzan- 
tine on account of their circular form, this is no more justifiable 
than the popular classification of the whale among fishes. External 
points of resemblance must not be confounded with fundamental 

The Byzantine imagination does not appear to have exercised a 
greater influence on the growth of other branches of Italian art than 
on architecture. A brisk traffic in works of art was carried on by 
Venice, Amain, etc:, between the Levant and Italy; the position of 
Constantinople resembled that of th« modern Lyons; silk wares, 
tapestry, and jewellery were most highly valued when imported 
from the Eastern metropolis. Byzantine artists were always welcome 
visitors to Italy , Italian connoisseurs ordered works to be executed 
at Constantinople, chiefly those in metal , and the superiority of 
Byzantine workmanship was universally acknowledged. All this, 
however, does not justify the opinion that Italian art was entirely 
subordinate to Byzantine. In the main , notwithstanding various 
external influences , it underwent an independent and unbiassed 
development, and never entirely abandoned its ancient principles. 
A considerable interval indeed elapsed before the fusion of the 
original inhabitants with the early mediaeval immigrants was com- 
plete, before the aggregate of different tribes , languages, customs, 
and ideas became blended into a single nationality, and before 
the people attained sufficient concentration and independence of 
spirit to devote themselves successfully to the cultivation of art. 
Unproductive in the province of art as this early period is , yet an 
entire departure from native tradition, or a serious conflict of the 
latter with extraneous innovation never took place. It may be 


admitted, that in the massive columns and cumbrous capitals of the 
churches of Upper Italy, and in the art of vaulting which was 
developed here at an early period , symptoms of the Germanic 
character of the inhabitants are manifested, and that in the Lower 
Italian and especially Sicilian structures , traces of Arabian and 
Norman influence are unmistakable. The pointed arches of the ca- 
thedral of Amain, and those in the cloisters of the monastery-church 
of Ravello , the interior of the Cappella Palatina at Palermo , etc. 
point to Arabian models ; whereas the facades of the churches at 
Cefalu and Monreafe , and the enrichments of their portals recal 
Norman types. In the essentials, however, the foreigners con- 
tinue to be the recipients ; the might of ancient tradition, and the 
national idea of form could not be repressed or superseded. About 
the middle of the 11th century a zealous and promising artistic 
movement took place in Italy , and the seeds were sown which 
three or four centuries later yielded so luxuriant a growth. As 
yet nothing was matured, nothiiig completed, the aim was obscure, 
the resources insufficient ; meanwhile architecture alone satisfied 
artistic requirements , the attempts at painting and sculpture 
being barbarous in the extreme ; these, however, were the germs 
of the subsequent development of art observable as early as the 
11th and 12th centuries. This has been aptly designated the 
Romanesque period, and the then prevalent forms of art the Ro- 
manesque Style. As the Romance languages , notwithstanding 
alterations, additions, and corruptions, maintain their relation of 
daughtership to the language of the Romans, so Romanesque art, 
in spite of its rude and barbarous aspect, reveals its immediate 
descent from the art of that people. The Tuscan towns were the 
principal scene of the prosecution of mediaeval art. There an in- 
dustrial population gradually arose, treasures of commerce were 
collected, independent views of life were acquired in active party- 
conflicts, loftier common interests became interwoven with those 
of private life, and education entered a broader and more enligh- 
tened track; and thus a taste for art also was awakened, and 
aesthetic perception developed itself. When Italian architecture 
of the Romanesque period is examined, the difference between its 
character and that of contemporaneous northern works is at once 
apparent. In the latter the principal aim is perfection in the 
construction of vaulting. French, English, and German churches 
are unquestionably the more organically conceived, the individual 
parts are more inseparable and more appropriately arranged. But 
the subordination of all other aims to that* of the secure and ac- 
curate formation of the vaulting does not admit of an unrestrained 
manifestation of the sense of form. The columns are apt to be 
heavy, symmetry and harmony in the constituent members to be 
disregarded. On Italian soil new architectural ideas are rarely 
found, constructive boldness not being here the chief object} on the 
Baedeker. Italy I. 3rd Edit. c 


other hand, the decorative arrangements are richer and more grate- 
ful, the sense of rhythm and symmetry more pronounced. The cathe- 
dral of Pisa, founded as early as the 11th century, or the church 
of S. Miniato near Florence, dating from the 12th, may be taken 
as an example of this. The interior with its rows of columns, the 
mouldings throughout, and the flat ceiling recal the basilica-type ; 
while the exterior, especially the facade destitute of tower, with 
the small arcades one above the other, and the variegated colours 
of the layers of stone, present an appearance of decorative pomp. 
But the construction and decoration of the walls already evince a 
taste for the elegant proportions which we admire in later Ita- 
lian structures ; the formation of the capitals, and the design of 
the outlines prove that the precepts of antiquity were not entirely 
forgotten. In the Baptistery of Florence (S. Giovanni) a definite 
Eoman structure (the Pantheon) has even been imitated. A pe- 
culiar conservative spirit pervades the mediaeval architecture of 
Italy; artists do not aim at an unknown and remote object; 
the ideal which they have in view , although perhaps instinctiv- 
ely only, lies in the past; to conjure up this and bring 
about a Renaissance of the antique appears to be the goal of their 
aspirations. They apply themselves to their task with calmness 
and concentration, they indulge in no bold or novel schemes, but 
are content to display their love of form in the execution of detail. 
What architecture as a whole loses in historical attraction is 
compensated for by the beauty of the individual edifices. While 
the North possesses structures of greater importance in the history 
of the development of art, Italy boasts of a far greater number of 
pleasing works. 

The position occupied by Italy with regard to Gothic archi- 
tecture is thus rendered obvious. She could not entirely ignore 
its influence, although incapable of according an unconditional re- 
ception to this, the highest development of vault-architecture. 
Gothic was introduced into Italy in a mature and perfected con- 
dition. It did not of necessity, as in France, develop itself from 
the earlier (Romanesque) style, its progress cannot be traced step 
by step ; it was imported by foreign architects (practised at Assisi 
by the German master Jacob), and adopted as being in consonance 
with the tendency of the age ; it found numerous admirers among 
the mendicant orders of monks and the humbler classes of citizens, 
but could never quite disengage itself from Italianising influences. 
It was so far transformed that the constructive constituents of Gothic 
are degraded to a decorative office, and the national taste thus 
became reconciled to it. The cathedral of Milan cannot be regarded 
as a fair specimen of Italian Gothic, but this style must rather be 
sought for in the mediaeval cathedrals of Florence, Siena, Orvieto, 
and in numerous secular edifices, such as the loggia of the 
Lanzi at Florence, and the communal palaces of mediaeval Italian 


towns. An acquaintance with true Gothic construction, so con- 
tracted notwithstanding all its apparent richness, so exclusively 
adapted to practical requirements, can certainly not be acquired 
from these cathedrals. The spacious interior, inviting, as it were, 
to calm enjoyment, while the cathedrals of the north appear to 
call forth a sentiment of longing, the predominance of horizontal 
lines, the playful application of pointed arches and gables, of 
flnials, canopies, etc., prove'that an organic coherence of the dif- 
ferent architectural distinguishing members was here but little 
regarded. The characteristics of Gothic architecture, the towers 
immediately connected with the facade, and the prominent flying 
buttresses are frequently wanting in Italian Gothic edifices, — 
whether to their disadvantage, it may be doubted. It is not the 
sumptuousness of the materials which disposes the spectator to 
pronounce a lenient judgment, but a feeling that Italian architects 
pursued the only course by which the Gothic style could be re- 
conciled with the atmosphere and light, the climate and natural 
features of Italy. Gothic lost much of its peculiar character in 
Italy, but by these deviations from the customary type it there 
became capable of being nationalised , especially as at the same 
period the other branches of art also aimed at a greater degree of 
nationality, and entered into a new combination with the funda- 
inental trait of the Italian character, that of retrospective adherence 
to the antique. The apparently sudden and unprepared-for revival 
of ancient ideals in the 13th century is one of the most interesting 
phenomena in the history of art. The Italians themselves could 
only account for this by attributing it to chance. The popular 
story was that the sculptor Niccolo Pisano was induced by an in- 
spection of ancient sarcophagi to exchange the prevailing style for 
the ancient. We are , however , in a position to trace the course 
pursued by Italian sculpture more precisely ; we conjecture that 
Nicholas of Pisa was stimulated by the example of Lower Italy, 
where during the Hohenstaufen sway a golden era of civilisation 
was developed ; and we know that this inclination towards anti- 
quity was by no means confined to Italy, but was equally active at 
an even earlier period in the North (e. g. in the ancient district of 
Saxony). We admit, however, that Niccolo Pisano's influence was 
instrumental in inaugurating a new epoch in the development of 
Italian imagination. His sculptures on the pulpits in the Baptistery 
of Pisa and the Cathedral of Siena introduce us at once into a new 
world. It is not merely their obvious resemblance to the works 
of antiquity that arrests the eye ; a still higher interest is awakened 
by their peculiarly fresh and lifelike tone, indicating the enthu- 
siastic concentration with which the master devoted himself to his 
task. During the succeeding period ( Pisan School) ancient character- 
istics were placed in the background, and importance was attached 
solely to life and expression (^e. g. reliefs on the facade of the 


Cathedral at Orvieto"). Artists now began to impart to (heir com- 
positions the impress of their own peculiar views and the public 
taste for poetry, which had already strongly manifested itself, was 
now succeeded by a love of art also. From this period (14th century") 
therefore the Italians date the origin of their modern art. Contem- 
poraneous writers who observed the change of views, the revolution 
in sense of form, arid the superiority of the more recent works in life 
and expression, warmly extolled their authors, and zealously pro- 
claimed how greatly they surpassed their ancestors. But succeeding 
generations began to lose sight of this connection between ancient 
and modern art. A mere anecdote was deemed sufficient to con- 
nect Giotto di Bondone (1276 — 1336), the father of modern Ita- 
lian art, with Giovanni Cimabue, the most celebrated represen- 
tative of the earlier style (Cimabue is said to have watched Giotto, 
when as a shepherd -boy relieving the monotony of his office 
by tracing the outlines of his sheep in the sand, and to have 
received him as a pupil in consequence). But it was forgotten 
that a revolution in artistic ideas and forms had taken place at 
Home and Siena still earlier than at Florence, that both Cimabue 
and his pupil Giotto had numerous professional brethren, and 
that the composition of mosaics, as well as mural and panel- 
painting, was still successfully practised. Subsequent investigation 
has rectified these errors, pointed out the Roman and Tuscan 
mosaics as works of the transition-period, and restored the Sienese 
master Duccio, who was remarkable for his sense of the beauti- 
ful aTid the expressiveness of his figures, to his merited rank. 
Giotto, however, is fully entitled to rank in the highest class. The 
amateur, who before entering Italy has become acquainted with 
Giotto from insignificant panel-pictures only , often arbitrarily 
attributed to this master , and even in Italy itself encounters 
little else than obliquely drawn eyes, clumsy features, and 
cumbrous masses of drapery as characteristics of his style , will 
regard Giotto's reputation as ill-founded. He will be at a loss 
to comprehend why Giotto is regarded as the inaugurator of a 
new era of art , and why the name of the old Florentine master 
is only second in popularity to that of Raphael himself. The fact 
is, Giotto's celebrity is not due to any single perfect work of art. 
His indefatigable energy in different spheres of art, the enthusiasm 
which he kindled in every direction, and the development for which 
he paved the way, must be taken into consideration, in order that 
his place in history may be understood. Even when, in con- 
sonance with the poetical sentiments of his age. he embodies 
allegorical conceptions, as poverty, chastity, obedience, or displays 
to us a ship as an emblem of the Church of Christ, be shows a 
masterly acquaintance with the art of converting what is perhaps 
in itself an ungrateful idea into a speaking, life-like scene. 
Giotto is an adept in narration, in imparting a faithful reality to 


his compositions. The individual figures in his pictures may fail 
to satisfy the expectations, and even earlier masters , such as 
Duccio, may have surpassed him in execution, but intelligibility 
of movement and dramatic effect were first naturalised in art by 
Giotto. This is partly attributable to the luminous colouring 
employed by him instead of the dark and heavy tones of his 
predecessors , enabling him to impart the proper expression to 
his artistic and novel conceptions. On these grounds there- 
fore Giotto, so versatile and so active in the most extended spheres, 
was accounted the purest type of his century, and succeeding 
generations founded a regular school of art in his name. As 
in the case of all the earlier Italian painters, so in that of Giotto 
and his successors, an opinion of their true merits can be - formed 
from their mural paintings alone. The intimate connection of the 
picture with the architecture, of" which it constituted the living 
ornament, compelled artists to study the rules of symmetry and 
harmonious composition, developed their sense of style, and, as 
extensive spaces were placed at their disposal, admitted of broad 
and unshackled delineation. Almost every church in Florence 
boasted of specimens of art in the style of Giotto, almost every 
town in Central Italy during the 14th century practised some 
branch of art akin to Giotto's. The most valuable works of this style 
are preserved in the Churches of S. Croce and S. Maria Novella 
at Florence (in the latter the Cappella degli Spaguuoli is very 
important). Beyond the precincts of the Tuscan capital the 
finest work of Giotto is to be found in the Cappella dell' Arena 
at Padua, where in 1303 he executed a representation of scenes 
from the life of the Virgin. The Campo Santo of Pisa affords 
specimens of the handiwork of his pupils. In the works on the 
walls of this unique national museum the spectator cannot fail to 
be struck by their finely-'conceived, poetical character (e. g. the 
Triumph of Death), their sublimity (Last Judgment, Trials of 
Job), or their richness in dramatic effect (History of St. Raineru?. 
and of the Martyrs Ephesus and Potitus). 

In the 15th century, as well as in the 14th, Florence continued 
to take the lead amongst the capitals of Italy in matters of art. 
Vasari attributes this merit to its pure and delicious atmosphere, 
which he regards as highly conducive to intelligence and refine- 
ment. The fact, however, is, that Florence did not itself produce a 
greater number of eminent artists than other localities. During a 
long period Siena successfully vied with her in artistic fertility, 
and Upper Italy in the 14th century gave birth to the two painters 
d'Avanzo and Aldighieri (paintings in the Chapel of S. Giorgio in 
Padua), who far surpass Giotto's ordinary style. On the other 
hand, no Italian city afforded in its political institutions and public 
life so many favourable stimulants to artistic imagination , or pro- 
moted intellectual activity in so marked a degree , or combined 


ease ami dignity so harmoniously as Florence. What therefore was 
hut obscurely experienced in the rest of Italy , and manifested at 
irregular intervals only, was generally first realised here with tan- 
gible distinctness. Florence became the birthplace of the revolution 
in art effected by Giotto , and Florence was the home of the art of 
the Renaissance , which began to prevail soon after the beginning 
of the 15th century, and superseded the style of Giotto. The word 
Renaissance is commonly understood to designate a revival of the 
antique; but while ancient art now began to influence artistic taste 
more powerfully, and its study to be more zealously prosecuted, the 
essential character of the Renaissance by no means consists exclu- 
sively , or even principally, in the imitation of the antique ; nor 
must the term be confined merely to art , as it truly embraces the 
whole progress of civilisation in Italy during the 15th and 16th 
centuries. How the Renaissance manifested itself in political life, 
rcnd the different phases it assumes in the scientific and the social 
world, cannot here be discussed. It may, however, be observed 
that the Renaissance in social life was chiefly promoted by the 'hu- 
manists', who preferred general culture to great professional attain- 
ments , who enthusiastically regarded classical antiquity as the 
golden age of great men, and who exercised the most extensive in- 
fluence on the bias of artistic views. In the period of the Re- 
naissance the position of the artist with regard to his work , and 
the nature and aspect of the latter are changed. The education and 
taste of the individual leave a more marked impress on the work of 
the author than was ever before the case; his creations are pre-emi- 
nently the reflection of his intellect ; his alone is the responsibility, 
his the reward of success or the mortification of failure. Artists 
now seek to attain celebrity, they desire their works to be examined 
and judged as testimonials of their personal endowments. Mere 
technical skill by no means satisfies them, although they are far 
from despising the drudgery of a handicraft (many of the most emi- 
nent quattrocentists having received the rudiments of their education 
in the workshop of a goldsmithj, the exclusive pursuit of a single 
sphere of art is regarded by them as an indication of intellectual 
poverty, and they aim at mastering the principles of each different 
branch. They work simultaneously as painters and sculptors, and 
when they apply their abilities to architecture, it is deemed nothing 
unwonted or anomalous. A comprehensive and versatile education, 
united with refined personal sentiments, forms their loftiest aim. 
This they attain in but few instances, but that they eagerly aspired 
to it is proved by the biography of the illustrious Leo Battista Al- 
beTti. who is entitled to the same rank in the 15th century, as 
Leonardo da Vinci in the 16th. Rationally educated, physically and 
morally healthy , keenly alive to the calm enjoyments of life, arid 
possessing clearly defined ideas and decided tastes, the artists of the 
Renaissance necessarily regarded nature and her artistic embodiment 


with different views from their predecessors. A fresh and joyous love 
of nature seems to pervade the -whole of this period. In accordance 
with the diversified tendencies of investigation, artistic imagination 
also strives to approach her at first by a careful study of her various 
phenomena. Anatomy, geometry, perspective, and the study of dra- 
pery and colour are zealously pursued and practically applied. Exter- 
nal truth, fidelity to nature, and a correct rendering of real life in its 
minutest details are among the necessary qualities in aperfectwork. 
The realism of the representation is, however, only the basis for the 
expression of life-like character and enjoyment of the present. The 
earlier artists of the Renaissance exhibit no partiality for pathetic 
scenes, or events which awaken painful emotions and turbulent 
passions ; their preference obviously inclines to cheerful and joyous 
subjects. In the works of the 15th century strict faithfulness, in 
an objective sense, must not be looked for. Whether the topic be 
derived from the Old or the New Testament , from history or fable, 
it is always transferred to the immediate present, and adorned with 
the colours of actual life. Thus Florentines of the genuine national 
type are represented as surrounding the patriarchs, visiting Eliza- 
beth after the birth of her son, or witnessing the miracles of 
Christ. This transference of remote events to the present bears a 
striking resemblance to the naive and not unpleasing tone of the 
chronicler. The development of Italian art, however, by no means 
terminates with mere fidelity to nature, a quality likewise displayed 
by the contemporaneous art of the North. A superficial glance at 
the works of the Italian Renaissance enables one to recognise the 
higher goal of imagination. The carefully selected groups of digni- 
fied men , beautiful women , and pleasing children , occasionally 
without internal necessity placed in the foreground , prove that at- 
tractiveness was pre-eminently desired. This is also evidenced by 
the early-awakened enthusiasm for the nude, by the skill in dispo- 
sition of drapery, and the care devoted to boldness of outline and 
accuracy of form. This aim is still more obvious from the keen 
sense of symmetry observable in all the better artists. The indi- 
vidual figures are not coldly and accurately drawn in conformity 
with systematic rules. They are executed with refined taste and 
feeling ; harshness of expression and unpleasing characteristics are 
sedulously avoided , while in the art of the North physiognomic 
fidelity is usually accompanied by extreme rigidity. A taste for 
symmetry does not prevail in the formation of the individual figure 
only ; obedience to rhythmical precepts is perceptible in the dispo- 
sition of the groups also, and in the composition of the entire work. 
The intimate connection between Italian painting (fresco) and 
architecture naturally leads to the transference of architectural rules 
to the province of pictorial art , whereby not only the invasion of a 
mere luxuriant naturalism was obviated , but the fullest scope was 
afforded to the artist for the execution of his task. For, to discover 


the most effective proportions , to inspire life into a scene by the 
very rhythm of the lineaments , are not accomplishments to be 
acquired by extraneous aid ; precise measurement and calcu- 
lation are here of no avail ; a discriminating eye , refined taste, 
and a creative imagination , which instinctively divines the appro- 
priate forms for its design , can alone excel in this sphere of art. 
This enthusiasm for external beauty and just and harmonious pro- 
portions is the essential characteristic of the art of the Renaissance. 
Its veneration for the antique is thus also accounted for. At first 
an ambitious longing for fame caused the Italians of the 15th and 
16th centuries to lookback to classical antiquity as the era of illus- 
trious men, and ardently to desire its return. Subsequently, how- 
ever, they regarded it simply as an excellent and appropriate re- 
source, when the study of actual life did not suffice , and an ad- 
mirable assistance in perfecting their sense of form and symmetry. 
They by no means viewed the art of the ancients as a perfect whole, 
or as the product of a definite historical epoch, which developed 
itself under peculiar conditions ; but their attention was arrested by 
the individual works of antiquity and their special beauties. Thus 
ancient ideas were re-admitted into the sphere of Renaissance art. 
A return to the religious spirit of the Romans and Greeks is not of 
course to be inferred from the veneration for the ancient gods shown 
during the humanistic period ; belief in the Olympian gods was ex- 
tinct ; but just because no devotional feeling was intermingled, 
because the forms could only receive life from creative imagination, 
did they exercise so powerful an influence on the Italian masters. 
The importance of mythological characters being entirely due to 
the perfect beauty of their forms , they could not fail on this ac- 
count pre-eminently to recommend themselves to artists of the Re- 

These remarks will, it is hoped, convey to the reader a general 
idea of the character of the Renaissance. Those who examine 
the architectural works of the 15th or 16th century should refrain 
from marring their enjoyment by the not altogether justifiable re- 
flection, that in the Renaissance style no new system was invented, 
as the architects merely employed the ancient elements , and ad- 
hered principally to tradition in their constructive principles and 
selection of component parts. Notwithstanding the apparent want 
of organisation, however, great beauty of form, emanating from the 
most exuberant imagination , will be observed in all these struc- 
tures , from the works of Brunelleschi (1377 — 1446) to those 
of Andrea Palladio of Vicenza (1518 — 1580), the last great 
architect of the Renaissance. The style of the 15th century may 
easily be distinguished from that of the 16th. The Florentine 
palaces (Pitti, Riccardi, Strozzi) are still based on the type of the 
mediaeval castle. A taste for beauty of detail, coeval with the rea- 
listic tendency of painting, produces in the architecture of the 15th 


century an extensive application of graceful and attractive orna- 
ments, which entirely cover the surfaces, and throw the true organ- 
isation of the edifice into the background. For a time the true 
aim of Renaissance art appears to have been departed from, anxious 
care is devoted to detail instead of to general effect ; the re-appli- 
cation of columns did not at first admit of spacious structures, the 
dome rose but timidly above the level of the roof. But this atten- 
tion to minutiae, this disregard of effect on the part of these archi- 
tects, was only, as tt were, a restraining of their power, in order 
the more completely to master, the more grandly to develop the art. 
The early Renaissance is succeeded by Bramante's epoch (1444 — 
1514), with which began the golden age of symmetrical con- 
struction. With a wise economy the mere decorative portions 
were circumscribed , while greater significance and more marked 
expression were imparted to the true constituents of the structure, 
the real exponents of the architectural design. The works of the 
Bramantine era (High Renaissance) are less graceful and attractive 
than those of their predecessors, but superior in their well denned, 
lofty simplicity and finished character. Had the Church of St. Peter 
been completed in the form originally designed by Bramante , we 
could have pronounced a more decided opinion as to the ideal of the 
churchrarohitecture of the Renaissance. The circumstance that the 
grandest work of this style has been subjected to the most varied 
alterations (for vastness of dimensions was the principal aim of the 
architects) teaches us to refrain from the indiscriminate blame which 
so commonly falls to the lot of Renaissance churches. It must at 
least be admitted that the favourite form , that of a Greek cross 
(with equal arms) with rounded extremities, crowned by a dome, 
possesses concentrated unity, and that the pillar-construction re- 
lieved by niches presents an aspect of imposing grandeur ; nor can 
it be disputed that in the churches of the Renaissance the same ar- 
tistic principles are applied as in the universally admired palaces 
and secular edifices. If the former therefore excite less interest, 
this is not due to the inferiority of the architects, but to causes 
beyond their control. The succeeding generation of the 16th 
century did not adhere to the style established by Bramante, but 
not reduced by him to a finished system. They aim more sedu- 
lously at general effect, so that harmony among the individual 
members begins to be neglected ; they endeavour to arrest the eye 
by boldness of construction aiid striking contrasts ; or they borrow 
new modes of expression from antiquity, the precepts of which had 
hitherto been applied in an unsystematic manner only. Throughout 
the diversified stages of development of the succeeding styles of 
Renaissance architecture , felicity of proportion is invariably the 
aim of all the great masters. To appreciate their success in this 
aim should also be regarded as the principal task of the spectator, 
who with this object in view will do well to compare a Gothic with 


a Renaissance structure. This comparison will prove to him 
that harmony of proportion is not the only effective element 
in architecture ; for, especially in the cathedrals of Germany, the 
exclusively vertical tendency, the attention to form without regard 
to measure , the violation of precepts of rhythm , and a disregard 
of proportion and the proper ratio of the open to the closed cannot 
fail to strike the eye. Even the unskilled amateur will thus be 
convinced of the abrupt contrast between the mediaeval and the 
Renaissaiice styles. Thus prepared, he may, for example, proceed 
to inspect the Palace of the Pitti at Florence , which , undecorated 
and unorganised as it is, would scarcely be distinguishable from a 
rude pile of stones, if a judgment were formed from the mere de- 
scription. The artistic charm consists in the simplicity of the mass, 
the justness of proportion in the elevation of the storeys , and the 
tasteful adjustment of the windows in the vast surface of the fa- 
cade. That the architects thoroughly understood the sesthetical 
effect of symmetrical proportions is proved by the mode of con- 
struction adopted in the somewhat more recent Florentine palaces, 
in which the roughly hewn blocks (rustica) in the successive storeys 
recede in gradations, and by their careful experiments as to whether 
the cornice surmounting the structure should bear reference to the 
highest storey , or to the entire facade. The same bias manifests 
itself in Bramante's imagination. The Cancelleria is justly 
considered a beautifully organised structure ; and when, after the 
example of Palladio in church-facades, a single series of columns 
superseded those resting above one another, symmetry of proportion 
was also the object in view. 

Every guide-book and every cicerone points out to the traveller 
in Italy the master-pieces of Renaissance architecture which he 
should inspect. Of that of the 15th century the Tuscan towns 
afford the finest examples , but the brick structures of the cities 
of Lombardy , with their copious and florid decoration, should 
not be overlooked. An acquaintance with the style of Bra- 
mante and his contemporaries (Peruzzi , San Gallo the younger) 
may best be formed at Rome, although the architecture of the 
17th century is most characteristic of the Eternal City. The 
most important works of the middle and latter half of the 16th 
century are also to be sought for in the towns of Upper Italy 
(Genoa, Vicenza, Venice). In Venice especially, within a very 
limited space, the development of Renaissance architecture may 
conveniently be surveyed. The fundamental type of domestic 
architecture recurs here with little variation. The nature of the 
ground afforded little scope for the caprice of the architect, 
while the conservative spirit of the inhabitants inclined them to 
adhere to the style established by custom. Nice distinctions of style 
are therefore the more observable, and that which emanated from 
a pure sense of form the more appreciable. Those who have been 


convinced by careful comparison of the great superiority of the 
Biblioteca (in the Piazzetta) of Sansovino over the new ProcuTazie 
of Scamozzi, although the two edifices exactly correspond in many 
respects, have made great progress towards an accurate insight into 
the architecure of the Renaissance. Much, moreover, would he lost 
by the traveller who devoted his attention exclusively to the master- 
works which have been extolled from time immemorial, or solely to 
the great monumental structures. As even the insignificant vases 
(majolicas, manufactured at Pesaro, Urbino, Gubbio, and Castel- 
Duvante) testify to the taste of the Italians , their partiality 
for classical models, and their enthusiasm for purity of form, so 
also in inferior works, some of which fall within the province of a 
mere handicraft, the peculiar beauties of the Renaissance style are 
often detected , and charming specimens of architecture are some- 
times discovered in remote corners of Italian towns. Nor must the 
vast domain of decorative sculpture be [disregarded, as such 
works, whether in metal, stone, or stucco, inlaid or carved wood, 
oftenveTge on the sphere of architecture. 

On the whole it may be asserted that the architecture of the Re- 
naissance , which in obedience to the requirements of modern life 
manifests its greatest excellence in secular structures, cannot fail 
to gratify the taste of the most superficial observer. With the 
sculpture of the same period, however, the case is different. 
The Italian architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries still 
possesses a practical value and is frequently imitated at the pre- 
sent day ; and painting undoubtedly attained its highest consum- 
mation at the same period; but the sculpture of the Renais- 
sance does not appear to us worthy of revival, and indeed cannot 
compete with that of antiquity. Yet the plastic art, far from 
enjoying a lower degree of favour, was rather viewed by the ar- 
tists of that age as the proper centre of their sphere of activity. 
Sculpture was the first art in Italy which was launched into the 
stream of the Renaissance, in its development it was ever a step 
in advance of the other arts, and in the popular opinion possessed 
the advantage of most clearly embodying the current ideas of the 
age, and of affording the most brilliant evidence of the re-awakened 
love of art. Owing probably to the closeness of the connection be- 
tween the plasticartof the Renaissance andthe peculiar national cul- 
ture, the former lost much of its value after the decline of the latter, 
and was less appreciated than pictorial and architectural works . in 
which adventitious historical origin is obviously of less importance 
than general effect. In tracing the progress of the sculpture of the 
Renaissance, the enquirer at once encounters serious deviations 
from strict precepts, and numerous infringements of sesthetical 
rules. The execution of reliefs constitutes by far the widest 
sphere of action of the Italian sculpture of the 15th century. 
These , however , contrary to immemorial usage , are executed 


in a pictorial style. Ghiberti , for example , in his celebrated 
(eastern) door of the Baptistery of Florence , is not satisfied with 
grouping the figures as in a painting , and placing them in a rich 
landscape copied from nature. He treats the background in accord- 
aiice with the rules of perspective ; the figures at a distance are 
smaller and less raised than those in the foreground. He oversteps 
the limits of the plastic art, and above all violates the laws of the 
relief-style, according to which the figures are always represented 
in an imaginary space , and the usual system of a mere design in 
profile seldom departed from. In like manner the painted reliefs 
in terracotta by Luc. a della Robbia are somewhat inconsistent with 
purity of plastic form. Rut if it be borne in mind that the sculp- 
tors of the Renaissance did not derive their ideas from a previously 
defined system, or adhere to abstract rules , the fresh and life-like 
vigour of their works (especially those of the loth century) will not 
be disputed , and prejudice will be dispelled by the great attrac- 
tions ot the reliefs themselves. The sculpture of the Renaissance 
adheres as strictly as the other arts to the fundamental principle of 
representation ; scrupulous care is bestowed on the faithful and at- 
tractive rendering of the individual objects; the taste is gratified 
by expressive heads, graceful female figures, and joyous children; 
the sculptors have a keen appreciation of the beauty of the nude, 
and the importance of a calm and dignified flow of drap?ry. In 
their anxiety for fidelity of representation , however, they do not 
shrink from harshness of expression or rigidity of form. Their 
predilection for bronze-casting accords with their inclination for 
the characteristic. In this material , decision and pregnancy of 
form are expressed without restraint, and almost, as it were, sponta- 
neously. "Works in marble also occur, but these generally trench on 
the province of decoration, and seldom display the bold and unfettered 
aspirations which are apparent in the works in bronze. It is remark- 
able that the progress of the earlier sculpture of the Renaissance 
is confined to form alone, while tradition is invariably followed in 
the selection of subjects. Most of these works have been executed 
for ecclesiastical purposes. The best museum of Italian sculpture 
of the 15th century is formed by the external niches of Or San 
Michele in Florence, where Ghiberti, Verrocchio, and others, as 
well as Donatello the principal master, have immortalised their 
names. These with other statues on church-facades (the best spe- 
cimens of the second generation of sculptors of this period are 
perhaps the works of Rustici and Sansovino in the Baptistery of 
Florence), reliefs of pulpits, organparapets , altar-enrichments, 
church-doors, etc. form the principal sphere of plastic activity. 
The most admirable specimens of the earlier Renaissance sculpture 
are to be found in Central Italy. Resides Florence, the towns of 
Lucca (where Civitali wrought) , Pistoja, Siena, and Prato should 
he explored. At Rome ( S. Maria del Popolo) and Venice (school 


of the Lombardi, Bregni, and of Leopardo) the monumental tombs 
especially merit careful examination. We may perhaps frequently 
take exception to their inflated and somewhat monotonous style, 
which for a whole century remained almost unaltered, but we 
cannot fail to derive genuine pleasure from the inexhaustible 
freshness of imagination displayed within so narrow limits. 

As a museum cannot convey an adequate idea of the sculpture 
of the 15th century, so a visit to a picture gallery will not afford 
an accurate insight into the painting of that period. Sculptures 
are frequently removed from their original position, many of those 
belonging to the Florentine chuTches, for example , having been 
of late transferred to museums ; but mural paintings are of course 
generally inseparable from the walls which they adorn. Of the fres- 
coes of the 15th century of which a record has been preserved, peThaps 
one-half have been destroyed or obliterated , but those still extant 
are the most instructive and attractive examples of the art of this 
period. The mural paintings in the Church del Carmine (Cap- 
pella Brancacci) at Florence , executed by Masaccio and others, 
are usually mentioned as the earliest specimens of the painting 
of the Renaissance. This is a chronological mistake , as some of 
these frescoes were not completed before the second half of the 
15th century ; but in the main the classification is justifiable , as 
this cycle of pictures may be regarded as a programme of the 
earlier art of the Renaissance , and served to maintain the im- 
portance of the latter even during the age of Raphael. Here the 
beauty of the nude was first revealed , and here a calm dignity 
was for the first time imparted to the individual figures, as well as 
to the general arrangement; and the transformation of a group 
of indifferent spectators in the composition into a sympathising 
choir , forming as it were a frame to the principal actors in the 
scene, was first successfully effected. It is, therefore, natural 
that these frescoes should still be regarded as models for imitation, 
and that , when the attention of connoisseurs was again directed 
during the last century to the beauties of the pre - Raphaelite 
period , the works of Masaccio and Filippino Lippi should have 
been eagerly rescued from oblivion. 

A visit to the churches of Florerce is well calculated to con- 
vey an idea of the subsequent rapid development of the art of 
painting. The most important and extensive works are those of 
Domenico Ghirlandajo : the frescoes in S. Trinita (a comparison 
with the mural paintings of Giotto in S. Croce , which also re- 
present the legend of St. Francis, is extremely instructive ; so also 
a parallel between Ghirlandajo's Last Supper in the monasteries 
of S. Marco and Ognissanti, and the work of Leonardo), and those 
in the choir of S. Maria Novella , which in sprightliness of con- 
ception are hardly surpassed by any other work of the same pe- 
riod. Beyond the precincts of Florence, Benozzo Gozzoli's char- 


mingly expressive scenes from the Old Testament on the nor- 
thern wall of the Canipo Santo of Pisa , forming biblical genre- 
pictures, Filippo Lipprs frescoes at Prato , Piero della Francesca's 
Finding of the Cross in S. Francesco at Arezzo, and Anally Luca 
Signorelli's representation of the Last Day in the Cathedral at 
Orvieto, afford a most admirable survey of the character and deve- 
lopment of Renaissance painting in Central Italy. Arezzo and 
Orvieto should by no means be passed over, not only because the 
works they contain of Piero della Francesca and Luca Signorelli 
show how nearly the art even of the 15th century approaches 
perfection , but because both of these towns afford an immediate 
and attractive insight into the artistic taste of the mediaeval towns 
of Italy. Those who cannot conveniently visit the provincial 
towns will find several of the principal masters of the loth century 
united in the mural paintings of the Sixtine Chapel at Rome , and 
will obtain a general idea of the development of Renaissance- 
painting from the pictures in the gallery of the Florentine Academy. 
But an acquaintance with the Tuscan schools alone can never suffice 
to enable one to form a judgment respecting the general progress 
of art in Italy. Chords which are here but slightly touched vibrate 
powerfully in Upper Italy. Mantegna's works (at Padua and Man- 
tuaj derive their chief interest from having exercised a marked 
influence on the German masters Holbein and Diirer. The Uni- 
brian school , which originates with Gubbio . and is admirably re- 
presented early in the 15th century by Ottaviano Nelli, blending 
with the Tuscan school in Gentile da Fabriano and Giovanni da 
Fiesole , and culminating in its last masters Perugino and 
Pinturicchio , also merits attention , not only because Raphael 
was one of its adherents during his first period, but because it 
supplements the broadly delineating Florentine style , and not- 
withstanding its peculiar and limited bias is impressive in 
its character of lyric sentiment and religious devotion (e. g. 
Madonnas). The fact that the various points of excellence 
were distributed among different local schools showed the necessity 
of a loftier union. Transcendant talent wjCS requisite in order 
harmoniously to combine what could hitherto be viewed separately 
only. The 15th century , notwithstanding all its attractiveness, 
shows that the climax of art was still unattained. The forms 
employed, graceful and pleasing though they be , are not yet lofty 
and pure enough to be regarded as embodying the noblest con- 
ceptions. The figures still present a local colouring , having been 
selected by the artists as physically attractive , rather than 
as characteristic and expressive of their ideas. A portrait style 
still predominates , the actual representation does not appear 
always wisely balanced with the internal significance of the event, 
and the dramatic- element is insufficiently emphasised. The most 
abundant scope was therefore now afforded for the labours of the 


great triumvirate, Leonardo da Vinci, Michael Angelo Buonarroti, 
and Raphael Santi , by whom an entirely new era was in- 

Leonardo's (1452—1519) remarkable character can only be 
thoroughly understood by means of prolonged study. His compre- 
hensive genius was only partially devoted to art ; he also directed 
his attention to scientific and practical pursuits of an entirely 
different nature. Refinement and versatility may be described as 
the goal of his aspirations; a division of labour, a partition 
of individual tasks were principles unknown to him. He laid, 
as it were , his entire personality into the scale in all that he 
undertook. He regarded careful physical training as scarcely less 
important than comprehensive culture of the mind; the vigour 
of his imagination aroused the application of his intellect also ; 
his minute observation of nature developed his artistic taste and 
organ of form. One is frequently tempted to regard Leonardo's 
works as mere studies , in which he tested his powers, and which 
occupied his attention so far only as they gratified his love of 
investigation and experiment. At all events his personal impor- 
tance has exercised a greater influence than his productions as 
an artist, especially as his prejudiced age strenuously sought to 
obliterate all trace of the latter. Few of Leonardo's works 
have been preserved in Italy , and these sadly marred by neglect. 
A reminiscence of his earlier period , when he wrought under 
Verrocchio at Florence, and was a fellow-pupil of Lorenzo di Credi, 
is the fresco (Madonna and donor) in S. Onofrio at Rome. Se- 
veral oil-paintings, portraits, Madonnas, etc. (in theGalleriaSciarra 
at Rome) are attributed to his Milan period, although careful re- 
search inclines us to attribute them to his pupils. The best in- 
sight into Leonardo's style, his reforms in the art of colouring, etc., 
is obtained by an attentive examination of the works of the Mi- 
lan school (Luini, Salaino), as these are far better preserved than 
the original works of the master, of which (his battle - cartoon 
having been unfortunately lost with the exception of a single 
equestrian group) the Last Supper in S. Maria delle Grazie at 
Milan is now the only worthy representative. Although now a 
total wreck, it is still well calculated to convey an idea of the new 
epoch of Leonardo. The spectator should first examine the delicate 
equilibrium of the composition , and observe how the individual 
groups are complete in themselves, and yet simultaneously point to 
a common centre and impart a monumental character to the work ; 
then the remarkable physiognomical fidelity which pervades every 
detail, the psychological distinctness of character, and the dramatic 
life, together with the calmness of the entire bearing of the 
picture. He will then comprehend that with Leonardo a new era 
in Italian painting was inaugurated , that the development of art 
had attained its perfection. 


The accuracy of this assertion -will perhaps be regarded by the 
amateur as dubious when he turns from Leonardo to Michael 
Angelo (1474 — 1563). On the one hand he hears Michael Angelo 
extolled as the most celebrated artist of the Renaissance , while 
on the other it is said that he exercised a prejudicial influence 
on Italian art, and was the precursor of the decline of sculpture 
and painting. Nor is an inspection of this illustrious master's 
works calculated to dispel the doubt. Unnatural and arbitrary 
features often appear in juxtaposition with what is perfect , pro- 
foundly significative, and faithfully conceived. As in the case of 
Leonardo, biographical studies alone afford an explanation of these 
anomalies , and lead to a true appreciation of Michael Angelo's 
artistic greatness. His principles do not differ from those of his 
contemporaries. Educated as a sculptor, he exhibits partiality to 
the nude , and treats the drapery in many respects differently 
from his professional brethren. But, like them , his aim is to in- 
spire his figures with life which he seeks to attain by imparting to 
them an imposing and impressive character. At the same time 
he occupies an isolated position , at variance with many of the 
tendencies of his age. Naturally predisposed to melancholy, con- 
cealing a gentle and almost effeminate temperament beneath a mask 
of austerity, Michael Angelo was confirmed in his peculiarities by 
adverse political and ecclesiastical circumstances , and wrapped 
himself up within the depths of his own absorbing thoughts. 
His sculpture most clearly manifests that profound sentiment to 
which however he often sacrificed symmetry of form. His figures 
are therefore anomalous, exhibiting a grand conception, but no 
distinct or tangible thoughts , and least of all the traditional 
ideas. It is difficult now to comprehend what hidden senti- 
ments the master embodied in his statues and pictures , which 
often present nothing but a massive and clumsy form , and appear 
to degenerate into meaningless mannerism. The deceptive ef- 
fect produced by Michael Angelo's style is best exemplified by 
some of his later works. His Moses in IS. Pietro in Vincoli is of 
impossible proportions ; such a man can never have existed ; the 
huge arms and the gigantic torso are utterly disproportionate ; the 
robe which falls over the celebrated knee could not be folded as 
it is represented. Nevertheless the work is grandly impressive ; 
so also are the monuments of the Medicis in S. Lorenzo at Flor- 
ence , in spite of the forced attitude and arbitrary moulding of 
some of the figures. Michael Angelo only sacrifices accuracy 
of detail in order to enhance the aggregate effect. Had so 
great and talented a master not presided over the whole , the 
danger of an inflated style would have been incurred , the forms 
selected would have been exaggerated, and a professional mannerism 
apparent. Michael Angelo's numerous pupils, desirous of faithfully 
following the example of the master's Last Judgment in the Six- 


tine, succeeded only in representing complicated groups of unna- 
turally foreshortened nude figures, while Baccio Bandinelli, think- 
ing even to surpass Michael Angelo , produced in his group of 
Hercules and Cacus (in the Piazza della Signoria at Florence) a 
mere caricature of his model. 

Amateurs will best be enabled to render justice to Michael 
Angelo by first devoting their attention to his earlier works, 
among which in the province of sculpture the group of Pieta (in 
St. Peter's) occupies' the highest rank. The statues of Bacchus 
and David (at Florence) likewise do not transgress the customary 
precepts of the art of the Renaissance. Paintings of Michael 
Angelo's earlier period are rare ; the finest , whether conceived 
during his youthful development, or his maturer years, is unques- 
tionably the ceiling-painting in the Sistine. The architectural 
arrangement of the ceiling , and the composition of the several 
pictures are equally masterly ; the taste and discrimination of the 
painter and sculptor are admirably combined. In God the Father, 
Michael Angelo produced a perfect type of its kind ; he under- 
stood how to inspire with dramatic life the abstract idea of the 
act of creation , which he conceived as motion in the prophets 
and sibyls. Notwithstanding the apparent monotony of the 
fundamental intention (foreshadowing of the Redemption), a great 
variety of psychological incidents are displayed and embodied in 
distinct characters. Finally, in the so-called Ancestors of Christ, 
the forms represented are the genuine emanations of Michael 
Angelo's genius , pervaded by his profound and mystically ob- 
scure sentiments , and yet by no means destitute of gracefulness 
and beauty. 

Whether the palm be due to Michael Angelo or to Raphael 
(1483 — 1520) among the artists of Italy is a question which for- 
merly gave rise to vehement discussion among artists and amateurs. 
The admirer of Michael Angelo need , however , by no means be 
excluded from enjoying the works of Raphael. We now know 
that it is far more advantageous to form an acquaintance with 
each master in his peculiar province , than anxiously to weigh 
their respective merits ; and the more minutely we examine their 
works, the more firmly we are persuaded that neither in any way 
obstructed the progress of the other , and that a so-.called higher 
combination of the two styles was impossible. Michael Angelo's 
unique position among his contemporaries was such, that no one, 
Raphael not excepted, was entirely exempt from his influence; 
but the result of preceding development was turned to the best 
account, not by him, but by Raphael, whose susceptible and 
discriminating character enabled him at once to combine different 
tendencies within himself, and to avoid the faults of his pre- 
decessors. Raphael's pictures are replete with indications of pro- 
found .sentiment, but his imagination was so constituted that 

Baedeker. Italy I. 3rd Edit. d 


he did not distort the ideas which he had to embody,, in order 
to accommodate them to his own views, hut rather strove to iden- 
tify himself with them , and to render them with the utmost 
fidelity. In the case of Raphael , therefore, a knowledge of his 
works and the enjoyment of them are almost inseparable , and 
it is difficult to point out any single sphere with which he was 
especially familiar. He presents to us with equal enthusiasm 
pictures of the Madonna , and the myth of Cupid and Psyche ; in 
gieat cyclic compositions he is as brilliant as in the limited sphere 
of portrait-painting; at one time he appears to attach paramount 
importance to strictness of style , architectural arrangement, sym- 
metry of groups, etc. ; at other times one is tempted to believe that 
he regarded colour as his most effective auxiliary. His excellence 
consists in his rendering equal justice to the most varied subjects, 
and in each case as unhesitatingly pursuing the right course , both 
in his apprehension of the idea and selection of form , as if he had 
never followed any other. In each period of his development 
worthy rivals trench closely on his reputation. As long as he 
adhered to the Umbrian School, Pinturicchio , and to some extent 
the Bolognese goldsmith Francia , contested the palm with him, 
and when he went over to the Florentine School (1504) numerous 
competitors maintained their reputation by his side. Leonardo's 
example had here given a great impetus to art , and his works had 
yielded an insight into a new world of ideas and forms. Without 
entirely quitting local ground, the artists of Florence became 
familiar with the loftier spheres of imagination , and proceeded 
far beyond the original goal of strict fidelity to nature. It is 
hardly necessary to direct the attention to Fra Bartolommeo 
(1467 — 1517) and Andrea del Sarto (1488 — 1536); those who 
visit the Pitti Gallery only may form an adequate idea of the styles 
of these masters (the altar-piece in the cathedral of Lucca by Fra 
Bartolommeo , however , should not be overlooked) ; but other 
Florentine painters of the 16th century deserve more notice than 
usually falls to their share. It is commonly believed that all the gems 
of the Galleria degli Ufn/.i are collected in the Tribuna, and the 
other pictures are therefore passed over with a hasty glaiiee ; yet on 
entering the second Tuscan room the visitor encounters several 
highly finished works, such as the Miracles of St. Zenobius by the 
younger Ghirlandajo ; nor is the enjoyment and instruction afforded 
by the portraits of artists , most of them by their own hands, to be 
despised. There is nothing unintelligible in the fact that Raphael 
did not at once rise above all his contemporaries in art during the 
first period of his development. The enthusiastic admirer of 
Raphael will be still more unwilling to admit that even in his 
Roman period (1508 — 1520) his then matured qualities, especially 
his charminji gracefulness of representation, were most successfully 
displayed by another master. This was Bazzi or Sodoma , who has 


been most unfairly treated by the biographers of Italian artists. His 
frescoes in theFarnesina and his numerous mural paintings at Siena, 
where he spent the greater part of his life , are worthy rivals of 
Raphael's works of the same description , and even surpass them 
in colouring. But, whilst Sodoma, like all other rivals of the 
master of Urbino , vie with him in a single branch of art only, 
the latter excels equally in all. Raphael's versatility, therefore, 
constitutes his principal merit. 

Several of Rapha'el's most celebrated easel-pictures are distrib- 
uted throughout different parts of the world , but Italy still 
possesses a valuable collection , together with the three works 
which correspond to the terminations of the three distinct periods 
of the master's development (Nuptials of Mary , at Milan , at the 
close of the Umbrian period ; Entombment of Christ, in the Gall. 
Borghese, at the close of the Florentine period ; Transfiguration, in 
the "Vatican, at the close of the Roman period, left uncompleted by 
Raphael), as well as a great number of portraits, among which the 
so-called Fornarina in the Barberini Gallery derives a still higher 
interest from its subject. The amateur, moreover, should on no 
account omit to see the St. Cecilia in Bologna , and the Madonna 
della Seggiola in the Pitti Gallery. The latter is a characteristic 
specimen of Raphael's Madonnas , which are by no means calcu- 
lated to awaken feelings of devotion. The ecclesiastical idea 
generally yields to feelings of a less elevated character; and 
maternal happiness , the bliss of unsullied family-life , or the 
perfection of female beauty are the predominating features. 
In Italy only, or Tather in Rome (the mural painting in S. Severo 
at Perugia is a solitary specimen of his earlier period), Raphael's 
merits as a fresco-painter can be appreciated. Like all the great 
Italian painters , his finest productions have been in this province 
of art. The highest rank must be assigned to his works in the 
papal chambers of state in the Vatican. In order to understand them, 
the spectator should on the one hand bear in mind that fresco- 
painting is never entirely divested of a decorative character, and 
on the other keep in view the peculiar position of papacy at the 
beginning of the 16th century. In the Palace of the Vatican 
the same courtly tone, the same taste for pleasure and enjoyment 
as in the residences of other Italian princes are exhibited ; se- 
cular views here met with a willing reception , and humanistic 
tendencies especially appear not to have been repugnant to the 
dignity of the Roman court. All these qualities are more or 
less apparent in Raphael's frescoes ; the courtly tone is repeatedly 
assumed , even the refined compliment paid to the patron of the 
artist is not disdained, the ceremonial representation not excluded, 
and personal allusions are not less frequent than political. We 
must finally remember that Raphael was always compelled to 
employ with discrimination the space at his command , and to 



distribute his decorative paintings appropriately on walls and ceil- 
ings , and that the limits imposed on him could not fail fre- 
quently to hamper his movements, and obligo him to alter his 
plans. His theological and philosophical erudition, exhibited in 
the Disputa and the School of Athens, his address in combining 
the most disconnected subjects, such as the expulsion of Helio- 
dorus from the Temple , and the retreat of the French from Italy, 
and his unvarying success in the treatment of all the complicated 
series of subjects in the Stanze are sources of just astonishment. 
Raphael is, moreover, admirably discriminating in selecting what 
was capable of artistic embodiment from a heterogeneous mass 
of ideas, and energetic in asserting the privileges of imagination 
and his sense of the beautiful , thus rendering the most intract- 
able materials obedient to his designs. This is most strikingly 
exemplified in the picture which represents the conflagration of 
the Leonine city, the so-called Borgo , or rather, in accordance at 
least with the design of the donor, the extinction of the fire by 
means of the papal benediction. No spectator can here detect 
the unreasonableness of the demand that a miracle should be ma- 
terially represented. Raphael transfers the scene to the heroic 
age, paints a picture replete with magnificent figures and lifelike 
groups , which have stimulated every subsequent artist to imi- 
tation , and depicts the confusion , and preparations for flight and 
rescue, accompanied by the corresponding emotions. The painting 
does not perhaps contain what the donor desired , but on the other 
hand is transmuted into a creation inspired by imagination, and 
suggested by the most versatile sense of form. Raphael executed 
his task in a similar manner in the case of the celebrated frescoes 
in the first Stanza, viz. the Disputa and the School of Athens. 
Although he was not precisely desired to illustrate a chapter in 
the history of ecclesiastical dogmas (development of the doctrine 
of transubstantiation), or to produce a sketch in colours of the 
history of ancient philosophy, yet the task of representing a mere 
series of celebrated philosophers , and propounders of church 
doctrine could possess but little attraction. By interspersing ideal 
types amid historical characters , by representing the assembled 
congregation of believers in the Disputa as having beheld a vision, 
which necessarily called forth in each individual evidences of pro- 
found emotion, and by emphasising in the School of Athens the 
happiness of knowledge and the pleasure of being initiated in the 
higher spheres of science, Raphael has brilliantly asserted the 
rights of creative imagination. 

After these observations the amateur hardly requires another 
hint respecting an impartial examination of Raphael's works. If 
he directs his attention solely to the subjects of the representa- 
tion, and iiiquires after the name and import of each figure, if 
he feels bound to admire the versatility of the artist, who derives 


his different forms from remote provinces of learning and abounds 
in erudite allusions, lie loses the capability of appreciating the 
special artistic value of Raphael's works. He will then perceive 
no material distinction between them and the great symbolical 
pictures of the middle ages ; nay, he will even be tempted to give 
the latter (e. g. the mural paintings in the Cap. degli Spagnuoli, 
in S. Maria Novella) the preference. These unquestionably 
comprise a wider range of ideas, aim with greater boldness at the 
embodiment of the supersensual , and may boast of having 
abundantly cultivated the didactic element. It is doubtful to what 
extent Raphael's scientific know-ledge was based on his intercourse 
with contemporaneous scholars (such as Castiglione, Bembo, Ariosto, 
etc.), or whether he was entirely independent of these. In the former 
case the merit of versatility would be due to these savants ; but in 
the latter, had Raphael independently recollected all the recondite 
allusions which the paintings in the Stanze are said to exhibit, his 
artistic character would not thereby be more clearly revealed to us ; 
his intellect, not his imagination, would have been exercised. Ra- 
phael's pictures will not only be enjoyed in a higher degree, but a 
better insight into his character and greatness acquired, if the 
attention be chiefly directed to the manner in which the artist, 
by the vigour of his imagination, imparted a living form to ideas in 
themselves devoid of life, in which he distinguished the various 
figures by a marked psychological impress, so that the bearers of 
historical names at the same time appear to the spectator as 
real human, characters, and in which lie skilfully produced an 
equilibrium of movement and repose in his groups, and not only 
studied beauty of outline , but effected a happy reconciliation of 
profound intellectual contrasts. It must not, however, be thought 
that the labour and interest of such an investigation will speedily 
be exhausted. Numerous questions still present themselves to the 
enquirer. He will ask by what motives Raphael was actuated in 
imparting so different a colouring to the Disputa and the School 
of Athens ; how far the architectural background of the latter 
contributes to the general effect ; why the predominance of portrait- 
representation is in one part limited, at another (Jurisprudence) 
extended ; what considerations gave rise to the various alterations 
in the compositions which we discover by comparison with the 
numerous sketches, etc. An examination of the paintings in the 
Stanze is unfortunately little calculated to give pleasure owing to 
their faded condition; and it is now difficult to appreciate the 
magnificence of the unique decorative painting of the Loggie, or 
the consummate art displayed by Raphael in the sadly disfigured 
tapestry. The details of the composition of the latter can only 
now be seen in the cartoons preserved in the Kensington Museum ; 
but the designs at the base, and the marginal arabesques, partially 
preserved in the original tapestry, contribute materially to convey 


an idea of the festive impression which these representations, 
originally destined for the Sistine Chapel, were intended to produce. 

Raphael's frescoes in the cheerful Farnesina present an ap- 
parently irreconcilable contrast to his works in the Vatican. The 
latter bear the impress of religious fervour, of aspiration to 
the sublime, and a tendency to serious reflection, while in the former 
the art of the master is dedicated to joyous scenes, and every figure 
beams with pleasure and innocent happiness. But the frescoes 
of the Farnesina are also a characteristic manifestation of Ra- 
phael's genius. He derived his knowledge of the myth of Cupid 
and Psyche from the well-known work of Apuleius, which was as 
eagerly perused in the 16th century as during Roman antiquity. 
No author of ancient or modern times can boast of a more charm- 
ing illustration that that of Apuleius by Raphael, although the 
subject is somewhat freely treated. In Raphael's hands the myth 
acquires a new form. Well aware that his task was the decoration 
of a festive hall, Raphael has studiously avoided everything of a 
sombre character. Psyche's sufferings are placed in the back- 
ground; her triumph alone occupies the artist's attention. The 
confined limits of the hall appear transformed into stimulants of 
the artist's sense of form. lie embodies the myth in an abridged 
form, suggests many scenes in a superficial manner, yet without 
omitting any essential point, and thus without constraint contrives 
to adapt the historical details to his decorative purpose. Harmony 
in conception and design, symmetrical precision, and capacity of 
concentration in adhering strictly to the subject, without admixture 
of personal caprice, — all genuine attributes of Raphael, — are as 
distinctly observable in the frescoes of the Farnesina as in those of 
the Vatican. The ceiling-paintings in the principal hall are far 
inferior in execution to the so-called Galatea in the adjoining- 
apartment ; but the contemplation of both works affords enjoyment 
of the highest order. 

The traveller cannot duly prepare himself on the North side of 
the Alps for a just appreciation of the works of Leonardo, Michael 
Angelo, and Kaphael; however familiar he may imagine himself to 
be with them, he will be forcibly struck by the new light in which 
they appear on their native soil. The case is different with Correggio 
who is frequently elevated to equal rank with these three great 
masters. An approximate idea oi Correggio's merits may easily 
formed in the galleries of the North, but some peculiarities will be 
be detected for the first time in Italy. He will be discovered to 
tend to naturalism ; it will be observed that not only his treat- 
ment of space (perspective cupola-painting) is devoid of delicacy, 
but that the individual characters possess nothing beyond their 
natural charm. lie is destitute of depth of character, and is 
merely an attractive colourist who highly matured one branch 
of his artistic education, but totally neglected the other. Giorgione 


and Titian, the great masters of the Venetian school, cannot, > on 
the other hand, be duly appreciated as artists of the Renaissance 
except in Italy. These are not mere colourists, they are not 
indebted exclusively to local impulses for their peculiar art ; the 
joyous and festive scenes which they are unwearied in depicting 
are a true emanation of the culture of the Renaissance (Titian's 
connection with the 'divine' Aretino is in this respect very sug- 
gestive) ; the happy- individuals , rejoicing in the delights of 
love, whom they so often represent, remind one of the ancient 
gods, and afford a clue to the manner in which the revival of the 
antique is associated with the Renaissance-period. 

Oorreggio, as well as subsequent Venetian masters, were fre- 
quently regarded as models by the Italian painters of the 17th 
century, and the influence they exercised could not fail to be de- 
tected even by the amateur, if the entire post-Raphaelite period 
were not usually overlooked. Those who make the great cin- 
quecentists their principal study will doubtless be loth to ex- 
amine the works of their successors. Magnificent decorative 
works are occasionally encountered (those of Giulio Romano 
at Mantua , and Perino del Vaga at Genoa) , but the taste is 
offended by the undisguised love of pomp and superficial profes- 
sionalism which they generally display. Artists no longer ear- 
nestly identify themselves with the ideas they embody ; they 
mechanically reproduce the customary themes, they lose the desire, 
and finally the ability to compose independently. They are, more- 
over, deficient in taste for beauty of form, which, as is well known, 
is most attractive when most simple and natural. Their technical 
skill is not the result of mature experience, slowly acquired and 
justly valued : they came into easy possession of great resources of 
art, which they frivolously and unworthily squander. The quaint, 
the extravagant, the piquant alone stimulates their taste ; rapidity, 
not excellence of workmanship, is their aim. Abundant specimens 
of this mannerism are encountered at Rome and Naples (cupola of 
the cathedral at Florence by Zuccaro, frescoes in the Roman chur- 
ches of S. Maria Maggiore and S. Prassede by d'Arpino, in S. 
Stefano by Tempesta, etc.). The fact that several works of this 
class produce a less unfavourable impression does not alter their 
general position , at it is not want of talent so much as of con- 
scientiousness which is attributed to these artists. The condition 
of Italian art, that of painting at least, improved to some extent 
towards the close of the 16th century; a kind of second efflores- 
cence, known in the schools as the 'revival of good taste', took 
place, and is said to have manifested itself in two main directions, 
the eclectic and the naturalistic. But these are terms of little or 
no moment in the study of art, and the amateur had better disregard 
them. The difficulty, however, of forming a fair judgment still 
remains. Down to the close of last century the works of Bernini, 


Guido Reni , Domenichiiio , and even of Carlo Dolce and Maiatta 
were in high repute. Scaffoldings were erected in the Tiber in 
order to afford a better view of Bernini's statues on the Ponte 
S. Angelo, and travellers indulged in unbounded admiration of 
the paintings of the 17th century. A reaction subsequently took 
place; during the modern 'romantic' period the public became 
averse to fluent beauty and easy gracefulness of form , and censure 
of the 17th century and of the 'baroque' style was hailed as a sign 
of the revival of good taste. At the present day the bias of the 
preceding period has again become a subject of investigation, and 
Bernini's architecture is now less frequently stigmatised as 'baroque'. 
The Italian art of the 17th century is now accepted as a recognised 
style , and the estimation in which it is held is therefore often 
dependent on the fashion of the day. This period of art should 
also be studied historically. The principal architectural monu- 
ments of the 17th century are the churches of the Jesuits, which 
unquestionably produce a most imposing effect; but the historical 
enquirer will not easily be dazzled by their meretricious magni- 
ficence. He will perceive the absence of organic forms and the 
impropriety of combining totally different styles, and he will steel 
himself against the gorgeous, but monotonous attractions of the 
paintings and other works of the same period. The bright Renais- 
sance is extinct, simple pleasure in the natural and human ob- 
literated. A gradual change in the views of the Italian public and 
in the position of the church did not fail to influence the tendencies 
of art, and in the 17th century artists again devoted their energies 
more immediately to the service of the church. Devotional pictures 
now became more frequent, but at the same time a sensual, 
naturalistic element gained ground. At one time it veils itself in 
beauty of form, at another it is manifested in the representation of 
voluptuous and passionate emotions ; classic dignity and noble 
symmetry are never attained. Allori's Judith should be compared 
with the beauties of Titian, and the frescoes of Caracci in the Pa- 
lazzo Farnese with Raphael's ceiling-paintings in the Farnesina, 
in order that the difference between the 16th and 17th centuries 
may be clearly understood; and the enquirer will be still farther 
aided by consulting coeval Italian poetry, and observing the 
development of the lyric drama or opera. The tendency of poetry in 
particular furnishes a key to the mythological representations of the 
School of the Caracci. (Jems of art, however, were not unfrequently 
produced during the 17th century, and many of the frescoes of 
this period are admirable ('the Aurora of Guido Reni in the Pal. 
Rospigliosi, Life of St. Cecilia in S. Luigi, Life of St. Nilus in 
Grottaferrata, paintings on the cupola and vaulting of S. Andrea 
by Domenichiiio, etc.). Beautiful oil-paintings by various masters 
are also preserved in the Italian galleries. Besides the public 
collections of Bologna (St. Jerome by Ag. Caracci, Slaughter of 


the Innocents and II Pallione by Guido Reni), Naples, and the 
Vatican and Capitol (Guercino's Petronilla), the private galleries 
of Rome are of great importance. The so-called gallery-pieces, 
figures and scenes designated by imposing titles, and painted in 
the prevailing taste of the 17th century, were readily received, and 
indeed most appropriately placed in the palaces of the Roman 
nobles, most of which owe their origin and decoration to that age. 
This retreat of art to the privacy of the apartments of the great 
may be regarded as a «ymptom of the universal withdrawal of the 
Italians from public life. Artists, too, henceforth occupy an isolated 
position, unchecked by public opinion, exposed to the caprices of 
amateurs , and themselves inclined to an arbitrary deportment. 
Several qualities, however , still exist of which Italian artists are 
never entirely divested ; they retain a certain address in the 
arrangement of figures, they preserve their reputation as ingenious 
decorators, and understand the art of occasionally imparting an 
ideal impress to their pictures ; even down to a late period in the 
18th century they excel in effects of colour, and by devoting 
attention to the province of genre and landscape-painting they may 
boast of having extended the sphere of their native art. At the 
same time they cannot conceal the fact that they have lost all 
faith in the ancient ideals , that they are incapable of new and 
earnest tasks. They breathe a close, academic atmosphere, they 
no longer labour like their predecessors in an independent and 
healthy sphere, and their productions are therefore devoid of ab- 
sorbing and permanent interest. 

This slight outline of the decline of Italian art brings us to 
the close of our brief and imperfect historical sketch, which, be 
it again observed, is designed merely to guide the eye of the 
enlightened traveller, and to aid the uninitiated in independent 
discrimination and research. 

1. From Paris to Nice by Lyons and Marseilles. 

Railway to Marseilles in 24 (express in 16'|.i) hrs. ; fares 106 fr. 30, 
79 fr. 75, 58 fr. 45 c. (Express from Paris to Lyons in 9'|4, ordinary 
trains 12»| 4 hrs. ; fares 63 fr. 5, 47 fr. 30, 34 fr. 70 c. From Lyons to Mar- 
seilles express in 6 2 |3, ordinary trains ll'li hrs.; fares 43 fr. 25 , 32 fr. 45, 
23 fr. 75 c.) From Marseilles to Nice in Vl? (express in 6) hrs.; fares 
27 fr. 70, 20 fr. 75, 15 fr. 20 c. 

Soon after quitting Paris the train crosses the Marne, near its 
confluence -with the Seine , at the station of Charenton (lunatic 
asylum on an eminence to the left). To the right and left rise 
the forts of Jury and Charenton, -which here command the course of 
the Seine. Stat. Villeneuve St. Oeorges is picturesquely situated 
on the slope of a wooded eminence. The beautiful green dale of 
the Teres is now traversed. Picturesque country residences, small 
parks , and thriving mills are passed in rapid succession. Stat. 
Montgeron. The chain of hills to the left, as well as the plain, 
is studded with numerous dwellings. Before Brunoy is reached 
the train crosses the Yeres , and beyond the village passes over a 
viaduct. The valley of the Yeres is now quitted, and the country 
becomes flatter. Stations Combes-la-Ville, Lieusaint, and Ces.on. 

The Seine is again reached and crossed by a handsome iron 
bridge at Melun ( Hotel de France), capital of the department Seine- 
et-Marne, an ancient town with 11,000 inhab. , known to the 
Romans, and picturesquely situated on an eminence above the 
river. The Church of Notre Dame, dating from the 10th cent., and 
the modern Gothic town-hall are fine edifices. 

After affording several picturesque glimpses of the valley of the 
Seine, the train reaches the forest of Fontainebleau. Stat. Bois- 

Fontainebleau (Httel de Londres ; AigleNoir; Hotel de France) 
is a quiet place with broad and clean streets (11,900 inhab. J. The 
*Palace, an extensive pile, containing five courts, is almost exclu- 
sively indebted for its present form to Francis I. (d. 1547), and 
abounds in interesting historical reminiscences. It contains a 
series of handsome saloons and apartments (fee 1 fr.). The *Forest 
occupies an area of 50,000 acres (60 M. in circumference) and 
affords many delightful walks. (For farther details, see Ba>deker's 

Next stat. Thomery, celebrated for its luscious grapes (Chas- 
selas de Fontainebleau). The forest is quitted here. Stat. Moret, 
a venerable town on the Loing, which here falls into the Seine, 

jj^pnirKR. Italv I. 3rd Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. TONNERRB. From Paris 

possesses a Gothic church of the 13th cent, and a ruined chateau 
once occupied by Sully. (Railway hence to Lyons by Nemours, 
(.Hen, Severs, and Roanne.") 

The line crosses the valley of the Loing by a viaduct of 30 
arches. Stat. St. Mammes ; then Montereau (Grand Monarque), 
picturesquely situated at the confluence of the Seine and Yonne. 
(Branch line to Flamboin, a station on the Paris and Troyes line.) 

The train ascends the broad and well cultivated valley of the 
Yonne. Stat. Villeneuve-la-Ouiard, Pont-sur-Yonne. Sens (Hotel 
de I' Ecu), the ancient capital of the Senones, who under Brennus 
plundered Rome (B.C. 390), the Agedincum of the Romans, is a 
quiet and clean town with 11,000 inhab. The early Gothic *Ca- 
thedral (St. Etienne) dates from the 12th cent. ; magnificent S. 
Portal in the Flamboyant style. The episcopal vestments and other 
relics of Thomas a Becket, who sought an asylum at Sens in 1164, 
are shown. 

Next stations Villeneuve-sur- Yonne, St. Julien du Sault, Cezy. 
Joigny (Due de Bourgogne), the Jooiniacum of the Romans, is a 
picturesque and ancient town (6000 inhab.) on the Yonne. Next 
stat. La Roche. 

From La Roche by a branch line in 52 min. to Auxerre (Mitel du 
Leopard), capital (13,000 inhab.) of the Department of the Yonne, possess- 
ing several good churches, especially the late Gothic cathedral. Chablis, 
well known for its wines, lies between Auxerre and Tonnerre (see below), 
13' la M. to the E. of the former. 

Near La Roche the line crosses the Yonne , into which the Ar- 
mancon here empties itself, and follows the latter river and the 
Canal de Bourgogne, which connects the Seine and Saone. 

About 6 M. from St. Florentin is the Cistercian Abbey of Pon- 
tigny, where Thomas a P.ecket passed two years of his exile. 
Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, banished by John, and other 
English prelates have also sought a retreat within its walls. 

Tonnerre (Lion a" Or ; "Rail. Restaurant), picturesquely situ- 
ated on the Armancon, a town with o000 inhab., possesses a monu- 
ment to the minister Louvois (d. 1(391 J. The church of St. Pierre, 
on an eminence above the town, commands a pleasing prospect. 

Stat. Tunlay boasts of a fine chateau in the Renaissance style, 
founded by the brother of Admiral Coligny, the chief victim of St. 
Bartholomew's Night, who with the Prince de Conde and other 
Huguenot leaders held meetings in one of the apartments. Then 
a tunnel, 540 yds. in length; bridge over the Armancon ; tunnel 
1020 yds. long; and the canal and Armancon are again crossed. 
From stat. Suits-sous- liavi'tre a branch-line runs to Chatillon-sur- 
Seine and Chaumont. Montbard, birthplace (1707) of Buffon, the 
great naturalist (d. at Paris in 1788), contains his chateau and a 
monument to his memory. 

Beyond stat. Blaisy- Bus the line penetrates the watershed 
( 1324 ft.), between the Seine and the Rhone by a long tunnel 

to Nice. DIJON. 1. Route. 3 

(2^2 M.). Hence to Dijon a succession of viaducts, cuttings, and 
tunnels. Beyond stat. Malain, with its ruined chateau , the line 
enters the picturesque valley of the Ouche, bounded on the r. by the 
slopes of the Cote d'Or. 

Dijon (Hotel de la Cloche ; du Pakc ; *du Jura , near the station, 
R. 2, D. 3'|2, B. 1, A. 1 J2 fr. ; de la Galere , de Bourgogne, do > t ord, 
de Geneve, the last four of the second class. Rail. Restaurant; *Cafi ad- 
joining the theatre. Brasserie Alsacienne, Place St. Btienne, opposite the 
theatre), with 39,000 inhab. , the ancient capital of the Duchy of 
Burgundy, is now that of the De'partement de la Cote d'Or. For 
four centuries and a half, from 1015 to the death of Charles the 
Bold'in 1477, this was the residence of the Dukes of Burgundy. 
The monuments of that period impart an additional interest to this 
pleasant and cheerful town. 

The Rue Guillaume leads from the station to the centre of the 
town , where the *Palais des Etats, the ancient residence of the 
Dukes , is situated. After various vicissitudes the edifice was re- 
modelled during the last century and converted into an Hotel de 
Ville. It contains the Museum (principal court to the r. in the 
Place d'Armes ; admission gratis on Sundays and holidays 12 — 3 
o'clock, at other times for a fee of 1 fr.), with collections of engra- 
vings, statues, casts, antique vases, and smaller antiquities. 

The *Salle des Gardes, formerly the Burgundian banqueting hall, 
contains a handsome old chimney-piece ; *three altar-cabinets with beautiful 
wood-carving (14th cent.); the *Monument of Jean sans Peur and his con- 
sort Margaret, dating from 1444, with their statues and lions at their feet ; 
still finer the *Monument of Philip the Bold, date 1390, with frieze 
adorned with 40 statuettes of celebrated contemporaries. Both these mo- 
numents were destroyed during the Revolution, but restored in 1827. 

The Picture Gallery contains about 500 works, most of them me- 
diocre : 434. Portrait of Charles the Bold , master unknown ; 291. Mem- 
lingil), Adoration of the Shepherds; 61. Gagneraux , Conde's passage of 
the Rhine; 318, 319. Rubens, Sketches; 159. Prudhon, Portrait; 399. P. Ve- 
ronese, Finding of Moses; 410. Copy of Raphael's School of Athens; 147. 
Nattier, Portrait of Maria Lesczinska; 31. Coypel , Sacrifice of Jephtha; 
373. DomenichinoQ), St. Jerome; 367. Bassano, The Disciples at Emmaus; 
306. Meulen, Siege of Besancon, 1674 ; 24. Colson. Sleeping girl ; 265. Cham- 
paigne, Presentation in the Temple. 

The adjacent second court contains the Musee Archeologique (fee 
50 c). 1st Room: Ancient and mediaeval bronzes, weapons, keys, car- 
ronades, etc. — 2nd R. : Mediaeval sculptures and tombstones. — 3rd R. : 
Ancient sculptures and tombstones from the Castrum Divionense (the Ro- 
man Dijon), milestones, remains of an ancient boat found in the Loire in 
1859 , etc. — The concierge also shows the spacious kitchen of the 
Dukes , erected in 1445. The doors belong to the period of the original 

Farther E. is the church of St. Michael, with a facade in which 
the Gothic and Renaissance styles are strangely combined, conse- 
crated in 1529. — *Notre Dame (N. of the Palais), consecrated in 
1445, possessing a peculiar unfinished portico of the 13th cent., 
is more purely Gothic. — The' principal church is *St. Benigne 
(S. of the Porte Guillaume), which has undergone frequent resto- 
ration, with a portal of the 10th cent. In the vicinity are St. 


4 Route 1. MACON. From Paris 

Philibert, of the 12th cent., and .St. Jean, consecrated in 1458, the 
latter now disfigured by modern paintings. 

The (fistic (N. of the Porte Guillauine), now in a half-ruined 
condition, was erected by Louis XI. (in 1478 — 1512), after the 
union of Burgundy with France. It was subsequently employed 
as a state-prison. — Pursuing the same direction round the town 
we next reach the bronze Statue of St. Bernhardt (born in 1091 
at Fontaine lez Dijon), erected in 1847; round the pedestal are 
celebrated contemporaries. 

The town contains a number of picturesque buildings of the 
Renaissance period , chiefly interesting to architects. The old 
ramparts have been converted into promenades. 

The line to .Macon crosses the Ouche and the Canal de Bouryoane 
(p. 2), and skirts the base of the sunny vineyards of the Cote d'Or, 
which extend almost the whole way from Dijon to Chalon and 
produce the choicest qualities of the Burgundy wines ( Chambertin, 
Vougcot, Romance, Tache, Nuits. Beaune, etc.). To the r. of stat. 
Coryoloin is the village of Aloxe , another well-known wine- 
producing place (Gorton. Charlemagne, (TosduRoi). Stat. Beaune, 
with 11,000 inhab., on the Bouzoise. contains several Gothic edi- 
fices and a monument to the mathematician JMonge , who was born 
here in 1747 (d. 1818). 

Stat. Meursault. From stat. Chagny a branch-line diverges by 
Le Crettzot to Xevers. The line passes under the Canal du Centre, 
which connects the Saone and the Loire, by means of a tunnel, 
intersects the Col de Chagny, and enters the valley of the Thalie. 
Stat. Fontaines. 

Chalon-sur-Saone (Trois Fa/sans ; Hotel du Checreuil; Hotel 
de I' Europe), with 19,000 inhab.. the Cahillonum of the Romans, 
is situated at the junction of the Canal du Centre with the Saone, 
which is here navigate:! by steamboats (to Lyons in 5 — (5 hrs.). 
The town contains little to detain the traveller. The early Gothic 
Cathedral, recently restored, exhibits the transition to that style 
from the Romanesque. (The express trains do not touch Chalon, 
the branch line to which diverges from the junction St. Come.) 

The line follows the r. bank of the Saone; to the 1. in the dis- 
tance the Jura is visible ; to the r. in clear weather the snowy 
summit o*' Mont lilane, 150 M. distant. Stat. Tournus (5500 inhab.) 
possesses a fine abbey-church (St. Phiiibert). 

Macon (Hotels <les Ktranyers, des Champs Elysees, de I' Europe; 
Hail. Restaurant), capital of the Department of the Saone and the 
Loire, with IS. 000 inhab., is another great focus of the wine-trade. 
The remains of the early Romanesque cathedral of St. Vincent are 
interesting to architects. 

The line continues to follow the r. bank of the Saone. Scenery 
pleasing. The stations between Macon and Lyons, thirteen in 
number, present little to interest the traveller. 

to Nhe. BESANQON. /. Route. 5 

Lyons, see p. 6. 

From Stiiassbtiko (Bale) to Lyons by Miilhavsen , and Bourg, the 
most, direct route between the S.W. of Germany and S. France. [Rail- 
way from Strassburg to Miilhausen in 2'fa hrs.; fares 8 fr. 90, 5 fr. 20, 
3 fr. ; from Bale to Miilhausen in 1 hr. , fares 2 fr. 60, 1 fr. 50. 85 c; 
from Miilhausen to Lyons in 12>| z hrs., fares 42 fr. 80, 32 fr. 10, 23 fr. 
50 c.]. Miilhausen is the junction of the Bale - Strassburg and the Bale 
Paris lines. The first, station of importance (French custom-house) is 
Belfort (8000 inhab.), a fortress on the Savoureuse, erected by Vauban 
under Louis XIV., and taken by the Germans after a protracted siege 
in Feb., 1871. The* train now traverses a picturesque, undulating district ; 
to the 1. rise the spurs of the Jura. Stat. lUricourt, where several en- 
gagements took place between Gen. Werder's army and the French under 
Bourbaki in Jan. 1871; then Montbdiard, which belonged to the German 
Empire down to 1793. Beyond stat. Voujacourt the line follows the course 
of the Doubs , which it crosses several times. Then stat. Ulsle-sur-lc- 
Doubs, beyond which several tunnels are passed through. Several unim- 
portant stations; then 

Besancon (*H0tel du Xord, Rue Moncey, R. l'ls, D. 3, A. 'lafr., omni- 
bus to the station 60 c; Paris; Europe), the ancient Vesontio, capital of 
the Sequani, a town of the German Empire down to 1654, but in 1674 con- 
quered by Louis XIV. and united with France. It is now the capital of 
Franche Comte, with 46,000 inhab. Its peculiar situation in a wide basin, 
on the Doubs, which Hows round the town and once rendered it an im- 
portant military point, is described by Csesar (De Bell. Gall. I. 38). 

The substantial, old-fashioned architecture of the town is interesting. 
and modern innovations are comparatively rare. One of the finest struc- 
tures of the 16th cent, is the HOtel de Ville in the Place St. Pierre, bearing 
the civic motto: Deo et Caesari fidelis perpetuo. 

The *Mu8kum is established in a modern building in the Place de 
1 Abondance (admission on Sundays 1 — 4 o^cl. gratis, at other timrs by 
payment of a fee). The vestibule and the staircases are adorned with 
Roman inscriptions and antiquities. The principal saloon contains pic- 
tures: 1. *92. A. Dilrer, Christ on the Cross, at the foot of which is the 
Mater Dolorosa, surrounded by 6 medallions representing the principal 
scenes from the life of Christ, on the wings prophets; r. 116. Oaetano, 
Portrait on copper of Cardinal Granvella (born at Besancon 1517, minister 
of Philip II. in the Xetherlands , viceroy of Naples and president of the 
privy council of Spain, d. at Madrid in 1586); *46. Bronzino, Descent from 
the Cross; r. 157. Key , Count Palatine Frederick III.; r. 183. Girl with 
a dove, painted by the Empress Marie Louise. — The other saloons con- 
tain casts and antiquities, weapons and implements of the Celtic and 
Roman periods found in the neighbourhood, etc. — The Library (open to 
the public on Mond., Wed. and Sat. 12 — 5 o'clock), founded in 1694 by 
Boisot, contains 100,000 vols., about. 1800 MSS., a collection of coins, etc. 

In the principal street, the Orande Sue, which ascends from the Pont 
de la Madeleine to the citadel, is situated the Palais Granvelle , a hand- 
some structure in the Renaissance style (1530 — 40). Farther on is the 
''Porte Noire, a triumphal arch of the late Roman period, of very grace- 
ful proportions and adorned with sculptures and reliefs, most of which 
are almost obliterated. The date of its erection is unknown. The r. side 
has been restored. We next reach the 

*Cathedhal op St. Jean, dating from several different epochs, restored 
for the last time during the last century. The 1st chapel on the r. near 
the entrance (W.) contains the monument of the archdeacon Ferrico Ca- 
rondelet (d. 1528) ; above it the Death of Sapphira , by Seb. del Piombo. 
In the chapel on the 1. the *Virgin surrounded by angels with SS. Se- 
bastian, John, Dominicus, and the two donors of the picture, by Fra 
Bartolommeo , in admirable preservation, but unfortunately not favour- 
ably hung. 

The street ascends hence to the Citadel, constructed by Vauban (per- 
mission to visit it must be obtained from the commandant in the town). 

6 Route 1. LYONS. From Paris 

The summit commands an admirable view. At the base of the citadel 
(8 min. walk from the Porte de Rivotte) , on the river , is situated the 
Porte TailUe, originally appertaining to a Roman aqueduct, subsequently 
widened so as to form a gateway. 

Beyond Besaneon the line crosses to the r. bank of the Doubs, inter- 
sects the Dijon and Neuchatel line, passes three small stations and 
reaches slat. Lons-le- Saulnier, chief town of the Department of the 
Jura , with 9800 inhab., and celebrated saline springs in the vicinity. 
Beyond it the Chateau Montmorot, birthplace of GeneralLecourbe. 

Stat. St. Amour. The line then crosses the rivers Solman and Sevron. 
Stat. St. Etienne du Bois, pleasantly situated; then 

Bourg (p. 29); scenery thence to Lyons uninteresting. 

Fbom Geneva to Lyons railway in 5 3 |4 hrs. (fares 18 fr. 80, 14 fr. 10, 
10 fr. 35 c). From Geneva to Amberieux , pee p. 29. The Lyons line 
here diverges from that to Macon and proceeds towards the S.W. Pic- 
turesque district, presenting a. series of pleasing landscapes. Beyond stat. 
Ley-merit the line crosses the Am, commanding a beautiful glimpse of the 
valley of that stream. Then .several unimpiirtant places. Near Lyons 
the line intersects the suburbs of La Croix Rousse and La Guillotiere, and 
soon reaches the extensive station Cat Lyon-Perrache). 

Lyons. Hotels. *Geaxd Hmtkl de Lton (PL a), Rue Impe'riale, in 
the Parisian style, with restaurant, cafe, etc., R. 3, B. ii| 2 , A. 1 fr. ; 
*Gi;and Hotel Collet (PL b) , Rue Impe'riale 60; + Hotel de l'Eubope 
(PL c), Place Louis Ie Grand, R. 3, D. 4, L. and A. l'j 2 fr. ; these three 
hotels are of (he highest class. Grand Hotel des Beaux Arts (PL d) ; 
*Hotel des Negooiants (PL e) ; +H6tel dc Havee et du Luxembourg 
(PL O, Rue St. Dominique 3, R. 2i; 2 , L. 75 c. , 1). 3i| 2 , A. t fr. ; Beau- 
quis (PL g), Place Louis le Grand; Hotel Michel (PL h), Hotel d'An- 
gletekee et des Deux Moxdes (PL i), Hotel de l Lniveks (PL n), these 
three in the Cours Napoleon near the Perrache station ; Hotel de Milan 
(PL k) ; De la Bombarde (PL 1); Ecu de France (PL m) ; Hotel de 
France, Rue de TArbre Sec, near the Museum, R. 2, 1). 3 fr. — Cafes: 
du Rhdhe, de la Jeune France, Rue du Perra; Phenix, Place Imperiale. — 

Restaurants: Jfaison Dorie, Place Bellecour; Bavout, Place de la Pre- 
fecture, etc. — Brasserie Alsacienne , a large establishment in the Cours 
Napoleon, near the station. 

Fiacres (two-horse carr. of the Compagnie des Petifs Maitres) per drive 
1 fr. 25 c, 1st hour 1 fr. 50, each following hour 1 fr. 25, luggage free 
(from midnight (o 7 a. m. per drive 1 fr. 65, per hour 2 fr. 50 c. ; out- 
side the town per hour 2 fr. ; vehicles of other companies more expen- 
sive). — Omnibus from the station to the town 50, with luggage 75 c. ; 
hiitel-omnibus 1— 1'| 2 fr. 

Booksellers: H. Georg, Rue cle Lyon 65; Ch. Mera , Rue Imperiale 
15. — Post Office, Place Louis le Grand (open from 7 a. m. to 8 p. m.). 
— Bains du Rlidne, Rue du Perra. — English Church Service, resident 

Railway Stations. The Gare de Perrache (PI, H, 4, 5) is the principal 
station, where all the trains arrive and depart. The Paris trains also 
stop at the Gare de Yaise (PL B, 6), reached in 8 min. from the central 
station; and the Geneva trains at the Gare des Broteaux (PL I), 1). 19 — 24 
min. from the central station. 

Lyons, the ancient Lugdunum, which after the time of Augustus 
gave its name to one-third part of Gaul, is now the second city, and 
the most important manufacturing place in France , with 324.000 
inhab., silk being its great staple commodity. Lyons is an archie- 
piscopal see. As an episcopal residence it is mentioned at a very 
early period. The first bishop St. Potinus is said to have suffered 

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to Nice. LYONS. 1. Route. 7 

martyrdom in 177, during a fearful persecution of the Christians 
tinder Marcus Aurelius, -which raged here , as well as at Vienne 
and Autun. 

The situation of the city at the confluence of the Rhone and 
Saone is imposing. The Saone is crossed by ten, the Rhone by 
seven bridges. The construction of the Pont de la OuiUotiere, the 
most ancient of the latter, is erroneously attributed to Pope Inno- 
cent IV. (1190). 

Lyons is one of the best built towns in France. Great altera- 
tions have taken place within the last 50 years, so that the general 
aspect of the city is modern. It consists of three distinct por- 
tions , the original town on the tongue of land between the Rhone 
and Saone , the suburbs of Les Broteaux and La OuiUotiere on 
the 1. bank of the Rhone, and the suburb of Vaise on the r. bank 
of the Saone. 

The city is guarded byjeighteen forts, which form a spacious 
circle of nearly 12 M., extending from Ste. Foy and Fourvieres and 
the heights above the suburb of La Croix Rousse (connected with 
the city by means of a railway on an inclined plane, fares 15 and 
10 c.) to Les Broteaux and La OuiUotiere. 

The beauty of the situation and the extent of the city are best 
appreciated when viewed from the **Height of Fourvieres, crowned 
by its conspicuous church , to which a number of different ways 
lead. The direct route is between the handsome modern Palais de 
Justice (PI. 67) and the cathedral, through narrow and steep 
streets, passing the hospital of Les Antiquailles , which occupies the 
site of the ancient Roman palace where Claudius and Caligula were 
born. We now continue to follow the main street, or proceed to 
the r. by the '■Passage Abrege' (5 c), leading past gardens, vine- 
yards, and a number of fragments of Roman masonry, with ex- 
planations attached to them , which however are not to be im- 
plicitly trusted. This footpath leads to the Observatoire on the 
summit , not far distant from the church of Notre Dame de Four- 
vieres (PI. 25), which contains a highly revered 'miraculous' image 
of the Virgin (visited by upwards of l 1 ^ million pilgrims annually) 
and numerous votive tablets. The church is a modern structure, 
surmounted by a gilded statue of the Madonna. The terrace ad- 
joining it commands a noble prospect, which is still more extensive 
from the tower (25 c). A more picturesque view, however, is en- 
joyed from the so-called ' Observatoire' already mentioned, a small 
wooden tower in the vicinity, the route to which is indicated by 
sign -posts (adm. i/ 2 &• ; caI "e adjacent). At the feet of the 
spectator lie the imposing city with its environs, the two rivers and 
their bridges, and the well cultivated district in the neighbourhood; 
to the E. in fine weather Mont Blanc, 85 M. distant, is sometimes 
visible; farther S. the Alps of Dauphine', the Mts. of the Grande 
Chartreuse and Mont Pilat, and to the W. the Mts. of Auvergne. 

8 Route 1. LYONS. From Paris 

The Cathedral of St. Jean Baptiste (PI. 41) on the r. bank of 
the Saone, adjoining the Palais de Justice, a structure of the 13th 
cent., possesses several remarkable features, a fine central tower, 
stained glass windows , and a curious and complicated clock of 
150S, resembling that of Strassburg. The Bourbon chapel (1st on 
the r.J, erected by Cardinal Bourbon and his brother Pierre de 
Bourbon, son-in-law of Louis XL, contains some fine sculptures. 

On the 1. bank of the Saone, about '/2 M- lower down, is si- 
tuated the church of the Abbey d'Ainay (PI. 24), one of the oldest 
in France, dating from the 10th cent., the vaulting of which is 
borne by four antique columns of granite. Its Latin name was 
Athenaeum , supposed to be derived from the fact that Caligula 
once founded an Athenaeum , or school of rhetoric, here. Beneath 
the sacristy are the former dungeons. 

In the Place des Terreaux (PI. 3), in which the Hotel de Ville 
and the Museum are situated, Richelieu caused the youthful Mar- 
quis de Cinq-Mars , who for a brief period was the favourite of 
Louis XIII. , and his partisan de Thou to be executed as traitors, 
12th Sept., 1(342. Numerous victims perished here by the guil- 
lotine in 1794, until the more wholesale system of drowning and 
shooting was introduced. In the Hotel de Ville (PI. G2), a hand- 
some edifice of the 17th cent. (1647 — 55), the revolutionary Tri- 
bunal, under the presidency of Collot d'Herbois, held its meetings. 
This miscreant, who had previously been an actor, and whose per- 
formances had been hissed at Lyons, availed himself of this oppor- 
tunity to wreak his revenge on the unfortunate citizens. He was 
subsequently banished to Cayenne, where he died in 1796. In the 
Avenue des Martyrs (in the quarter Les Broteaux) a chapel has 
been erected to the memory of 2100 victims of the Revolution who 
perished here. 

Within the Palais des Beaux Arts, or Museum (PL 69 ; admis- 
sion gratis, daily 9 — 3), under the arcades of the spacious court, 
are some remarkable Roman antiquities , a taurobolium (sacrifice 
of oxen), altars, inscriptions, sculptures, etc. 

The Picture Gallery is on the first, floor. Salle des Anciens Maitres : 
in the centre four Roman mosaics, representing Orpheus, Cupid and Pan, 
and the games of the circus. Among the pictures may be mentioned: 
J. 54. Charlet , Episode from the Russian campaign; 171. Ann. Caracci, 
Portrait of a priest; 102. lleem , Breakfast; 9. Lesueur , Martyrdom of 
SS. Gervasius and Protasius; 82. Rubens, Intercession of the saints with 
Christ; 108. School of Rembrandt, Martyrdom of St. Stephen; 151. Greenen- 
braeck, View of Paris in 1741; 115. Terburg, The Message; 210. Ryckaert, 
The miser; 164. Bordone, Titian's mistress; 178. Carletlo Veronese, Queen 
of Cyprus; 46. Gerard, Corinna; 89 — 92. Breughel, The four elements; 
117. Tenters junr., Liberation of St. Peter; 80. Moreeleze , Portrait; 257. 
Sussoferrato, Madonna. — On the r. (beginning again from the entrance door): 
140. Schalken , The smokers; -169. Raima Giovine , Scourging of Christ; 
112. Quellijn, St. Jerome; 105. Ph. de. Champaiijne, Finding of the relics of 
Sb. Gervasius and Protasius; *J5G. Pietro Perugino, Ascension, one of this 
master's finest works, painted in 1495 Yor the cathedral of Perugia, and 
carried off by the French; it was reclaimed in 1815, but presented to 

to Nice. LYONS. 1. Route. 9 

Lyons by Pope Pius VII.; 160. Seb. del Piombo , Repose of Christ; 21. 
Jouvenet, Christ expelling the money - changers ; 99. Van Dyck , Studies : 
*186. Ouercino, Circumcision; 155. Perugino, SS. James and Gregory; *73. 
Dilrer, Madonna and the Child, bestowing bouquets of roses on the Emp. 
Maximilian and his consort, a celebrated picture containing numerous 
figures, painted by the master at Venice in 1506 , originally preserved in 
the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, brought to Paris by Napoleon I. and 
presented to Lyons; 83. Rubens, Adoration of the Magi; 197. ZurbaranQ), 
Corpse of St. Francis; 161. A. del Sarto, Abraham's sacrifice. — One 
storey higher is the Gallbkik dks Peintkes Ltonnais : Bonne/onds , Por- 
trait of Jacquard, inventor of the improved loom, born at Lyons in 1752, 
died 1834; also busts of the celebrated Lyonnese Philibert Delorme (d. 
at Paris 1577), the botanist Bernard Jussieu (1699—1776), Marshal Su- 
chtt, etc. 

The Musee Archeologique, also on the first floor, contains in the en- 
trance room to the 1. the *brazen tablet? (found in 1528) with the speech 
delivered by the Emperor Claudius before the Senate at Rome in the yeai 
48, in defence of the measure of bestowing citizenship on the Gauls; 
in the central saloon antique and mediseval bronzes , coins , and various 
curiosities; among them a treasure found in 1841 on the height of Four- 
vieres , comprising necklaces , bracelets and other trinkets , and coins, 
buried during the Roman period. Life-size statue of Neptune in bronze, 
Head of Juno in bronze, both found in the Rhone. Gallic weapons, vases 
from Athens, etc. — There is also a Mmie d'Mstoire Maturelle here, con- 
taining zoological and mineralogical collections. — Finally a Library. 

The second floor of the Palais du Commerce et de la Bourse 
contains the Musee d'Art et d' Industrie, founded in 1858 ; the spe- 
cimens in illustration of the silk-culture are particularly instructive 
(admission daily, 11 — 5). 

The Civic Library (PI. 6), possessing 150,000 vols, and 2400 
MSS., is situated on the bank of the Rhone. In the vicinity rises 
the bronze Statue of Marshal Suchet (born at Lyons 1770, d. 1826), 
'Due d'Albufera', who once served as a merchant's apprentice in 
the adjacent house. 

Two magnificent new streets lead from the Hotel de Ville to 
the *Place Louis le Qrand,, or Bellecour (PL K, 3), one of the most 
spacious squares in Europe, which was destroyed during the Revo- 
lution in 1794, but subsequently restored, and adorned with a 
Statue of Louis XIV. in 1825. 

The Place Napolion (PL F, 4) is adorned with an Equestrian 
Statue of Napoleon I. in bronze, erected in 1822. Adjoining the 
E. side of this Place is the broad Cours Napoleon , where the 
railway station La Perrache is situated, planted with trees, and lying 
between the Rhone and Saone. The Places Louis le Grand and Napo- 
leon, and the streets connecting them (Rue de Bourbon, etc.), are the 
most aristocratic quarter of Lyons. Beyond the station, and occupy- 
ing the point of the tongue of land between the rivers, is the suburb 
Perrache, named after its founder (1770), and still rapidly increasing. 

The traveller may proceed as far as the confluence of the Rhone 
and Saone (l'J4 M. from the railway-station Perrache ; omnibus from the 
Place de la Charity to the Pont de Mulatiere 25 c), where the rivers are 
separated by a breakwater. The different characters of the two streams 
are here distinctly observable. The Rhone, a genuine mountain-river, is 
clear and rapid, whilst the current of the sluggish snd muddy Saone is 
scarcely perceptible. Steamboats ply on both rivers. 

10 Route 1. VIENNE. From Paris 

Steamboats start near the Place Xapole'on: to Avignon every morning 
in 7—10 hrs. , to Aries in 13 hrs. (fares 30, 20, 10 fr.). Stations Vienne, 
Tournon, Vale/ice, Avignon, Beaucaire, Aries. If time permits, the steam- 
boat-journey will be found pleasanter than the railway. The former dis- 
tantly resembles a trip on the Rhine, but the scenery of the Rhone is 
less striking, and the steamers ('papins') far inferior. 

The Jardin des Plantes at the Croix Rousse has since the con- 
struction of the railway been converted into a square (near it is 
the Place Sathonay with the bronze Statue of Jacquard by Foyatier), 
and is superseded by the *Parc de la Tete d'Or, on the 1. bank of 
the Rhone, at the N. end of the Quai d' Albert (1 M. from tbe Place 
des Terreaux), containing" rare plants, hothouses, and pleasure- 
grounds in the style of the Bois de Boulogne at Paris. 

The Railway to Marseilles (station, see p. (3) crosses the Rhone, 
affording a glimpse of the imposing city , passes La Guillotiere 
(p. 7), and traverses an attractive district surrounded by moun- 
tains. Stations Saint-Fons, Feysin with a handsome chateau on 
the Rhone, Serezin. Chaste, and Estressin. 

Vienne {* Hotel Ombry, R, lf/ 2 — 2fr. ; du Nord ; Table Ronde, 
R. 2, J). 3, A. 1 fr. ), the Vienna Allobrogum of the ancients, with 
24,800 inhab.. lies on the 1. bank of the Rhone, at the influx of 
the Gere. Several interesting mementoes of its former greatness are 
still extant. The so-called *Temple of Augustus, of the Corinthian 
order (88ft. long, 49 ft. wide, 56ft. high), with 16 columns, and 
hexastyle portico, is approached from the ancient forum by twelve 
steps , in the middle of which stands an altar. The edifice was 
used in the middle ages as a church and seriously disfigured, but 
has been restored as nearly as possible to its original condition. It 
formerly contained a .Museum of Roman antiquities which has been 
temporarily removed to the Hotel de Ville and will eventually be 
transferred to *St. Pierre, an ancient basilica of the 6th cent., 
disfigured during last century , but now undergoing restoration. 
Intending visitors to the temple and church should apply to the 
architect M. Quonin, Place St. Maurice 9. The works now in pro- 
gress will probably not be completed for several years. — The 
*Catliedral of St. Maurice (between the temple and the bridge 
across the Rhone), begun at the close of the 11th cent., but not 
completed till 1515, possesses a fine facade of the transition 
period. The interior is the most ancient part of the edifice. — On 
the high road, L / 4 M. S. of the town, stands an archway surmounted 
by an obelisk termed the *Plan de £' Aiguille, which once served as 
the meta (goal) of a circus. The visitor should return hence to 
the town by the river. — The ancient remains on Mont Pipet are 

Vienne is not visible from the railway, which passes under 
part of the town by a tunnel. Immediately beyond the town 
rises the Plan de 1' Aiguille , mentioned above. The banks of the 

to Nice. VALENCE.- 1. Route. 11 

Rhone rise in gentle slopes, planted 'with vines and fruit-trees. On 
the r. bank , at some distance from the river, towers Mont Pilat 
(3750 ft.), a picturesque group of mountains, at the base of which 
lie the celebrated vineyards of La Cote Rotie. The line continues 
to follow the course of the Rhone , at some distance from the river. 
Several small stations, then St. Rambert (branch-line to Grenoble, 
p. 30). Ruined castles and ancient watch-towers are occasionally 
seen on the adjacent heights. Beyond stat. St. Vallier rises the 
Chateau de Vals, rfear which is the Roche Taillee. Farther on are 
the pinnacles of the Chateau de Ponsas , where Pontius Pilate is 
said to have resided during his exile. 

Stat. Serves ; then Tain, where the valley of the Rhone con- 
tracts ; on the 1. rises the extensive vineyard of Ermitage , where 
the well known wine of that name is produced. In the distance to 
the 1. the indented spurs of the Alps are conspicuous, above which 
in clear weather the gigantic Mont Blanc is visible. Tain is con- 
nected by means of a suspension-bridge with Tournon, on the op- 
posite bank, a small town with picturesque old castles of the Counts 
of Tournon and Dukes of Soubise. 

On the 1. a view is now disclosed of the broad valley of the 
hire (ascending towards the Little St. Bernard), on which Grenoble, 
the ancient Cularo, subsequently Oratianopolis, capital of the De- 
partment of the Isere, is situated. In September, B. C. 218, Han- 
nibal ascended this valley with his army, crossed the Little St. 
Bernard and the Alps within 15 days, and during the same autumn 
gained the signal victories of the Ticinus and the Trebia. Stat. 

The train crosses the Isere and commands a view of the snowy 
summits of Mont Blanc to the 1. To the r. lies St. Peray with its 
far-famed vineyards , on the limestone pinnacles beyond which 
stand the ruins of the Chateau de Crussol , once the seat of the 
Cruesol family, Dukes of Uzes. Then, on the opposite bank, 

Valence (Lion <T Or; Tete d'Or, both unpretending; *Cafe 
Armand), the Valentia of the ancients , once the capital of the 
Duchy of Valentinois , with which the infamous Csesar Borgia was 
invested by Louis XII. It is now the chief town . with 20,000 
inhab. , of the Department of the Drome. The situation is pictu- 
resque, but there is little else to arrest the traveller's attention. 
The principal curiosities are a few antiquated houses, e. g. that of 
the Mistral family, termed Le Pendentif, near the cathedral, date 
1548; another in the Grande Rue, near the Place aux Clercs, with 
quaint decorations in the style of the 16th cent. On the ground- 
floor of No. 4 in the same street Napoleon once lodged when a sous- 
lieutenant of artillery. On 29th Aug., 1799, Pope Pius VI. died 
in captivity at Valence. His bust with a basrelief by Canova is 
preserved in the old Romanesque cathedral. The Museum, with 
collections of art and natural history , is insignificant. On the 

12 Route 1. ORANGE. From Paris 

Rhone-promenade stands the monument of General Championnet 
(d. 1800), the conqueror of Naples, who was a native of Valence. 
The town is connected with the r. bank by a suspension-bridge. 
Branch line hence to Grenoble (see p. 30) in 37a hrs. 

On the height above St. Peray rises the Chateau de Beauregard, 
erected, it is said, by Vauban in the form of a mimic fortress, now 
converted into a vast depot for the highly esteemed produce of the 
neighbouring vineyards, the reputation of which is hardly inferior 
to that of Champagne itself. Stat. L'Etoile is picturesquely si- 
tuated on the hill. Then Stat. Livron, where a branch line di- 
verges to the r. to Prioas. A little farther the influx of the 
Drome is observed on the 1. ; the line crosses this river at stat. 
Loriol and again approaches the Rhone. 

Stat. Montelimart. The ancient castle of the once celebrated 
Monteil d'Adhemar family rises on an eminence from the midst 
of mulberry-trees. The line here quits the Rhone ; the plain on 
the r. expands. The silk-culture has been successfully prosecuted 
in this district since the campaign of Charles VIII. against Italy 
in 1494. 

About 12 31. to the S. E. is situated the C/idtean de Grignan, once the 
seat of the son-in-law of Madame de Sivigni, burned down during the Re- 
volution. The window at which the illustrious letter-writer is ,<;aid to 
have sat is still shown. Mad. de Sevigne died jhere in 1696 in her 70th 
year, and was interred in the neighbouring church. 

On the r. bank , farther on , lies the episcopal residence of 
Viviers, once the capital of the Vivarais, with a conspicuous eccle- 
siastical seminary. The railway runs to the 1. in the plain, by Chii- 
teauneuf, Donzeres, and Pierrelatte ; opposite the latter is lioury SI. 
Andeol, with a handsome suspension-bridge. Next stat. La Palud ; 
then La Croisi'ere , which is also the station for Pont St. Esprit on 
the r. bank ; the long stone bridge of the latter, with 2(> arches, 
was constructed in 121)5—1310. To the S.E. towers the majestie 
Mont Ventoux ((1824 ft.). Stations Mondraaon, Alornas, Piolenc, 
and, 3 M. from the Rhone, the small town of 

Orange {* Hotel des Princes , or Poste, R. 2, B. 1, D. 3, A. 3 / 4 fr.), 
the Arausio of the Romans and once a prosperous and important 
place. In the middle ages it was the capital of a small prin- 
cipality , which , on the death of the last reigning prince without 
issue in 1531, fell to his nephew the Count of Nassau, and 
until the death of William III. (d. 1702), king of England, con- 
tinued subject to the house of Nassau-Orange. By the Peace of 
Utrecht, Orange was annexed to France, and the house of Nassau 
retained the title only of princes of Orange. The antiquarian 
should if possible devote a few hours to the interesting Roman re- 
mains at Orange. On the road to Lyons, 74 M. N. of the town, is 
a *Triumphal Arch, part of which is in good preservation , with 
three archways and twelve columns. The sculptures are sadly 
defaced; their style appears to be that of the latter half of the 

Dmmstaai, Ed .Wa*m. 

to Nice. AVIGNON. 1. Route. 13 

2nd cent., and not that of the time of Marius or Augustus as 
has been conjectured. On the S. side of the town , at the foot of 
an eminence , lies the *Boman Theatre, 118 ft. in height, 338 ft. 
in length , with walls 13 ft. in thickness (the concierge lives on 
the spot, !/i fr-)- The admirably preserved wall of the stage, from 
which an awning used to be stretched, still contains the three 
doors by which the actors entered. The semicircular space for the 
spectators , which rises opposite , is in a much more dilapidated 
condition ; the tier* of seats have almost entirely vanished. The 
acoustic arrangement of the structure is admirable. Words spoken 
in a loud and distinct voice on the stage are perfectly audible on 
the highest tier. Scanty remnants of a Circus adjoin the theatre. 
The height above the theatre , once occupied by the citadel of 
Orange which was destroyed by Louis XIV., affords a good survey 
of the neighbourhood. The promenade is adorned with a statue 
of the Comte de Oasparin (d. 1862). 

Beyond Orange the line traverses a plain, at a considerable 
distance from the Rhone and the mountains , where olives begin 
to indicate the proximity of a warmer climate. Stations Cour- 
the%on and Bedarrides (a corruption of Biturrita, the 'two-towered'). 
Stat. Sorgues lies on the river of that name, which descends from 

From Sorgubs to Carpentras by a branch railway in 3| 4 h r . (fares 
1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 45, 1 fr. 5 c). Carpentras (H6tel Orient; Univers; Ca/i Al- 
cazar, opposite the Palais de Justice), the ancient Carpentoracte, is a ma- 
nufacturing town with 10,918 inhab. The first conspicuous edifice, as the 
town is entered, is the hospital, with a statue of the founder in front. 
Hence in a straight direction to the Palais de Justice, the court of which 
(apply to the concierge) contains a small Roman * Triumphal Arch of the 
3rd cent. A. D. The sculptures on the side represent two barbarians 
bound to a tree, on which trophies are suspended. The frieze and attic 
are wanting. Adjacent is the late Gothic church of St. Siverin, the S. 
portal of which merits notice. The town is encircled by ramparts with 
pleasant promenades, in which (1. from the station) the Museum con- 
taining antiquities and paintings is situated. Jlont Ventoux (p. 12) bounds 
the horizon ( n the E. 

To the 1. on the Rhone is situated Roquemaure, commanded by 
an ancient tower, and supposed to be the locality where Hannibal 
accomplished the passage of the river when marching towards Italy. 
The train now soon affords a view of the papal palace and the 
towers of 

Avignon (*H<jtel de l'Ebrope, PI. a, R. 2, D. 3'|2, L. and A. 1 fr. ; 
Hotel du Luxembourg, PI. b; Louvre, PI. c, all 3 \t M. from the station, 
omnibus 50 c. ; Couhs Napoleom, nearer the station; best Cafes in the Place), 
the Avenio of the Romans. The old city-wall , constructed of 
massive blocks of stone in 1349 — 1368, with numerous gates, 
admirably preserved and affording an interesting example of 
the fortifications of that period , testify to its ancient impor- 
tance. Down to the reign of Louis XIV. it contained 80,000 
inhab. (now 36,000). The town was once a Roman colony, after- 
wards belonged to the Burgundians , then to the Franks , became 

14 Route 1. AVIGNON. From Paris 

capital of the County of Venaisin , lost its independence to 
Louis VIII. in 1226, fell into the hands of Charles of Anjou in 
1290, was the residence of the popes from 1309 to 1377, seven of 
whom, from Clement V. (Bertrand de Goth) to Gregory XL, reign- 
ed here (the latter transferred his seat to Rome in 1377), and con- 
tinued subject to the pontifical sway until it was annexed to France 
by the Revolution in 1791. 

The town lies on the 1. bank of the Rhone , a little above 
the influx of the Durance , and is connected with Villeneuve 
on the opposite bank by a suspension-bridge. It is commanded 
by the abrupt Rocher des Dons (rupes dominorum), 300 ft. in 
height , which is surmounted by the Cathedral of Notre Dame, 
(PL 10), a structure of the 14th cent., recently restored. The 
portico is of considerably earlier origin. The church contains the 
handsome *monument of Pope John XXII. (Euse of Cahors , d. 
1334), and that of Benedict XII. (d. 1342) in the 1. aisle. Imme- 
diately behind the cathedral is La Glaciere , a square tower 
deriving its name from a neighbouring ice-cellar. It once served 
as the prison of the Inquisition , and during the eventful month 
of October, 1791, was the scene of the execution of 63 innocent 

Near the cathedral rises the *Papal Palace (PL 3), now a bar- 
rack, a lofty and gloomy pile, erected by Clement V. and his suc- 
cessors, with huge towers and walls 100 ft. in height. The faded 
frescoes in the Chapelle du St. Office were executed by Simone 
Memmi of Siena (d. 1339). Rienzi was incarcerated here in 1351 
in the Tour des Oubliettes, at the same time as Petrarch was enter- 
tained in the palace as a guest. 

Opposite the palace stands the Ancienne Mairie (PL 2, now 
Conservatoire de Musique), the mint of the papal period. The por- 
tal bears a relief representing flowers, armorial bearings, etc. 

Pleasant grounds have been laid out on the hill near the cathe- 
dral. The best point of view is a rocky eminence in the centre. 
The **prospect, one of the most beautiful in France, embraces the 
course of the Rhone and its banks ; Villeneuve on the opposite bank 
with its citadel and ancient towers ; in the distance towards the 
N. W. the Cevenni'S; N. E. Mont Ventoux ; E. the Durance, re- 
sembling a silver thread, beyond it the Alps; below the spectator 
the tortuous and antiquated streets of Avignon. On the prome- 
nades is a statue to Jean Althen, erected in 1846, out of gratitude 
to him for having introduced the cultivation of madder, which now 
forms the staple commodity of the district (used extensively in 
dyeing the French red military trowsers). 

At the base of the Rocher des Dons lies the Qrande Place, with 
a number of handsome modern edifices. In front of the Theatre 
(PL 36) are statues of Racine and Moliere ; the medallions above 
represent John XXII. and Petrarch. The neighbouring Hotel de 

to Nice. AVIGNON. 1. Route. 15 

Ville (PI. 24) possesses a quaint clock with figures which strike 
the hours. In front of it stands a Statue of Crillon (PI. 34), 
erected in 1858. This hero, a scion of a Piedmontese family who 
settled in France in the 15th cent., distinguished himself at the 
early age of 16 under the Duke of Guise , then under Francis 
of Lorraine, and above all at the siege of Calais. He afterwards 
became a Knight of St. John and an intrepid antagonist of the 
Turks. He died at Avignon in 1615. His motto l Fais ton devoir 1 
is inscribed on the pedestal of his statue. 

In the Rue Calade is situated the *Musee Calvet (PI. 26) (open 
daily, custodian 1 fr.). 

The Ground Floor contains a fine collection of Roman antiquities, 
reliefs, and inscriptions; two monuments, found at Vaison near Orange, 
are especially remarkable for their size and excellent preservation. 

On the First Floor is the Picture Gallery: 80. Lor. di Credi , Ma- 
donna; 101. Eeckhout, Crucifixion; 106. Inn. da Imola , Madonna; three 
small pictures attributed to Holbein. The back of the saloon is exclu- 
sively devoted to works of the Vernet family, natives of Avignon (Joseph, 
the painter of Madonnas, his son Carle, and his celebrated grandson Ho- 
race); Madonnas and sketches by Joseph; a Cossack by Carle; *Mazeppa 
by Horace, in two copies, unfortunately darkened by age. — Also a col- 
lection of ancient and mediaeval coins , statuettes , crystal , lamps , sculp- 
tures of the Renaissance , furniture (a collection of republican assignats), 
cameos, engravings, drawings, a beautiful ivory Crucifix executed in 1869 
by J. Ouillermin, etc. — The Library contains 80,000 vols, and 2000 MSS. 

In the garden at the back of the Museum a monument was 
erected in 1823 by Mr. Charles Kensall to the memory of Petrarch's 
Laura. Her tomb was formerly in the Eglise des Cordeliers, but 
was destroyed with the church during the Revolution. 

In 1326, Francesco Petrarca, then 22 years of age;, visited Avignon, 
and beheld Laura de JVoves, who was in her 18th year, at the church of 
the nunnery of St. Claire. Her beauty impressed the ardent young 
Italian so profoundly, that, although he never received the slightest token 
of regard from the object of his romantic attachment, either before or 
after her marriage, with Hugu^s de Sade , he continued throughout his 
whole lifetime to celebrate her praises in songs and sonnets. In 1334 he 
quitted Avignon for Vaucluse, travelled in France, Germany, and Italy, 
and returned to Avignon in 1342 (with his friend Cola di Rienzi), where 
he found Laura the mother of a numerous family. She died in 1348, 
bowed down by domestic affliction. Petrarch lived till 1374, and long 
after Laura's death dedicated many touching lines to her memory. 

The long and intimate connection of Avignon with Rome, as 
well as its reminiscences of Petrarch , may be said to invest the 
town with an almost Italian character. The whole of Provence in- 
deed recals the scenery of the south more than any other district 
in France. 

Avignon is a very windy place. The prevailing Mistral often blows 
with great violence, and has given rise to the ancient saying : 
Avenio ventosa, 
Sine vento venenosa, 
Cum vento fastidiosa. 
The Fountains of Vaucluse may easily be visited in the course of 
an afternoon with the aid of the Avignon -Cavaillon branch -railway. 
After several unimportant stations , the train reaches L'Isle sur Sorgue 
(in 1— li| 2 hr. ; fares 2 fr. 70, 2 fr. , 1 fr. 50 c). Thence drive or walk 

16 Route 1. TARASCON. From Paris 

up the valley of the Sorgue, following its sinuosities towards Mont Ven- 
toux, to the (3 M.) village of Vavclvie (Hotel do Laure). A footpath 
leads hence in ^-t hr. into the Vavclnse ravine, a rocky gorge, above 
which the mined castle of the Bishops of Cavaillon rises on the r. At 
its extremity the sources of the Sorgue emerge from a profound grotto, 
at one time in precipitate haste, at another in gentle ripples. This spot 
is mentioned by Petrarch in his 14th Canzone, 'Chiare, fresche e dolci 

Shortly after quitting Avignon the line crosses the broad bed 
of the often impetuous and turgid Durance, the Roman Druentia, 
which descends from the Cottian Alps to the Rhone. Olive-trees 
are abundant in this district. Stations Barbentane, Graveson, and 

Tarascon [Hotel des Empereurs, R. H/j, D. 3, A. f/2 fr.), P°P- 
13,500, once the seat of King Re'iie" of Anjou , the great patron of 
minstrelsy, whose lofty old castle and above it the Gothic spire of 
the church of St. Marthe (14th cent.) arrest the traveller's atten- 
tion. On the opposite bank , and connected with Tarascon by a 
bridge, is situated the busy town of Beaucaire (where an important 
annual market takes place in July), commanded by an ancient 
castle of the Counts of Toulouse. 

From Tarascon to St. Remy ( 10 M. , one horse carr. for the ex- 
cursion 10 fr.). On the site of the ancient Glanum , l \z M. above the 
small town , are situated two interesting *Roman Monuments. One of 
these, 53 ft. in height, resembling the celebrated monument of Igel 
near Treves , was erected by the three brothers Sextus , Lucius , and 
Marcus Julius to the memory of their parents. It is constructed of 
massive blocks of stone, and consists of three different, storeys: the reliefs 
on the lowest represent battle scenes, above these are garlands and tragic 
masks ; the next storey consists of an open double arch ; the third is a 
circular temple borne by ten columns, with two portrait -statues. This 
magnificent relic belongs to the time of Caesar. Adjacent to it is a half 
ruined * Triumphal Arch, also adorned with sculptures (Victory with a 
prisoner), which appear to point to the victories of Marcus Aurelius. 
St. Remy, which lies at the foot, of the barren limestone rocks of the Al- 
pines , was the birthplace of the celebrated physician and astrologer 
Michael Nostradamus (1503 — 66), who stood high in the favour of Catha- 
rine de 1 Medici. 

From Tarascon to 'Nimes railway in 3 |4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 15, 2 fr. 25, 
1 fr. 70 c.); to Montpellier in 2—3 hrs. (fares 8 fr. 60, 6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 
76 c). The line traverses extensive olive-plantations, passing Beaucaire 
(see above) and three other unimportant stations. 

Nimes (*Hotel de Luxembourg, PI. a, in the Esplanade, R. 3, L. ij 2 , 
B. l'|a, D. 3'| 2 , A. *\ t fr.; Cheval Blanc, PI. b, opposite the Arena; 
+ Hotel et Restaurant Manivet, PI. c, opposite the Maison Carree; Hotel 
de la Mediterranpe, near the station; Hotel du Midi, PL d, Place de 
la Couronne ; Cafe" du Commerce, opposite the Arena; Cafe' de rUnivers, 
opposite the Maison Carree), the ancient Nemansvs, capital of the Gallic 
Arecomaci , and one of the most important, places in Gallia Narbonensis, 
is now the chief town of the Department of the Hard. 

Kimes , which numbers 15,00(1 Protestants among its present popula- 
tion of 60,200, has several times been Ihe scene of fierce religious struggles, 
especially during the reign of Louis XIV. In 1704 Marshal Villars had 
an interview in the garden of the monastery of the Recollels (now the 
site of the theatre) with Jean Cavalier, the talented leader of the Cami- 
sards, who thereupon entered the service of Louis XIV., which however 
he soon quitted (d. in England in 1740). Jean Nicol, a physician of 
Kimes, introduced tobacco-smoking from America in 1564. Ouizot, the 

Dumuitaiit , Ed.Wagpt-r. 

to Nice. NIMES. 1. Route. 17 

celebrated statesman and historian , son of an advocate of Nimes , was 
born here in 1787. 

The town is surrounded by pleasant Boulevards , which terminate in 
the Esplanade, adorned with a handsome modern fountain-group (repre- 
senting the city of Nemausus, with 4 river-deities beneath). 

The extremely interesting Roman antiquities are not far distant from 
the station. The stranger first reaches the *Arena, or Amphitheatre (PI. 3), , 
consisting of two storeys, each with 60 arcades, together 74 ft. in height. 
The exterior is in admirable preservation. The interior contains 32 tiers 
of seats (entrance on the W. side, where a notice indicates the dwelling 
of the concierge; 50 c.) v and could accommodate 32,000 spectators; greater 
axis 148 , less 112 yds. , height 74 ft. , inner arena 76 by 42 yds. The 
upper gallery is about >| 4 M. in circumference. The founder is unknown, 
but is conjectured to have been the emperor Antoninus Pius, about B.C. 
140, whose ancestors were natives of Nemausus. The four original en- 
trances are still recognised. Doors in the pavement of the arena lead to 
the (modern) 'souterrain', the ceiling of which is supported by beams. In 
the middle ages the Arena was employed by the Visigoths and afterwards 
by the Saracens as a fortress. Extensive works of restoration are now 
going on, especially in the interior and the E. side of the exterior, as 
the Arena is still employed for the exhibition of bull -fights (but of a 
bloodless character). 

The next object of interest is the *Maison Carree (PI. 19) (the route 
to which passes the modern church of St. Paul), a well preserved Temple 
(88 ft. long, 42 ft. wide), with 30 Corinthian columns (detached, 20 im- 
mured), dating from the reign of Augustus or Antoninus Pius, employed 
as a church in the middle ages and subsequently as a town -hall. The 
inscription! (conjectured (from the holes made by the nails by which it- 
was formerly attached) to have been as follows : C. CAESARI. AVGVSTI. 
IVVENTVTIS. , according to which the temple would appear to have 
been dedicated to Caius and Lucius Csesar, the grandsons of Augustus. 
The edifice is, however, probably of later origin, as the style of the de- 
corations points rather to the age of the Antonines. This temple was con- 
nected with other buildings, the foundations of which still exist, and in 
all probability constituted part of the ancient forum, like the similar 
Temple of Augustus at Vienne (p. 10). It now contains a * Museum of 
antiquities and pictures, of which the following merit inspection: *1. 
Saver Sigalon, Narcissus and Locusta experimentalising on a slave with 
the poison destined for Britannieus (1824); 2. Paul Delaroche , Cromwell 
at the coffin of Charles I. (painted 1831); 74. Rigaud, Portrait of Turenne; 
38. Rubens, Head of a girl; 104. Titian, John the Baptist; 54. Greuze, Old 
woman; 27. Van Loo, Portrait of his mother; 112. Caravaggio, Portrait 
of a boy ; 45. Grimoux, A young girl. Also antique mosaics, fragments of 
sculptures, numerous inscriptions, etc. The concierge lives opposite (1 fr.). 

From the Maison Carree the visitor should next proceed by the Bou- 
levards and the canal to the Jardin de la Fontaine, where the *Nym- 
phaeum (PI. 28), formerly supposed to be a Temple of Diana, is situated. 
This fine vaulted structure , with niches for the reception of statues, has 
partly fallen in; it contains statues, busts, architectural fragments, etc. 
from the excavations which have been made here. The nature of the 
extensive ruins behind the Nymphseum cannot now be ascertained. Here, 
too , are the Roman *Baths excavated by Louis XIV. They contain a 
large peristyle with low columns, a number of niches, a basin for swim- 
ming, and the spring by which Nimes is now supplied with water. Well 
kept pleasure-grounds in the rococo style adjoin the baths. (The con- 
cierge at the E. entrance to the garden keeps the keys of the Nymphseum 
and the Baths; 1 fr.) 

Beyond the spring rises a hill with promenades, surmounted by the 
*Tourmagne (turris magna) (PI. 30), a Roman structure, variously con- 
jectured to have been a beacon-tower, a temple, or a treasury (keys at a 
small red house, to the r. on the way from the baths, about 200 paces 

B^DEF 1 "" "- 1 " T 3,-H ff.Ail 2 

18 Route 1. MONTPELLIER. From Paris 

below the summit). It was more probably a monumental tribute to .some 
illustrious Roman. The tower is of octagonal form and is ascended by 
a modern stair of 140 steps. The *view from the summit well repays 
the ascent; it embraces the town and environs, as far as the vicinity of 
the estuary of the Rhone, and the distant Pyrenees to the W. The 
extent of the ancient Nemausus is distinctly recognised hence; two 
of the. ancient gates, the Porta August! (on the E. side of the Boulevards) 
and the Porte de France are still preserved. The former, discovered in 
1793, has four entrances and bears the inscription: IMPER. CAESAR. 
COL. DAT., signifying that Augustus provided the colony of Nemausus 
with gates and walls in the year B. C. 23. The other gate is of simpler 
construction, and one arch of it only is preserved. 

Excursion to the Pont du Gaud,, iX x \-> M. , uninteresting country, 
by carr. in 2 hrs. One-horse carr. there and back 12 fr. (from the Hotel 
du Luxembourg). Or the traveller may avail himself of one of the omni- 
buses which run to liemoulina several times daily, as far as La Four, 
whence a road on the r. bank of the Gard leads to the far-famed 'Pont 1 
(l l \-» M.), at a small house near which refreshments may be obtained. 

The ** Font du Gard, a bridge and aqueduct over the Gard, which 
descends from the Cevennes, passing the town of Alais with its extensive 
iron-works, is one of the most magnificent Roman works extant. The 
desolate rocky valley of the Gard is bridged over by a threefold series 
(the lowest 6, the next 11, and the highest 35 in number) of arches which 
present a most majestic appearance. Agrippa , the general of Augustus, 
is supposed to have been the founder. The object of this structure was 
to supply Nimes with water from the springs of Airan near St. Qucntin 
and Ure near Uzes, a distance of \X iM. Several arches are also seen to the 
N. of the Pont du Gard, and other traces of the aqueduct still exist nearer 
the town. The structure is now undergoing restoration and will again 
be used for its original purpose, as the present supply of water is de- 
fective. The bridge for carriages was added to the Roman aqueduct 
in 1743. 

Beyond Nimes the train traverses the broad and fertile plain on the 
S. of the Cevennes, passes Lunel, well known for its sweet wine tlO'fy M. 
to the S. lies Aiyues Morles, which possesses venerable towers and walls 
of the period of Louis IX. and Philip the Bold), and in i 1 ^ — 2 hrs. 

Montpellier (Hotel Xecet, R. 2>j 2 , B. 1»| 2 , A. 3f 4; Omnibus »| 2 fr. ; H6lel 
du Midi; de Londres), capital of the Department of the Herault, an indus- 
trial town with 55,600 inhab. , beautifully situated and frequently visited 
by strangers on account of the salubrity of the climate and the neigh- 
bouring baths. The village which originally stood here was converted 
into a town towards the close of the 10th cent., under the name of Mons 
Pessulus, and a university was founded here in 1196 by Pope Urban V. 
The medical faculty of Montpellier still enjoys a considerable reputation. 
The town suffered severely during the Huguenot wars. Here on 19th 
Oct. 1622, the well-known Peace was concluded. The finest, point in 
the town is the * Promenade du Peprou, an extensive terrace planted with 
lime-trees, with an equestrian Statue of Louis XIV., and the Chateau 
d'Eau. Fine view hence; in clear weather the summit of the Canigou 
in the Pyrenees is visible. The Jar din des Plantes is the oldest, in France. 
The Must'e Favre contains a picture-gallery of some value, the gem of 
which is a ^Portrait of Lorenzo de' Medici by Raphael. The public Li- 
brary possesses a few interesting MSS. and other curiosities. 

Montpellier is Vjt hr. distant by railway from Cette y a sea-port found- 
ed by Louis XIV., containing salt -works and manufactories where all 
kinds of wine are prepared from the Spanish Benicarlo and largely ex- 
ported to the north. 

From Tarascon (p. 10) to Arles the railway skirts the 1. 
bank of the Rhone. The country, which is flat, and planted with 

to Nice. ARLES. 1. Route. 19 

the vine and olive , presents a marked southern character. The 
manners and unintelligible patois of the inhabitants differ materially 
from those of N. France. The peculiar softness of the old Pro- 
vencal language employed by the Troubadours may still be traced. 
8 is here pronounced like sh (e. g. pershonne), ch like s (serser for 
chercher). These characteristics, as well as the vivacious and 
excitable temperament of the natives , betoken the gradual transi- 
tion from France to Italy. 

Aries (*H6teldu Nord, R. 2, B. li/ 2 , A. 1 fr.; ffitel du Forum), 
the Arelate or Arelas of the ancients , once one of the most im- 
portant towns in Gaul, is now a somewhat dull place (25, 543inhab.) 
on the Rhone , 24 M. from its mouth. It is connected with Trin- 
quetaille on the opposite bank by a bridge of boats. 

The principal sights of Aries , for which 3 — 4 his. suffice , are 
all within easy distance from the hotels: to the E. St. Trophime, 
the extensive Museum, and the Theatre of Augustus; N. the Am- 
phitheatre, and S.E. the Champs-Elyse'es. 

In the Place of the Hotel de Ville, which was erected in 1673, 
rises an *Obelisk of grey granite from the mines of Estrelle near 
Fre"jus (p. 27), an ancient monument of unknown origin, found in 
the Rhone in 1676 and placed here in honour of Louis XIV. It 
was afterwards furnished with an inscription to Napoleon III., 
informing the reader that under his government 'les mechants 
tremblent et les bons se rassurent'. 

In the vicinity stands the *Cathedral of St. Trophime (Trophi- 
mus is said to have been a pupil of St. Paul), founded in the 6th 
or 7th cent., possessing an interesting * Portal of the 12th or 13th 
cent., of semicircular form, supported by twelve columns resting on 
lions, between which are apostles and saints (St. Trophimus, St. 
Stephen, etc.) ; above it Christ as Judge of the world. The interior 
contains little to interest the visitor, with the exception of several 
sarcophagi and pictures. On the S. side (entered from the sacristy) 
are the *Cloisters, with round and pointed arches and remarkable 
capitals, dating from various epochs. The N. side is in the half 
antique style of the Carlovingian period (9th cent.) , the E. side 
dates from 1221, the W. side (the most beautiful) from 1389, and 
the S. side from the 16th cent. 

The *Museum , established in the old church of St. Anna, 
contains numerous antiquities found in and near Aries , most of 
them in the theatre , where the celebrated Venus of Aries, now 
one of the greatest treasures of the Louvre at Paris, was also dis- 
covered in 1651. The following relics deserve special mention: 
*head of Diana (or Venus) ; Augustus (found in 1834) ; recumbent 
Silenus with pipe , once used as a fountain-figure ; Mithras en- 
twined by a serpent, with the signs of the zodiac ; altar of Apollo 
with basrelief representing the punishment of Marsyas ; above the 
latter a relief with the nine Muses; a number of amphora, pipes of 


20 Route 1. ARLES. From Paris 

water-conduits , Christian tombstones and sarcophagi from the an- 
cient burial-ground (see below), etc. 

The ^Theatre (commonly called that of 'Augustus'), a most pic- 
turesque ruin , is in a very dilapidated condition. The houses 
by which it is at present partially surrounded are in process 
of being demolished , and more of the external wall will be 
disengaged. The most perfect part is the stage-wall , which 
according to the ancient arrangement had three doors. In front of 
it was a colonnade, of which two columns, one of African, the other 
of Carrara marble, are still standing. The opening for the letting 
down of the curtain is distinctly recognisable. The orchestra, paved 
with slabs of variegated marble , contained the seats of persons of 
rank. The lower tiers only of the seats of the ordinary spectators 
are preserved. The theatre once possessed a second story, indi- 
cations of which are observed when the ruin is viewed from the 
Saracens' Tower (in the direction of the public promenade). The 
dimensions of the building when perfect were very extensive. 

The * Amphitheatre is larger than that of >'imes (p. 17), but in 
inferior preservation. It is nearly 500 yds. in circumference; the 
arena is 75 yds. long and 40 yds. wide. The entrance is on the 
N. side. It possessed five corridors and tiers of seats for 25,000 
spectators. The two storeys of 60 arches, the lower being Doric, the 
upper Corinthian , present a most imposing aspect. The interior 
was formerly occupied by a number of dwellings tenanted by poor 
families , but these have been almost entirely removed during the 
present century. After the Roman period the amphitheatre was 
employed by the Goths, then by the Saracens, and again by Char- 
les Martel (who expelled the latter in 739), as a stronghold, two 
of the four towers of which are still standing. A stair of lOo 
steps ascends the "W. tower, which commands a pleasing survey of 
the neighbourhood. The vaults beneath the lowest tier of seats 
served as receptacles for the wild beasts, the gladiators, etc. They 
communicated with the arena by means of six doors. The specta- 
tors of high rank occupied the front seats and were protected from 
the attacks of the wild animals by a lofty parapet. Bloodless bull- 
fights are now occasionally exhibited here. The concierge, who 
lives opposite the N. entrance, sells ancient coins and cut stones 
(a good specimen of the latter ')■ — 15 fr.). 

hi the Place du Forum , the site of the. ancient market-place, 
two granite pillars and fragments of a Corinthian pediment are still 
seen (near the Hotel du Nord). 

On the S.K. side of the town are the Champs Ely sees { Aliscamps), 
originally a Jioman burying-ground, consecrated by St. Trophimus 
and furnished by him with a chapel. In the mid'lle ages this 
cemetery enjoyed such celebrity that bodies were conveyed hither 
for sepulture from vast distances. It is mentioned by Dante in 
his Inferno ('J, 112): '«S7 come ml Arli . one Rodano stuyna, . . . 

to Nice. MARSEILLES. 1. Route. 21 

fanno i sepolcri tutto il loco varo'. To this day many ancient sar- 
cophagi are still to be seen in the environs of the curious old 
church, although after the first Revolution great numbers were sold 
to relic-hunters from all parts of the world. 

From Aries to Lmtel (p. 18) a branch-line runs in li|j hr., and thence 
to Montpellier. 

About 2i|jM. to the N. E. of Aries, on an isolated rock, rise the grand, 
but now dilapidated buildings of the suppressed abbey of Montmajour, 
founded in the 10th cent., with a church in the transition style. Beneath 
the latter is a spacious crypt of the 11th cent. The cloisters contain 
decaying monuments of the House of Anjou. 

Below Aries begins the flat delta of the estuary of the Rhone, 
termed the lie de la Camargue. It is protected against the 
incursions of the sea by dykes , and is employed partly as arable 
and partly as pasture land , which supports numerous flocks and 
herds. The delta encloses the Etang de Valcares , at the mouth 
of which, on the Petit Rhone, near the sea, is situated Ste. Marie, 
the only village on the Camargue. As the estuary is not accessible 
to vessels of heavy burden , a large canal to obviate this difficulty 
is projected. 

After the train has quitted the station of Aries , the traveller 
observes the upper arches of the amphitheatre on the r., and the 
Alpines Mts. in the distance to the 1. Between Aries and Salon 
the line intersects the stony plain of Crau , which the ancients 
mention as the scene of the contest of Hercules with the Ligures. 
Several small stations. Near St. Chamas the line skirts the long 
Etang de Berre , an extensive inland lake on the r. A rocky 
district , through which several cuttings lead , is next traversed. 
Then stat. Rognac. 

Fbok Rognac to Aix branch railway in 1 hr. via Roquefavour (in 
a romantic valley , with an extensive modern aqueduct for the supply of 
Marseilles). Aix (Palais Royal), once the Roman colony Aquae Sextiae, 
where in B. C. 102 Marius gained a bloody victory over the Teutones, 
was in the middle ages the capital of Provence and seat of the Trou- 
badours and their 'cours d'amour'. The church of St. Sauveur is a fine 
edifice. Aix also possesses a museum with numerous French and Italian 
pictures, warm baths, and a number of valuable private collections. The 
oil of Aix is in high repute. 

At stat. Vitrolles the Etang de Berre is finally quitted. Beyond 
stat. Pas-des-Lanciers the train traverses the longest tunnel in 
France, nearly 3 M. in length (transit 6 min.), on emerging from 
which it passes some grand rocky scenery. The sea now comes in 
sight, and the rocky islands of Chateau d'lf , Ratonneau , etc. are 
seen rising from the Gulf of Marseilles. Stat. L'Estaque. Groups 
of pines occasionally diversify the landscape, which is of a southern 
character and surrounded by the imposing mountains Mont de 
I'Etoile, St. Cyr, Qardiole, Puget, etc. In the foreground lies Mar- 

Marseilles, the principal sea-port of France , termed Massalia 
by the Greeks , Massilia by the Romans , an important place even 
at an early period of antiquity , now a city with 300,000 inhab., 

22 Route 1. MARSEILLES. From Paris 

is the capital of the Department of the Embouchures of the Rhone, 
and depot of a brisk maritime traflic with the East, Italy, and 
Africa (Algiers). 

Hotels. *Guanii Hotel du Louvre et df. la Paix (PL a), with 250 
rooms, principal facade facing the S., *Grand Hotel de Marseille (PL 
h), *Hotel de Xoailles (PL c), Rue do Xoailles, all in the Cannebiere- 
Prolongce, and fitted up in the style of the great Parisian hotels, con- 
taining 350 rooms from 2 fr. upwards, tabic d'hote at 6 p. m. 5 fr., B. 
l!|2 fr., A. and L. 3 fr. ; +H6tel du Petit louvre (PL d), Hue Canne- 
biere, K. 2 fr. ; Hotel du Luxembourg (PL e) , Hue St. Ferreol 25, R. 3, 
L. and A. I'j2, I>. 4 fr. ; *Hotel des Colonies, Rue Vacon; Hotel des 
Ambassadeurs (PL f j, Rue Beauveau, R. l'J 2 fr. ; Grand Hotel des Prin- 
ces (PL g) , Place Royale; Hotel d'Italie (PL i), at the harbour; Hotel 
de Rome (PL h). — The atmosphere of the town in summer is hot and 
oppressive. Those who contemplate a stay of several days during the 
warm season should select the *Hotel des Catalans (PL k), in the 
vicinity of the sea-baths and near the so-called Residence Imperiale (p. 24); 
the situation is delightful , and the house spacious and comfortable (open 
from May to the end of October only); omnibus to and from the station. 
A small establishment, somewhat more distant , is the *H6tel Victoria 
(PL 1), situated at the extremity of the fours du Prado , at the point 
where it approaches the sea; there is a good bathing-place near it, 
and the house is recommended for a prolonged stay. 

Restaurants. De la Cannebiere; Hotel de V Orient; *Roubion (a la R('- 
serre), beautifully situated on the new road I, a Corniche ; Hotel du Lux- 
embourg (Parrocel). Bouillabaisse, a good fish. Chablis, Graves, and Sau- 
terne are the white wines usually drunk. 

Cafes. De France and de VUnivers, Cafe 'Pure, etc., all in the Canne- 
biere ; Bodoul, Rue St. Ferreol ; all in the handsome Parisian style. 

Post Office, Rue de Grignan. 

Bookseller Veuve Canioin , in the Cannebiere , with reading-rooms 
(25 c. per diem). French newspapers, Galignani, etc. 

Carriages are of two kinds. First, the voitures du service de la gare, 
destined for the conveyance of travellers to and from the railway-station, 
and posted there only. The passenger on entering receives a detailed ta- 
riff, in which even the driver's name is stated: one-horse carr. 1 fr. 25c. 
for L pers., for each additional pers. 25 c. ; two-horse carr. 1 fr. 75 c. for 

1 pers., for each additional pers. 25c., for a drive at night 25c. mure; 
each article of luggage 25 c. ; if the traveller fail in obtaining accommo- 
dation at the hotel, 25 c. additional for driving to another. Secondly, the 
voitures de place (fiacres): one-horse 1 fr. 50 c. per drive, 2 fr. 25 c. for 
the first, and 2 fr. for each succeeding hour; two-horse 2 fr. per drive, 

2 fr. 50 c. for the first, and 2 fr. for each succeeding hour. From 6 p. in. 
to fi a. m. one-horse 1 fr. 75 c, two-horse 2 fr. 50 c. per drive. — Omnibus 
30 <■., each article of luggage 25 c. 

Steamboats to Ajaccio (K. 54) once weekly in 26 hrs., fare 30 or 20fr. ; 
to Algiers 3 limes weekly in 50 hrs., tare 95 or 71 i'T.-, 1o Genoa and f.e;/- 
horu, strainers of Valerv & Co. once weeklv ; to A'iVc, twice, weeklv in ii 
hrs.. 32 fr. 

Boats in the Ancien Port at the extremity of the Rue Cannebiere; 
l'^fr. for the first, 1 fr. for each succeeding hour. In fine weather a de- 
lightful excursion may be made to the islands of Itatonneau, Pomegues 
and the Chateau d'lf (p. 25). 

Sea-baths, handsomely fitted up, in the Anse des Catalans, on the E. 
side of the town, below the conspicuous Resiihure Jmpiriale; also warm 
seawater-haths, douche, vapour, etc. for gentlemen and Jadies. Adjacent 
the large *H6tel des Catalans, with restaurant. Omnibus to or from the 
baths 30 c. 

T) arnujtadf.EcLWagiM'r. 

to Nice. MARSEILLES. 1. Route. 23 

Theatres. Grand Opera (PI. 41), to the W. of the Place Royale, and 
Theatre du Gymnase (PI. 42) in the Alice de Meilhan, both good. There 
arc also (wo smaller theatres frequented by the humbler classes. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain. 

Hassilia was a colony founded about B. C. 600 by Greeks from Phocsea 
in Asia Minor, who soon became masters of the sea, conquered Ihe Car- 
thaginians in a naval battle near Corsica, and established new colonies in 
their neighbourhood, such as Tauroeis (near Ciotat), Olbia (near Hyeres), 
Antipolis (Antibes), and Nicaea (Nice), all of which, like their founders, 
adhered to the Greek language, customs, and culture. Massilia maintained 
this reputation until the imperial period of Rome, and was therefore treat- 
ed with leniency and respect by Julius Caesar when conquered by him, 
B. C. 49. Tacitus informs us that his father-in-law Agricola, a native of 
the neighbouring Roman colony of Forum Julii (Frejus), even under Clau- 
dius found ample opportunities for completing his education at Massilia 
in the Greek manner, for which purpose Athens was usually frequented. 
The town possessed temples of Diana (on the site of the present cathedral), 
uf Neptune (on the coast), of Apollo, and other gods. Its government was 
aristocratic. After the fall of the \V. Empire Marseilles fell successively 
into the hands of the Visigoths, the Franks, and Arelate; it was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens, restored in the 10th cent, and became subject to 
the Vicomtes de Marseille; in 1218 it became independent, but shortly af- 
terwards succumbed to Charles of Anjou. In 1481 it was united to France, 
but still adhered to its ancient privileges, as was especially evident in 
the wars of the Ligue, against Henry IV. In 1660 Louis XIV. divested the 
town of its privileges, so that it retained its importance as a sea-port only. 
In 1720 and 1721 it was devastated by a fearful pestilence. During the 
revolution it remained unshaken in its allegiance to royalty and was there- 
fore severely punished. In 1792 hordes of galley-slaves were sent hence 
to Paris , where they committed frightful excesses. It was for them that 
Rouget de risle, an officer of engineers, composed the celebrated Marseil- 
laise, 'Allons, enfants de la patrie', which subsequently became the battle- 
hymn of the republican armies. 

The town contains few objects worthy of special mention. The 
harbour whence it derives its commercial importance is one of the 
most interesting points. Since. 1850 it has been extended to four 
times its former size, notwithstanding which there is still a demand 
for increased accommodation. In 1<S53 the Bassin de la Joliette 
was added to the Ancien Port, and is now the starting-point of 
most of the steamboats. The Bassin du Lazaret, d'Arene, and 
Napoleon were next constructed. It is now proposed to form two 
new docks and an entrance-harbour (an ant-port), which will render 
Marseilles one of the greatest sea-ports in the world. Nearly 20,000 
vessels on an average , of an -aggregate burden of 2,000,000 tons, 
enter" and quit Marseilles annually. The annual amount of customs- 
dues exceeds 60 million francs (i. e. 2,400,000 I.'). The old har- 
bour is long and narrow. Its entrance is defended by the forts of 
St. Jean and St. Nicolas. Near the former is the Consigne (PI. 6; 
entrance by the gate, fee 50 c), or office of the 'Intendance Sani- 
taire' (quarantine authorities), the principal hall of which contains 
several good pictures : Horace Vernet , the cholera on board the 
frigate Melpomene; Guerin , the Chevalier Rose directing the 
sepulture of those who have died of the plague ; Puget, the plague 
at Milan, a relief in marble ; Oerard , Bishop Belsunce during the 

24 Route 1. MARSEILLES. From Paris 

plague of 1 720; Tanneurn , the frigate Justine returning from the 
East with the plague on board. 

A few paces farther M. is the Cathedral, a new edifice construc- 
ted of alternate layers of black and white stone, in a mixed Byzan- 
tine and Romanesque style. The towers are surmounted by domes. 
The venerable old cathedral of St. Lazare has been removed. The 
terrace commands a pleasant survey of the Bassin de la Joliette 
[see p. 23). 

On the S. side of the Ancicn Port is the church of St. Victor, 
with a crypt of the 11th cent., superstructure of 1200, and towers 
added in 1350 by Pope Urban V. who was once abbot here. — To 
the E., in front of the old harbour, is the 'Residence Imperial* (PI. 
E, 5), which however was never occupied by the late emperor. 

*La Cannebiere , a broad street , intersects the town from 
W. to E., from the extremity of the Ancien Port to the centre of 
the town where the ground rises. In this street, a few paces from 
the harbour, stands the Bourse, with a portico of Corinthian columns, 
and adorned with the statues of (r.) Euthymenes and (1.) Pytheas, 
two natives of Massilia who distinguished themselves as navigators 
before the Christian era. To the latter we are indebted for the 
earliest data as to the length of the days in the different nor- 
thern latitudes, and the ebb and flow of the tide. The opposite 
Place Royale is used as a fish-market. 

A short distance further the Cours de Belsunce is reached on 
the 1., a shady promenade generally thronged with foot-passengers, 
at the S. end of which stands the statue of Bishop Belsunce, 
'pour perpetuer le souvenir de sa charite et de son devouemenl 
durant la peste qui desola Marseille en 17 it)'. This intrepid 
prelate, during the appalling plague which carried off 40,000 per- 
sons, alone maintained his post and faithfully performed the solemn 
duties of his calling. From this point the Rue d'Aix ascends to 
the Arc de Triomphe, originally erected to commemorate the Spanish 
campaign of the Duke of Angouleme ("1823 J, now decorated with 
sculptures of the battles of Marengo, Austerlitz, Fleurus, and Helio- 
polis, by Ramey and David a" Angers. The railway-station is situa- 
ted to the N. of this point. 

We now return to the Cannebiere. Opposite the Place .Bel- 
sunce opens the ('ours St. Louis, continued by the Rue de Rome 
and the Cours du Prado , which is 2'/. 2 M. in length. At the S. 
end of the latter is the Chateau des Flews, a small park with fish- 
ponds, affording various kinds of entertainments, a poor description 
of 'Tivoli'. 

ExeeasioN. Tlie following pleasant rlrive of several hours is recom- 
mended, especially fur tin; afternoon and evening: From the Porte de Rome 
or the Place Caslelane (both PI. K,'-2) ascend de Cours du Prado, passing 
the Chateau des Flenrs; then descend to the coast , affording charming 
views, and by the Cheniin de Ceinlurc to the village of Endomne ; hence, 
skirting the Anse des Catalans (baths and hotel, p. '£i), to the Promenade 

to Nice. MARSEILLES. 7. Route. 25 

Bonaparte. We may now either return to the town, or ascend on foot 
to the r. to the church of Notre Dame de la Garde (see below). 

To the 1. in the Cours St. Louis at the entrance to the narrow 
Rue de la Palud, is a fountain , adorned with an insignificant bust 
of Pierre Paget, the celebrated sculptor , who was a native of Mar- 

At the E. end of the Boulevard de Longchamp rises the new 
and handsome * Musee de Longchamp (PI. 34) , consisting of two 
extensive buildings connected by a colonnade of the Ionic order, 
adorned with a fountain in the centre. The r. wing contains the 
Musie d'Histoire Naturelle , the other the Musie des Beaux Arts. 
The latter is approached by a vestibule embellished with two 
frescoes from the history of Marseilles. 

Principal Saloon. To the r. of the entrance : J. Vernei, Harbour ; 
Mnrillo, Capuchin; Spagnoletto, St. Peter; Salv. Rosa, Hermit examining 
a skull; Langlois, Bishop Belsunce. On the opposite wall: Holbein, 
Portrait (retouched) ; Snyders, Still life ; Ouercino, Hector taking leave ot 
Priam; Rubens, Christ scourged; * Perugino , Madonna with saints; Van 
Uyck, Christ on the Cross; Rubens, Wild-boar hunt; Sthalken, Newspaper- 
reader; Flemish Seh., Portrait of an old man. To the 1. of the entrance: 
Ruysdael, Landscape. — The adjoining saloon on the r. is in course of 
being filled with pictures of the Provencal school, that on the 1. with 
modern works. Among the latter : * Philippoteaux , Farewell repast of 
Girondists on the eve of their execution; Curton, Female weavers of 
Naples ; Ary Scheffer, Magdalene. 

The well-kept grounds at the back of the Museum extend to 
the Zoological Garden (adm. 1 fr.), which contains a valuable col- 
lection of animals. 

The Old Museum , in the Boulevard du Muse'e , now contains 
nothing worthy of note. 

*View. The best survey of the town and environs is afforded 
by the church of *Notre Dame de la Garde (PI. F, 3), situated on 
an eminence to the S. of the old harbour. The old chapel , as well 
as the Fort Notre Dame , have been taken down , and a new chapel 
erected on the site of the former in the same style as the cathedral 
(p. 24). It contains an image of the Virgin and innumerable 
votive tablets presented by those who have been rescued from 
shipwreck or disease. The terrace in front of the ehurch, and 
especially the gallery of the tower (154 steps) , which contains 
a huge bell 10 tons in weight , and is to be crowned with a large 
figure of the Virgin , command an admirable survey of the exten- 
sive city , occupying the entire width of the valley , the innumera- 
ble white villas (bastides) on the surrounding hills , the harbour 
and the barren group of islands at its entrance , with the Chateau 
d'lf , where Mirabeau was once confined (also mentioned in Du- 
mas' Monte Christo), and part of the Mediterranean. Several diffe- 
rent paths ascend to this point from the old harbour, terminating iu 
steps , a somewhat fatiguing climb. The full foree of the pre- 
vailing Mistral , or piercing N.W. wind , the scourge of Provence, 
is often felt here. 

26 Route 1. TOULON. From Paris 

Railway to Toulon and Nice (140 M. , in 7 hrs. ; fares 
25 fr. 20, 18 fr. 90, 13 fr. 85 e. ■ to Toulon 42 M., in 13/ 4 hr.). 
The train starts from the station outside the Arc de Triomphe (p. 
24) , running at first at some distance from the sea , and passing 
through several rocky defiles. Several small stations ; then Aubagne, 
with a statue of Abbe Barthelemy. Near Cassis several tunnels 
penetrate the rocky ridge of Ollioule , and the train reaches stat. 
La Ciotat , charmingly situated on the coast , a most agreeable 
retreat in winter and spring. Near stat. St. Cyr is situated the 
Tauroeis of the ancients. Bandol , with a fortified harbour, is 
delightfully situated in a bay. Then Ollioules-St. Nazaire , La 
Seyne, and 

Toulon (.Cuoix de Mai.te, R. 5, D. 4, A. 1 fr. ; * Croix d'Oi; , Place 
des Trois Dauphins; Amikaute and Victoria in the Boulevard Louis 
Napole'on ; Cafls de Paris and de la Marine in the Champ-de-Bafaille, 
where a military band generally plays in the evening), the War-harbour 
of France for the Mediterranean, with 77,100 inhab., possesses a 
double harbour , protected by eleven forts which crown the sur- 
rounding heights. The strongest of these are La Malgue, Aiguil- 
lette , Ballaguier , and Fort Napoleon. The latter , which is 
sometimes termed Le Petit Gibraltar, was gallantly defended in 
December, 1793, by 300 English soldiers against an enemy of 
tenfold number, but was at last taken by storm, whereupon the 
other forts also surrendered. This attack was conducted by 
Buonaparte, lieutenant of artillery, then in his 23rd year, who six 
years later became Consul. In 1707 Toulon was besieged less 
successfully by the Austrians and Sardinians under Prince Eu- 
gene , who were obliged to retire after bombarding the town. 

The town contains nothing to detain the traveller except the 
War Harbour , with the Bayno (prison of the formats , or galley- 
convicts) and the Arsenal, to which visitors are now seldom admit- 
ted. Travellers may, however, apply at the Admiralty Office about 
9.30 a. m. , where on showing their passports they are sometimes 
permitted to visit the dock-yard at 2 p. m. (gratuities prohibited). 

The *view from the height of La, Malgue, of Toulon, 
is one of the most beautiful in Provence. 

Steamboats ply twice weekly from Toulon to Corsica , reaching 
Ajaccio in 22, Bastia in 24 hrs. 

The Botanical Harden contains seme line southern plants, such 
as date-palms, etc., which flourish in the open air. 

Beyond Toulon the line quits the coast and winds through the 
Montagnes des Maures to the N.K. ; stations La Curde and Hyeres. 

The small hnvn of Hyeres (Hotel des Hesperides ; des lies cTOr; de 
V Europe; <T Orient; du Pare; +des Ambassadeurs, less expensive; de Paris. 
— English Church Service in winter and spring. — Physicians: Drs. Dun- 
can, Criffith) lies 3 M. from the railway (omnibus) and the same distance 
from 1 lie sea, on Hit: slope of the lofty Mts. des Maures, hut not suffi- 
ciently protected from the .Mistral. It is much visited as a winter-resi- 
dence by persons sutl'ering from pulmonary complaints, and ia surrounded 

to Nice. CANNES. I. Route. 27 

by a number of villas, but the town itself is uninviting. Most of the 
heights in the vicinity are barren. The orange and lemon-trees of which 
Hyeres boasts are generally concealed by garden-walls. The low ground 
is marshy at places and exhales unwholesome vapours in summer and 
autumn. The Islands of Hyeres (the Stoechades of the ancients ; Lavandula 
stoechas' is an aromatic plant frequently occurring here) are a group of 
rocky islands and cliffs near the coast. The largest of them are the lie 
du Levant or Titan, Portcros, Porquerolles, and Bagneau. Some of them 
are fortified and inhabited, but they do not enjoy so mild a climate as 
Hyeres itself, being more exposed to the wind. 

J. B. Massillon , the celebrated preacher, who lived during the reigns 
of Louis XIV. and XV., -was born at Hyeres in 1663 (d. 1742 as Bishop of 
Clermont). The Place Jtoyale is adorned with his bust. 

A number of unimportant places are next passed. Then stat. 
Le Luc , with the ruins of an ancient Abbey , and Vidauban, in a 
picturesque district. From the next stat. Les Arcs a branch-line 
runs to Draguignan (Poste) , a beautifully situated town with 
10,000 inhab., and enjoying a mild and salubrious climate. Next 
stations Le Muy and Roquebrune. 

Frejus {Hotel du Midi, R. 2, B. 1, I). 3, A. 1 fr.), a small 
town with 2887 inhab. , the ancient Forum Julii , founded by 
Julius Csesar , contains a number of Roman remains , an amphi- 
theatre , archway (Porte Doree) , and aqueduct , none of which 
possess much interest. The Roman General Julius Agricola was 
born here ; also the Abbe Sieyps , whose name is so intimately 
associated with the First Revolution. 

From Frejus to Nice the line runs near the coast. On the 1. rises 
the Mont d'Esterel. Stat. St. Raphael is delightfully situated in 
a ravine on the coast. At the small harbour of this place Na- 
poleon landed in Oct., 1799, on his return from Egypt; one month 
later , on 9th Nov. (18th Brumaire) , he overthrew the Directory 
at Paris and caused himself to be created First Consul. Here, too, 
after his abdication , he embarked for Elba , 28th April , 1814. 
The line traverses a romantic, -rocky district, occasionally affording 
charming glimpses of the numerous bays of the coast. Stat. Agay ; 
then four tunnels. 

Cannes (more than fifty hotels ; among them, near the sea, in the Bou- 
levard de rimpe'ratrice , Hotel de la Plage ; Grand Hotel de Cannes, 
a spacious establishment in the Parisian style ; Hotel Gonnet, Gray, Beauri- 
vage, des Princes, de la Mediterranee. In the town Grand Hotel du 
Louvre, des Etrangers, du Nord, Poste, *Pension Lerins. In the sub- 
urbs: W. Bellevue; Pavillon; IT., near the station and in the direction 
of Cannet (see below) : de la Paix , de l'Europe , *Bel-Air (pension 
6 — 10 fr.); de Geneve, France, Phenix, de Provence, Victoria, all fitted 
up for the reception of visitors making a prolonged stay. Private apart- 
ments, usually let for the whole winter, are easily procured. On 
the promenades, Cafi des Allies, de VUnivers, etc. — Physicians: Drs. 
Butterby, Dickinson, Frank, Whiteley; de Valcourt, Keverin, etc. — English 
Church Service), a small but rapidly increasing town (10,000 inhab.), 
picturesquely situated on the Oolfe de la Napoule, is indebted to 
its sheltered situation for its repute as a wintering-place for con- 
sumptive and delicate persons. It is protected by the Esterel Mts. 
(see above) from the N. and N.W. winds. 

28 Route 1. ANTTBES. 

The town consists of a main street, parallel with which, along 
the coast , runs the Boulevard de V Jmpiratrice , terminating on the 
W. in the fours , a 'place' with promenades and fountains. The 
most sheltered situation is the space between the N. side of the 
town and the village of Cnnnet. The W. end of the town is chiefly 
occupied by English families (the English Church is situated here). 
The best French society is also well represented. 

The old town lies at the foot of the Mont Chevalier , on which 
the parish church rises , and from which the pier closing the S.W. 
side of the harbour extends. Fine view from the top. 

Opposite the Cap de la Croisette , the promontory which sepa- 
rates the Golfe de la Napoule from the Qolfe de Jouan , rise the 
lies de Lerins. On Sainte Marguerite , the largest of these, is 
situated Fort Monterey (poor inn) , in which 'the man with the 
iron mask' was kept in close confinement from 1686 to 1698. It 
is now occupied by Arabian prisoners. (Fine survey of Cannes 
and the coast.) On the island of St. Honorat rise the ruins of a 
fortified monastery and church (boat there and back 10 — 12 fr.). 

The Environs of Cannes are delightful , and studded with 
numerous villas. Pleasant walks to the Jardin de» Hetpiridet , to 
Vallauris , Mouyins , the monastery of St. Castien , the ruin of 
Napoule ; farther distant , to Orasse and Bar. The vegetation is 
luxuriant , but lemon-trees are not common here. Orange-trees 
are principally cultivated for the sake of the blossoms , which form 
an important article of commerce. 

Beyond Cannes the line passes Golfe Jouan; a column marks 
the spot where Napoleon bivouacked on the night after his arrival 
from Elba, 1st March, 1815. 

Antibes (Hotel de France) , the ancient Antipolis , a colony of 
the Massilians , is now a small , but busy seaport (6829 inhah.), 
beautifully situated on a promontory, and commanding a charming 
view of the sea , the Bay of Nice, and the Alpes Maritimes. A 
pier constructed by Vauban connects it with several islands in the 
vicinity. This portion of the line traverses a remarkably rich and 
attractive district. It soon crosses the Var (Varus) , an impetuous 
mountain-torrent , which in modern , as well as ancient times 
formed the boundary between France and Italy , until in 1860 
Nice was ceded to France , and the frontier removed farther to the 
E. Stations Vence-Cagne, and 

Nice, see R. 16. From Nice to Genoa, see R. 15. 

2. From Paris (Geneva) to Turin by Mont Cenis. 

Railway from Paris to Turin in lG'/a — 20 lira, (fares 113 fr. 15, 87 fr. 
5, 64 fr. 70 c). Through-tickets may also be obtained from Paris to Bo- 
logna (1st class 150 fr. 10 c), to Florence (163 fr. 85 c), to Milan ( 129 fr. 
85 c.1, and to Venice (164 fr. 45 c.'(. 

CULOZ. 2. Route. 29 

From Pari* to Maeon , gee R. 1. The railway here quits the 
Lyons line and proceeds to the 1., crosses the Sa6ne , and at stat. 
Pont-de-Veyle the Veyle. In front and to the 1. a view of the Jura 
is obtained. The next place of importance is 

Bourg (Hotels de V Europe, du Midi , du Palais) , with 14,000 
inhah., the ancient capital of Bresse , situated on the 1. bank of 
the Reyxousse , 3 / 4 M. from the station. The church of Notre 
Dame de Bourg , erected in the 15th — 17th cent., in a variety 
of styles , contains several pictures , sculptures , and fine wood- 
earving. On the promenade] Le Bastion is the *Monument of 
Bichat (d. 1802), who once studied at Bourg, by David d'Angers. 
The house in which Lalande (d. at Paris in 1807) was born is 
indicated by a tablet with inscription. — Bourg is the junction 
of the line to Lyons, Mouchard, Besancon, and Mulhausen, which 
is the direct railway between Lyons and Strassburg (comp. pp. 5, 6). 

The celebrated * Church of Brou , in the florid Gothic style , erected 
in 1511 — 36 by Margaret of Austria, Regent of the Netherlands, is situated 
l l |s M. from the town. It contains the sumptuous * Monuments of the 
foundress , the Duke Philibert of Savoy her husband , and Margaret of 
Bourbon, her mother-in-law. Her well-known motto 'Fortune infortune 
forte une\ may be seen in different parts of the church. 

The line intersects the forest of Seillon. Near Stat. Pont d'Ain 
the Ain is crossed. 

Amberieux , a pleasant little town on the Albarine , situated at 
the base of the Jura Mts., is the junction for Lyons (p. 8). 

The train now continues to ascend the valley of the Albarine. 
To the 1. lie the ruined' castles of Vieux-Mont-Ferrand and St. Ger- 
main. Beyond stat. St. Rambert de Joux the valley becomes wilder 
and more imposing. The line quits the Albarine at stat. Tenay and 
enters a sequestered valley to the r., where Les Hopitaux is si- 
tuated. Near stat. Rossillon are a few fragments of an ancient 
stronghold. Beyond a tunnel, l / 3 M. in length, the lakes of Pugieu 
are observed on the r. Beyond two small stations the train next 
reaches the valley of the Rhone near 

Stat. Culoz (*Rail. Restaur.), at the base of the Colornbier 
(5000 ft.), the junction of the Geneva line. 

From Geneva to Culoz railway in 2 l \i hrs. (fares 7 fr. 50, 5 fr. 65, 
4 fr. 15 c). The line follows the r. bank of the Rhone, on the slopes of 
the Jura Mts. Beyond Collonges, the fifth station, the Rhone flows through 
a narrow rocky valley, confined between the Jura and Mont Vouac/ie, and 
commanded by the Fort de VEcluse, which rises far above on the r. The 
line quits the defile by the long Tunnel du Crido (2'/3 M.), crosses the 
grand VaUerine Viaduct, and reaches stat. Bellegarde (Poste), at the influx 
of the Valserine into the Rhone. The latter here forms a species of ra- 
pid, known as the Perle du Bhdne, where the water is occasionally lost 
to view. Stations Pyrimont, Seyssel, and Culoz. 

The train crosses the Rhone, and at stat. Chatillon reaches the 
Lac du Bourget (12 M. in length, li/ 2 M. in breadth), the E. bank 
of which it follows. Several tunnels and fine views. 

Aix-les-BainS (*Hotkl Imperial, the nearest to the station; *Vk- 
nat, with a large garden; Globe, Kukopk , D. 4 fr. ; Ukiveks et Am- 

30 Route 2. CHAMBERY. From Paris 

bassdeurs; Guilland (Poste), less expensive. — One-horse carr. 2 fr. 
per drive of 25 min.) , the Aquae AUobrogum or Aquae Oratianae 
of the Romans , is a celebrated watering-place with 4200 inhab. 
(o — 6000 visitors to the baths annually), possessing sulphur-springs 
(113° Fahr."), adapted for internal and external use. The large 
new Etablissement Thermal with baths and pump-room deserves 
inspection. In the place in front of it rises a Roman triumphal 
arch of the 3rd or 4th cent. ; the other scanty relics of the Ro- 
man period (fragments of a temple and of baths) are almost all 
within the precincts of private property and not easily accessible. 

Pleasant excursion to *Haute Combe, a Cistercian Abbey on the N.W. 
bank of the Lac du Bourget, at the base of Mont du Chat. This was the 
burial-place of the Princes of Savoy till 1731, after which they were in- 
terred in the Superga at Turin (p. 78). The abbey was destroyed during 
the French Revolution, but restored in 1824 by Charles Felix, king of 
Sardinia. The church contains a number of magniiicent monuments. The 
prospect from the Phare de Oessens, a tower in the vicinity, has been 
described by Rousseau. 

From Aix-Us-Bains to Annecy branch-railwav in i}[> hr. (fares 4 fr. 
50, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 45 c). 

Near stat. Voglans the line quits the lake and traverses the 
broad valley of the Laisse; to the 1. the beautifully wooded slopes 
of the Mont d'Azi and the Dent de ISirolet. 

Chambery (Hotel de France , near the station ; Hotel de V Eu- 
rope ; Poste , less expensive ; Hotel des Princes) is the capital of 
the Department of Savoy, with 20,000 inhab., and an archiepis- 
copal see. The Cathedral, a small, but interesting edifice of 1430, 
has been somewhat disfigured by a subsequent addition. A square 
tower and remnants of the facade of the old palace of the Dukes 
of Savoy, erected in 1230, still exist. On the Promenade is the 
Monument of General de Boigne (d. 1830) , adorned with life- 
size figures of elephants. He was a native of Chambery , to which 
he bequeathed a fortune of 3^2 million francs acquired in India. 
Les Charmettes, a country-residence l'/2 M. from the town, was 
once occupied by Rousseau and Madame de Warens. 

The line traverses a picturesque district , passing the ruined 
castles of Batie and Vliignin. The precipitous Mont Oranier (6358 
ft.) is indebted for its present form to a great landslip which de- 
scended from it in 1248 and overwhelmed sixteen villages. Stat. 
les Marches is the junction for the branch-line to Grenoble, which 
enters the valley of the here (or Valley of Graisivaudan) to the r. 
[From Chambe'ry to Grenoble in 2'/ 4 hrs. ■ — Grenoble is connected 
with the Paris and Marseilles line by means of three different rail- 
ways , which reach it at Lyons (p. 6), St. Rambert (p. 11), and 
Valence, (p. 11) respectively. From Grenoble to Marseilles by 
railway in 12 hrs.] — The line now turns to the 1. Next stat. 
Montmelian, where a good description of wine is produced. The 
ancient castle , of which scanty fragments now alone exist , was 
long the bulwark of Savoy against France. It was once defended 

to Turin. MODANE. 2. Route. 31 

by Goffredo Benso , an ancestor of Cavour (d. 1861) , during 
thirteen months against the army of Louis XIII. In 1705 it was 
destroyed by Louis XIV. Next stations St. Pierre d'Albigny and 
Chamousset. Picturesque view of the broad valley of the here to 
the 1., enclosed by beautifully formed mountains on both sides. 

At the influx of the Arc into the Isere the line quits the valley 
of the latter and ascends the valley of the Arc , which is at first of 
considerable width. Beyond stat. Aiguebelle , which is grandly si- 
tuated , the Arc is crossed. The valley expands ; scenery pic- 
turesque. The district near stat. Epierre is rendered unhealthy 
by the marshy nature of the soil, and cretinism is prevalent here. 
Stat. La Chambre. Beyond St. Jean de Maurienne (Hotel de 
l'Europe) , the chief place in the valley , the line crosses to the 
r. bank, and near St. Julien recrosses to the 1. bank of the Arc. 
The valley contracts , and the scenery assumes a bleak aspect. Se- 
veral tunnels , then 

St. Michel (H6tel de la Poste ; Rail. Restaurant , dear) , a vil- 
lage on the r. bank of the Arc. Between this and Modane there are 
nine tunnels. Halfway is the small stat. La Praz, then the village 
of Fourneau. Stat. Modane (3468 ft.) (Croix a" Or; *Rail. Restau- 
rant, dear, D. 4 1 /2 I T-) is the seat of the French and Italian custom- 
house authorities (change carriages). — Road over Mt. Cenis to 
Susa, see p. 32. 

The train describes a wide curve round the village , crosses 
Fell's railway, now disused (p. 32), and passing through two short 
tunnels enters the great * Mont Cenis Tunnel , by which the Col 
de Frejus (8338 ft.) is penetrated in a S. E. direction. 

The tunnel (8 M. in length; N. entrance 3802 ft,, S. entrance 4163 ft. 
above the sea-level; height in the centre 4245 ft., depth below the sur- 
face of the mountain 4093 ft.) was begun in Jan. 1861 and completed in 
Dec. 1870, and its total cost amounted to 75 million francs. The inge- 
nious boring- machines , constructed for the purpose , were worked by 
means of compressed air, by the engineers Sommeiller, Grandis and Grat- 
toni. From 1500 to 2000 workmen were constantly employed on each side. 
The tunnel is 26 ft. wide, 19 ft. high , and almost entirely lined with 
masonry. It is lighted by lanterns placed at intervals of 500 metres, and 
the distances are given in kilometres. The carriages are lighted with 
gas. The air in the tunnel, although somewhat close, is not unpleasant, 
even when the windows are left open. The transit occupies 30 minutes. 

At the S. end of the tunnel is stat. Bardoneche (4127 ft.) (Tra- 
foro delle Alpi ; Aquila Nera) , prettily situated in a green basin. 
The line crosses the brook of that name and passes through a short 
tunnel. Stat. Beaulard. Near stat. Oulx (3497 ft.), the Roman 
Villa Martis , the line enters the valley of the Dora Riparia. (A 
road to the S. W. leads hence to Cesanne at the confluence of the 
Dora and Ripa , and over the Mont Genevre to the French fortress 
Briancon on the Durance ; comp. p. 78.) 

The train traverses the picturesque valley of the Dora. Between 
stat. Salbertrand (3302 ft.) and the next there are eleven tunnels. 
To the 1. between the second and third a glimpse is obtained of the 

32 Routt 9. SUSA. 

small town of Exilles 'with the frontier fortresg of that name ; far- 
ther on, a fine waterfall. Stat. Chiomonte, or Chaumont (2526 ft.) 
(Rail. Restaurant). Then a number of tunnels and aqueducts. 
The valley contracts and forms a wild gorge (le Gorgie) , of which 
beautiful views are obtained, with the Mont Cents road winding up 
the hill on the farther side , and the Rochcmelon , Roche-Michel, 
etc. towering above it. When the valley expands, Susa with the 
arch of Augustus comes in sight on the 1. (see below). Stat. Meana 
(1949 ft.), 1 M. from Susa, lies 324 ft. higher than the latter. 
Three tunnels. The train then descends through beautiful chest- 
nut woods, crosses the Dora (to the 1. lies the Susa line, see below), 
and reaches stat. Bussoleno. 

The Mont Cenia Road, constructed by Fabbroni under Napoleon in 
1802—1805, leads from Moclane (p. 31) in the bleak valley of the Arc by 
Fort Esseilon and the villages of Braman and Thermigt,on to (15 M.) Lans- 
lebout'g (Hotel de France). It here quits the valley of the Arc and ascends 
in numerous windings to the (5 II.) summit of the pass (6845 ft.); then, 
becoming nearly level, it passes the (l 1 ^ M.) old and new post-house, the 
trout-stocked Lac du Mont Cents, and the {*\t 31.) Hospice (6365 ft.), which 
was founded by Charlemagne or Louis le DCbonnaire. The road now 
descends to ( 3 \i 31.) La Grande Croix (Inn), and winds down in zigzags 
(Les Echelles) to the small plain of Si. Nicholas. From this point it fol- 
lows the slope on the r. (to the ). in the valley of the Cenisio , at the 
foot of the Rochemelon, lie the villages of Ferrera and Novalesa) , afford- 
ing beautiful views of the valley of Susa (valley of the Dora), and leads 
by Bard, Molarei, S. Martino, and Giaglione to (23 31. from Lanslebourg) 
Susa (1625 ft.) (H6tel de France; Soleil; Rail. Restaurant), a small anil 
ancient town, the Roman Segusio, situated on the r. bank of the [>ora. 
A garden on the W. side of the town contains a triumphal arch, -14 ft. 
in height, 39 ft. in width, and 23 ft. in depth, with projecting Corinthian 
columns at the corners and sacrificial scenes on the frieze, erected accord- 
ing to the inscription in A. D. 8. There are also a few other Roman 
relics. The church of S. Qmsto dates from the 11th century. On the 
opposite bank of the Dora rises the fort La Brunette, which was destroyed 
by the French in 1798. Susa is connected with Bussoleno (see above) by 
a short branch-railway. 

FelVs Railway , by which the Mont Cenis traffic was carried on in 
1868 — 71 , has been closed since the completion of the tunnel. The rail- 
way consists of two ordinary rails with a third broad rail in the middle, 
against which horizontal wheels under the locomotive and carriages work, 
a system which facilitates the ascent of steep inclines (1 : 12'/ 2 ) and pre- 
vents the danger of overturning. The road was altered in several respects 
on the construction of the railway, but is now being restored to its ori- 
ginal condition. 

Next stations Boigone, S. Antonino, Condove, and .*. Ambroyio, 
high above which , on a rocky eminence to the r., rises the abbey 
■V. Michele ilella Chiusn . or La Sngra , remarkable for a peculiar 
property of its tombs which convert dead bodies into natural mum- 
mies. At stat. Avigliana the valley expands into a broad plain, 
Stations Roxta, Alpignaiio. Collegno, 

Turin, see p. lib 1 . 


3. From Martigny to Arona on the Lago Maggiore 
(and Milan) over the Simplon. 

100 M. Railway from Martigny to Sierre in 1>| 4 hr. (fares 5 fr. 5, 
3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 50 c). Thence over the Simplon to Arona Diligence once 
daily in 18 hrs.; coupe to Domo d'Ossola 23 fr. 70 c, thence to Arona 
10 fr. 40 c. (see remarks as to diligence seats, p. 35). Through-tickets 
from Lausanne to Milan 51 fr. 55, 44 fr. 50, 40 fr. 30 c. 

. Martigny (1558 ft.) (*H6tel Clerc ; *Hdtel de la Tour ; Grande- 
Maison-Poste ; Bellevut , at the station) is a busy little town in 
summer , being the starting-point of the Simplon and Great St. 
Bernard routes, and of the bridle-paths over the Tete Noire and 
Col de Balme to Chamouny. 

Stations Baths of Saxon and Biddes, where the Rhone is crossed. 

Sion (1709 ft.) (*Poste; Lion d' Or), with 4895inhab., the capi- 
tal of the Canton du Valais, which in 1810 — 15 was the French 
Departement du Simplon , has an important appearance in the dis- 
tance with the picturesque castles towering above it. Two of these, 
the Tourbillon (*view) and Majoria , were burned down in 1788 ; 
Valeria , the third , erected on the site of an ancient Roman fort, 
is now a seminary for priests. The adjacent church of St. Cathe- 
rine , founded in the 9th cent., is architecturally interesting. 

Stat. St. Leonard , and then 

Sierre (1775 ft.) (*Hotel et Pension Baur, at the farther end ; 
Bellevue ; PosteJ, picturesquely situated on a hill, with several 
ruins in the vicinity, at present the terminus of the railway. Good 
wine is produced in the environs. 

Diligence hence over the Simplon. The road soon crosses the 
Rhone. German begins to be spoken at the small village of Pfyn, 
the boundary between the French and German languages. 

To the 1. rises the picturesque old village of Leuk, or Loeche, 
with its castle and towers , high above the Rhone. The road next 
passes through the hamlet of Susten (*H6tel de la Souste). 

9 M. Turtman (2086 ft.) (Post or Lowe; Sonne). To the 1., 
high up in the Latschenthal which opens here , rise the icy slopes 
of the Tschingel Olaeier ; to the r. in the background , above the 
Simplon group , is the extensive Kaltwasser Glacier (see below). 
To the 1., above Baron , rises the snow -clad Bietschhom 
(12,969 ft.). 

8i/ 2 M. Vispach or Visp, French Viege (2155 ft.) (*Sonne, R. 2, 
B. li/ 2) D. 4, A. 1/2 fr- i Post) is a small village with beautiful 
environs. *View from the sluice-gate and the cemetery. 

5!/ 4 M. Brieg (2244 ft.) (*Trois Couronnes ; *Angleterre, R. 2 J /2, 
B. II/2, A. and L. 1 fr.) , is a small town at the base of the Simplon. 

The Simplon Route , properly so called, which begins here, 
was constructed by order of Napoleon in 1800 — 1806, and after the 
Brenner (p. 53) was the first carriage-road across the Alps from 
Switzerland to Italy. The road quits the valley of the Rhone , as- 

RfiDEKEB. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 3 

34 Route 3. SIMPLON. From Martigny 

cends in numerous windings, and avoids the Oanterthal by means 
of a long circuit to the E. 

9 M. Berisal (5006 ft.), the 3rd Refuge, is also a post-station 
and *inn. Above the 4th Refuge a retrospect is obtained in clear 
weather of the Bernese Alps (to the N.) , from which the huge 
Aletsch Glacier descends. The part of the road between the ,5th 
Refuge and the culminating point is the most dangerous during 
the period of avalanches and storms. "Within a distance of less 
than 3 M. there are no fewer than six houses of refuge and a hos- 
pice. The road passes through the Kaltwasser Olacier Qallery, over 
which the stream issuing from the glacier is precipitated into the 
depths below , forming a waterfall which is visible through a side 
opening. From the 6th Refuge a splendid final view is enjoyed of 
the Bernese Alps ; far below in the Rhone Valley lies Brieg. 

The Simplon Pass (6594 ft.) is 6V2 M. from Berisal. About 
8/4 M. beyond the summit is the Hospice (no payment demanded 
for hospitality , but strangers should contribute at .least as much to 
the poor-box as they would have paid at an hotel) , a spacious 
building founded by Napoleon , but not completed till 1825. A 
broad, open valley, carpeted at places with Alpine roses, here forms 
the highest portion of the Simplon Pass , bounded by snow-capped 
heights and glaciers. The imposing Baut Glacier is a conspicuous 
object on the mountains to the S. The Old Hospice, a lofty square 
tower now tenanted by herdsmen, lies far below the new road. 

12'/ 2 M- Simplon (4856 ft.), Ger. Simpeln , Ital. Sempione 
(*Poste ; Hotel des Alpes). The road now describes a long curve 
to the S., which pedestrians may cut off by a rough path regaining 
the road at the Algaby Gallery , where the most remarkable part of 
the Simplon route begins. It leads through the *Ravine of Gondo, 
one of the wildest and grandest in the Alps , becoming narrower 
and more profound at every step, until its smooth and precipitous 
walls of mica-slate completely overhang the road , below which 
rushes the impetuous Diveria. The most remarkable of the cut- 
tings by which the road penetrates the rocks is the Gallery of 
Gondo, a tunnel 245 yds. in length, constructed by Napoleon in 
1805 and fortified by the Swiss in 1830. At the end of the tunnel 
the Fressinone (or Alpienbach) forms a fine waterfall which is cross- 
ed by a slender bridge. On both sides the rocks tower to a dizzy 
height of 2000 ft. The dark entrance of the tunnel forms a striking 
contrast to the white foam of the falling torrent. This magnificent 
Alpine *scene , especially when viewed at a distance of 40 — 50 
paces, surpasses the Via Mala (p. 43). Gondo ('2818 ft. ) is the last 
Swiss village ; 1 /2 M- beyond it is the Italian boundary-column. 
S. Marco is the seat of the Italian custom-house. 

9 M. Iselle (2175 ft.) (*Po<tu, K. 1V«, K. 1 ft.). The valley, 
although now less wild, continues to hf extremely picturesque. It 
unites with the broad and fertile valley of the Tosa (or Toce) at 

to Arena. DOMO D'OSSOLA. 3. Route. 35 

the bridge of Crevola, 100 ft. in height , below which it is termed 
the Val d'Ossola. The characteristics of the scenery are thoroughly 

9 M. Domo d'Ossola (1000 ft.) (Grand Hdtel de la Ville , spa- 
cious rooms; Hotel d'Espagne; one horse carr. to Stresa 12Y2, Ba- 
veno 15, Brieg 45, three-horse carr. to Brieg 80 fr. , diligence daily 
to Pallanza on Lago Maggiore , p. 145 , 6 fr.) is a small town of 
Italian character. At Masone, where the Anzasca Valley opens on 
the W., the Tosa is crossed. 

9 M. Vogogna (*Corona) , a small town , at the base of precipi- 
tous rocks. The next villages are (IV2 M.) Premosello, Cuzzago, 
and (41/2 M.) Migiandone , where the Tosa is crossed by a five- 
arched stone bridge. 

7^2 M. Ornavasso (Italia; Oroce Bianca). The marble-quarries 
in the vicinity yielded the material for the construction of the ca- 
thedral of Milan. T« the S. a road leads through the valley of the 
Strona, which falls into the Tosa near Gravellona (Europa), to the 
Lake of Orta (p. 149). Near Fariolo (Leone d'Oro) , the next vil- 
lage , situated in a most luxuriant district , covered with olive- 
groves , maize-fields , vineyards , chestnuts , and fig-trees , the 
road passes an extensive granite quarry, where the columns (26 ft. 
in height) of the restored Basilica S. Paolo fuori le Mura near 
Rome were hewn , and soon reaches the S. W. bank of Lago Mag- 
giore (R. 23) , from which in the distance rises Isola Madre , the 
most N. of the Borromean Islands. 

7V2 M. Baveno (*Bellevue ; Beau-Rivage) is a steamboat 
station. Travellers from the Simplon usually visit the Borromean 
Islands from this point. The road, most of which rests on buttresses 
of granite and solid masonry , skirts the lake and leads by Stresa 
(p. 146) , Belgirate, Lesa, and Meina, to 

12 M. Arona, see p. 146.' Railway to Milan see p. 147 ; to 
Genoa R. 25 : to Turin RR. 25, 18. 

4. From Lucerne to Como (and Milan) over the 
St. Gotthard. 

Steamboat from Lucerne to Fluelen 5 times daily in Q?\i hrs. (fare 
4 fr. 60 c.) ; from Fluelen to Camerlata Diligence twice daily in summer in 
223|4 hrs. (35 fr. 5 c, coupe 41 fr.). Through-tickets for this route may be 
procured at the post-office of Lucerne (where coupe-places are most easily 
secured) , on board the steamboat , at Fluelen, or at Altorf. Through- 
tickets are also issued at the railway-stations of Bale and Lucerne for 
Milan. Travellers are cautioned against forwarding their luggage across the 
frontier, but it may be safely transmitted by post or by goods' train within 
the limits either of Switzerland or Italy. The diligences have three seats 
in the coupe (comfortable, booking see above), and six in the interior (the 
two middle seats'inside of course afford little or no view) ; in addition to 
these , there are two very desirable seats outside, both at the disposal of 
the conductor, who will on application (5 — 6 fr.) assign one to the tra- 

36 Route 4. LUCERNE. From Lucerne 

Carriages (tariff of 1869). Cne-lwrse to Andermatt or Hospenthal 20, 
two-horse 35 fr. ; two-horse from Andermatt to the St. Gotthard Pass 15, 
Airolo 30, Faido 45, Bellinzona 70, Lugano 95, Magadino 85, Como 125 fr., 
and a gratuity (about 2 fr. per stage). These fares, if shared by four per- 
sons are little in excess of the coupe fares in the diligence. The inn- 
keepers at Fliielen and the other places just mentioned generally provide 
good carriages at these rates , but extortionate demands are sometimes 
made , especially on the Italian side , a spurious tariff being exhibited as 
an authority. In every contract the number of horses , duration of the 
journey, stations for the night, amount of driver's fee, etc., should be 
distinctly specified. The drivers are prohibited to change horses, private 
posting being illegal. 

St. Gotthard Railway. The St. Gotthard line now in course of con- 
struction will consist of the Lucerne, Kiissnaclit, anAGoldaii, the Zug, Qoldau, 
Fliielen, Gbschenen, Airolo, Biasca, Bellinzona, and Locarno, the Bellinzona, 
Lugano, and C/dasso (Camerlata), and the Bellinzona, Magadino, and Pino 
lines. The great St. Gotthard Tunnel will be 9'|4 M. in length (i. e. about 
l'|4 II. longer than the Mont Cenis Tunnel) , extending from Gbschenen 
(p. 38) on the N. side to Airolo (p. 39) on the S. side. From the central 
point of the tunnel (3779ft. above the sea-level, i. e. 610ft. lower than the 
highest point of the Mont Cenis tunnel) there will be a fall towards 
Gbschenen of 6' per 1000', and towards Airolo of 1' per 1000'. This stupend- 
ous work was begun in 1872 and is to be completed in 1880, at a cost of 
about 50 million fr. 

Lucerne (+Schweizerhof, *Luzerner Hop, both on the quay; *H6tel 
National, on the Kiissnaclit road ; these three expensive. Stadthof, near 
the quay; *Cygne, and * Hotel dh Rigi, both near the steamboat-pier. 
-Hotel dd Lac, on the 1. bank of the Eeuss, and +St. Gotthard, both 
near the station. * Balances. *Beadrivage, on the Kiissnaclit road. 
Adler, RSssli, *Poste, Hotel des Alpes, *-Mohr, Hirsch, Krone, Kreuz, 
and * Wilder Mann, all unpretending. Pensions, etc., see Baedekers 
* Switzerland), the capital of the canton of that name , with 14,524 
inhab., is situated at the efflux of the Beuss from the Lake of 
Lucerne. Its well-preserved walls and watch-towers, as well as 
its palatial modern hotels , impart a handsome appearance to the 
town. The view from the quay is strikingly beautiful. The 
celebrated *Lion of Lucerne ('V4M. from the Schweizerhof), design- 
ed by Thorvaldsen , is the principal attraction in the town. The 
Arsenal, on the 1. bank of the Reuss, may also be visited. Walks 
and excursions, see Baedeker's Switzerland. 

The *Lake of Lucerne (1433 ft.) , or Lake of the Four Forest- 
Cantons (viz. Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Lucerne), is unsurpassed 
in Switzerland, and perhaps in Europe , in the beauty and magni- 
ficence of its scenery. It is nearly cruciform in shape ; length from 
Lucerne to Fliielen 25 M., greatest width about 3 M. 

The Steamboats start from the railway station and touch at 
the piers on the opposite bank , near the hotels , before their final 
departure. Strikingly picturesque retrospect of the town , as the 
quay is quitted. As the vessel proceeds , the Uigi on the 1., Pila- 
tus on the r. , and the Biirgenstock and Stanser Horn opposite the 
traveller are the most conspicuous mountains. To the 1. of Pilatus, 
the Majestic Bernese Alps (Schreckhorner, M6nch , Eiger , Jung- 
frauj gradually become visible. 

to Como. FLUELEN. 4. Route. 37 

A view is soon obtained of the Lake of Kiissnacht to the 1., and 
of the Alpnacher See to the r.; on the bank to the 1. rises the chateau 
of Neu-Habsburg. The steamer soon reaches (1.) Waggis (Lowe ; 
Concordia), in a very fertile district, at the foot of the Rigi. 

The *Rigi (5905 ft.), an incomparable point of view, with its numerous 
hotels and pensions, is best ascended by railway from Vitznau (in l'^hr.) ; 
or on foot from Arth, Goldau, Kiissnacht, or Waggis in 3*|z hrs., from Im- 
mensee in 3 3 |4 hrs. , or from Oersau or Lowerz in 4 — 4'|2 hrs. , by bridle- 
paths leading to the Kulm (see Baedeker's Switzerland). 

The next village on the 1. is Vitznau , with the lofty red pre- 
cipice of the Rothenfluh, the terminus of the Rigi-railway. 

Two promontories, aptly termed the Nasen (noses) , the one a 
spur of the Rigi , the other of the Biirgenstock , here extend far 
into the lake and appear to terminate it. The bay towards the W. 
beyond this strait takes the name of the Lake of Buochs from the 
village of Buochs on the r. , above which rise the Buochser Horn 
(5938 ft.) and Stanser Horn (6232 ft.). 

(i. ) Beckenried (Mond; Sonne), delightfully situated. Then, 
on the opposite bank, Gersau (*Hotel Miiller ; Sonne) , high above 
which stands the pension of the Bigi-Scheideck (5406 ft.). 

To the E. rise the bald summits of the two Mythen (6243 ft. and 
5954 ft.) , at the base of which , 3 M. inland , lies the small town 
of Schwyz. On the bank of the lake , at the mouth of the Muotta, 
is situated Brunnen (*Waldstatter Hof; Adler ; *Rossli; *Hirsch), 
the port of the canton of Schwyz. To the r. on the hill, Morschach 
and Kurhaus Axenstein. On the opposite bank, in the canton of 
Uri, is Treib, a small harbour. On the hill above it stands the vil- 
lage of Seelisberg (2628 ft.) , with two favourite pensions near 
the chapel of Maria Sonnenberg (3287 ft.). 

Near Brunnen begins the S. arm of the lake , termed the Lake 
of Uri , the grandest part of. the lake , with mountains rising al- 
most perpendicularly on both sides. At the sharp angle which here 
abuts on the lake, rises the Wytenstein, or Mythenstein, a pyramid 
of rock , 80 ft. in height , bearing an inscription in honour of 
Schiller. A little farther , at the base of the Seelisberg , lies the 
RiMi , a meadow , memorable as the spot where on the night of 
7th Nov., 1307, the first Swiss league (between Uri, Schwyz, 
and Unterwalden) was solemnly concluded. A little farther, on 
the opposite bank , rises the Axenberg (3353 ft.) , at the base 
of which nestles the Chapel of Tell amid rock and wood. It stands 
on the Tells-Platte , a ledge of rock on the margin of the lake, 
where Tell is said to have sprung out of Gessler's boat when over- 
taken by a storm. Above it runs the *Axenstrasse , a highly 
picturesque road , leading from Brunnen to Fliielen , hewn in 
many places through the solid rock. Immediately above the chapel, 
2y 2 M. from Fliielen, is *Tell's Platte Hotel (steamboat-station). 

Fliielen, Ital. .Flora (1433 ft.) (* Adler; *Kreuz) , where pas^ 
sengers disembark, is beautifully situated at the S. end of the Lake 

38 Route 4. AMSTEG. From Lucerne 

of Lucerne, at the mouth of the Reuss. The St. Gotthard road leads 
hence to (2M.) Altorf (1535 ft.) (*Adler; *Schlussel; *Lowe; 
Krone ; Tell), the capital (2724inhah.) of the canton of Uri, where 
Tell is said to have aimed his arrow at the apple on his son's head. 
On a Mil beyond it, at the mouth of the Sehachenthal, lies the village 
of Biirglen (*Tell) , the traditionary birthplace of Tell. The road 
crosses the impetuous Schachenbach , and at the Klus, opposite the 
village of Erstfelden , approaches the Reuss. To the 1. rise the 
Kleine Windgelle (9846 ft.) and Grosse Windgelle or Sewelistock 
(10,463 ft.). Towards SUinen , which lies to the r. of the road, a 
tine view of the superb Bristenstock (10,085 ft.) is obtained. 

10y 2 M. Amsteg (1758 ft.) (*Stern; *Kreuz; *Hirsch; Lowe) 
lies picturesquely at the mouth of the Maderanerthal. 

The St. Gotthard Route, properly so called , begins at the new 
bridge over the Reuss a little beyond Amsteg. It was constructed 
in 1820 — 32 by the cantons of Uri and Ticino. The scenery sur- 
passes that of the other great Alpine routes. The road at first 
gradually ascends on the 1. bank of the Reuss, which flows in its 
deep channel far below. Near 

Jntschi (2168 ft.), a village iy 2 M. from Amsteg, a fall of the 
Leutschachbach is passed, and beyond it one of the Intsehialpbach. 
The Pfaffensprung bridge (2661 ft.) affords a beautiful view in both 
directions. The road next crosses the rapid Meienbach. The vil- 
lage of Wasen (2756 ft.) (*H6tel des Alpes ; *Ochs ; Krone), 6 M. 
from Intschi , is picturesquely situated on a height. To the r. of 
the Reuss bridge is a beautiful fall of the Rohralpbaeh, near Wat- 
tingen. To the W. of Gbschenen (3609 ft.) (Rbssli), 2y 4 M. from 
Wasen , opens the valley of the Gbschenen-Reuss, terminated by 
the grand Dammaftrn. About 1 M. beyond Goschenen, below the 
Vordere, or Haderli Brucke, is the N. entrance to the great St. 
Gotthard Tunnel (comp. pp. 36, 39), to which visitors are not 
admitted. Here begins the dark and rocky defile of the *Schbllenen. 
On both sides rise vast and almost perpendicular walls of granite, 
at the base of which dashes the impetuous Reuss. The road winds 
upwards and crosses numerous bridges. Pedestrians may cut off 
most of the curves by the old bridle-path. This part of the road 
is much exposed to avalanches , and is carried past the most dan- 
gerous spot by a gallery or tunnel, 80 yds. in length. 

The *Devil's Bridge (4593 ft.), in the midst of a scene of wild 
desolation, is now reached. The Reuss here forms a beautiful fall, 
about 100 ft. in height, the spray of which bedews the bridge 
above. The old moss-grown bridge below is disused. In 1799 this 
spot was the scene of fierce struggles between the French and 
Austrians, and a month later between French and Russians. Im- 
mediately beyond the bridge the road passes through the Urner 
Loch, a tunnel 70 yds. long, cut through the solid rock in 1707, 

to Como. AIROLO. 4. Route. 39 

but not accessible to carriages until it was enlarged when the new 
road was constructed. 

The Valley of Vri, or Urseren , which the road enters beyond 
the tunnel , forms a striking contrast to the bleak region just tra- 
versed. This peaceful dale, watered by the Reuss, and surrounded 
by lofty and partially snow-clad mountains , was probably a lake 
before the Reuss had forced a passage through the Schollenen. 

131/2 M. Andermatt (4730 ft.), or Urseren, Ital. Orsera (*Bel- 
levue; *St. Gotthard; Drei Kbnige ; *Oberalp; Krone), 1 M. from 
the Devil's Bridge , is the principal village in the valley. The 
Oberalp route to the valley of the Vorder-Rhein andCoire, diverges 
here to the left. 

Hospenthal (4800 ft.) (*Meyerhof; *Lowe , unpretending), 
IY2 M. farther, derives its name from a former hospice. The Furca 
road to Realp and the Rhone Glacier diverges here to the right. 

The St. Gotthard road now ascends in numerous windings 
through a desolate valley , on the 1. bank of that branch of the 
Reuss which descends from the Lake of Lucendro (6831 ft.) (not 
visible from the road), and crosses the river for the last time by 
the Rodont Bridge, i l /t M. from the summit of the Pass of St. 
Gotthard (6936 ft.). It then leads between several small lakes 
and traverses a dreary valley , enclosed by the highest snow-clad 
peaks of the St. Gotthard group. 

10 M. Albergo del S. Oottardo (6867 ft.), a post-station, Y 4 M. 
beyond the pass. Opposite is the *Hotel du Mont Prosa, adjoining 
which is the Hospice for poor travellers. Pedestrians may descend 
to Airolo in IV2 hr. Snow often lies on the pass throughout the 

About !/2 M. below the hospice the road crosses the Ticino, the 
principal arm of which rises in the Lago di Sella to the E. (not 
visible from the road). A little farther, near a large mass of rock 
lying by the road, an inscription near the old bridle-path commem- 
orates the events of 1799; the words 'Suwarow Victor' only are 
now legible. Near the 1st Refuge, Cantoniera S. Antonio, the road 
enters the Val Tremola, a dreary valley l 1 /^ M. long, into which 
avalanches are frequently precipitated in winter and spring. Pe- 
destrians follow the telegraph-wires. Beyond the Val Tremola an 
extensive *view of the green valley of Airolo down to Quinto is 
obtained. To the r. opens the Val Bedretto, from which the W. 
arm of the Ticino descends. In the bottom of the valley below the 
road is the S. end of the great St. Ootthard Tunnel (p. 36), 
1/2 M. to the W. of 

8 M. Airolo (3868 ft.) (*Posta), the first village where Italian is 
spoken. Below Airolo on the 1. opens the Val Canaria. The road 
enters the Stretto di Stalvedro , a defile which in 1799 was defended 
by 600 French against 3000 Russians, and passes by means of rock- 
hewn galleries through four parallel ridges which descend to the 

40 Route 4. BELLINZONA. From Lucerne 

Ticino. On the r. bank , 1 M. below the ravine , is the beautiful 
waterfall of the Calcaccia. 

Beyond the poor inn of Dazio Qrande (3110 ft.) the mouth of 
a second *ravine is reached. The Ticino has here forced a pas- 
sage through the Monte Piottino , and precipitates itself in a 
succession of *cataracts through the gloomy ravine into which the 
road descends close to the falls. To the r., near Faido, where the 
culture of the vine begins, is a beautiful fall of the Piumogna. 

101/2 M. Faido (2366 ft.) (*Angelo ; Prince of Wales; Hotel 
Vella), a village of thoroughly Italian character, is the capital of 
the Leventina, as the valley of the Ticino is termed. This district 
formerly belonged to the Canton of Uri , and was despotically go- 
verned by bailiffs who purchased their appointments from the 
authorities , but this system was abolished by the French in 1798. 
In 1814 the Leventina and the seven other Italian bailiwicks belong- 
ing to Switzerland were united under the name of Canton Tessin 
or Ticino. 

Beautiful scenery , with numerous campanili in the Italian 
style peeping most picturesquely from the surrounding heights. 
Cascades on both sides of the road ; that of the *Cribiasca resembles 
a veil in form. Huge masses of rock lie scattered about, intersper- 
sed with fine chestnut-trees. Vines and mulberry trees now begin 
to appear. Where the road descends in windings to the bottom of 
the valley , the Ticino forms another beautiful fall , spanned by 
a bridge over which the road passes. Beyond Oiornico (1325 ft.) 
(Cervo ; Corona) another picturesque waterfall on the r., termed 
La Cramosina. 

9i/o M. Bodio (1086 ft.) (Posta; Aquila). Beyond Polleggio 
the Brenno descends from the Val Blegno to the Ticino. The 
valley of the Ticino now expands and takes the name of 
Riviera, or river-valley. Luxuriant vines, chestnuts, walnuts, 
mulberries , and fig-trees now remind the traveller of his 
proximity to 'the garden of the earth, fair Italy'. The vines extend 
their dense foliage over wooden trellis-work supported by stone 
pillars, 10 — 12 ft. in height. Frequent inundations render the 
district unhealthy. The next village, 3 M. from Bodio, is Biasca 
(Unione), with an old Romanesque church on a hill (1112 ft.). 

6 3 / 4 M. Osogna (964 ft.). At Cresciano several picturesque 
waterfalls. On the 1., above Cluro. rises the monastery of S. Maria. 
On the 1. descends the road from the Bernardino (p. 47), and a 
little farther the road crosses the Moesa which rises on the Ber- 
nardino. Arbedo (p. 47) lies to the 1. of the road. 

91/2 M. Bellinzona (777 ft.) (*Posta; Hdtel de la Ville, outside 
the S. gate; *Angelo, Italian style), one of the three capitals of the 
canton of Ticino, presents a strikingly picturesque appearance when 
viewed from a distance, but the charm is dispelled when the town 
is entered. The three picturesque castles were once the residence 

to Como. MONTE CENERE. 4. Route. 41 

of the bailiffs of the three ancient confederate cantons. The largest, 
the Castello Orande, on an isolated hill to the "W., belonged to Uri ; 
of the other two, towards the E., the lower, II Castello di Mezzo, 
belonged to Schwyz, and the Castello Corbario or Corbi (1502 ft.), 
the upper , now a ruin , to Unterwalden. Each once possessed a 
small garrison and a few guns. The Castello Grande is now used 
as an arsenal and prison ; visitors are admitted to the court and 
gardens to see the beautiful view (fee to the guide). Another 
admirable point is the loftily situated pilgrimage- chapel of S. 
Maria della Salute. 

The road now descends the broad valley of the Ticino, which 
expands as the Lago Maggiore is approached. The luxuriance of 
the vegetation and the beautiful forms of the mountains enhance 
the charms of the scenery. Near Cadenazzo (751 ft.) the road to 
Magadino (p. 143) on the Lago Maggiore diverges to the r. The 
road now quits the valley and winds upwards for 4y 2 M. through 
a beautiful chestnut wood, along the slope of Monte Cenere , com- 
manding a succession of * views of Bellinzona and the Ticino 
Valley , the influx of the latter into the Lago Maggiore, the N. 
end of that lake, and Locarno (p. 143). On the summit of the pass 
(1814 ft.) stands a guard house (Corpo di Ouardia), and near it 
the Osteria Nuova (inn). The road then descends through a fertile 
valley to 

9'/2 M. Bironico (1420 ft.), where the Vedeggio (a stream which 
rises a few miles to the E. at the base of the Monte Camoghe, 
usually dry in summer) is reached. 

The Monte Camoghe (7303 ft.), generally ascended (6—7 hrs.) from Bel- 
linzona or Bironico, commands a magnificent view of the broad plain of 
Lombardy , and the Alps from Piedmont to the Valtellina. A survey of 
the lakes may also be obtained from the summit of Monte Cenere (3776 ft.), 
2 hrs. from the Osteria Nuova. 

Beyond Bironico the scenery is picturesque and the country 
fertile; the double-peaked Mte. Camoghe is kept constantly on 
the 1. ; 3 3 / 4 M. Taverne Superiori; l / t M. *Taverne Inferiori; 
2^2 M. Cadempino ; 1 M. Vezia (view from the church of Ma- 
donna di S. Martino). 

Towards (IV2 M.) Lugano, during the descent, the beauty and 
fertility of the country increase. The hill and shrine of Monte S. 
Salvatore first become visible ; then the lake , in the clear green 
water of which the beautiful outlines of the mountains are reflected. 
The road passes several handsome villas and soon reaches the town 
with its flat-roofed houses. In the foreground are the extensive 

93/4 M. Lugano (932 ft.), and thence to 

193/4 M. Como, see R. 22, No. 2. 

From Como to Milan, see R. 20. 


5. From Coire to Colico (and Milan) over the 

75>| 2 M. Diligence from Coire to Colico twice daily in summer in 
16'|4 hrs. (coupe 27 fr. 90 c, interior 24 fr. 5 c). Remarks as to diligence- 
seats, see p. 35. Through-ticket from Coire to Milan 33 fr. 5, 31 fr. 65 c, 
to Genoa 51 fr. 50, 45 fr. 65 c, to Florence 71 fr. 35, 61 fr. 80 c. 

Coire (2208 ft.) (*Steinbock; *Freieck; *Lukmanier , near the 
station; *Stern, *RotherL6we, and Sonne, second class), Ger. Chur, 
situated on the Plessur, l 1 ^ M. from its confluence with the Rhine, 
is the capital of the Canton of the Grisons or Graubiinden , with 
7552 inhab., and an episcopal residence. Within the Episcopal 
Court, which is surrounded by walls and rises above the town, are 
the *Cathedral of St. Lucius , the oldest part of which is said to 
date from the 8th cent, (choir 1178 — 1208 , nave consecrated in 
1282) , and the mediaeval Episcopal Palace. The Chapel , one of 
the earliest Christian structures in this district , lies within the 
walls of the old Roman tower of Marsoel (Mars in oeulis), which is 
connected with the Palace on the N. This tower and another named 
Spinoel (Spina in oeulis) form the N. angles of the Court. Their 
names suggest the mode in which the Rhaetians were kept in sub- 
jection by the Romans. An ancient tower to the N.W. and the 
adjacent wall also appear to be of Roman origin. 

The Diligence Road from Coire (leading to the Spliigen , the 
Bernardino , and the Vorder Rheinthal) ascends the broad valley 
of the Rhine , and is nearly level as far as Reichenau. On the 
opposite bank of the river , at the base of the Calanda, lies the 
village of Felsberg, which was partly destroyed by a landslip in 
1850. The road passes through the thriving village of Ems, near 
the ruins of the old castle of Hohenems. A dark covered bridge, 
84 yds. long, and 85 ft. above the Rhine, now carries the road to 

6 M. Reichenau (1922 ft.) (*Adler), a group of houses at the 
confluence of the Vorder and Hinter-Rhein. The chateau of M. 
de Planta, built by the bishops of Coire and used as a school at 
the close of the last century, afforded refuge to Louis Philippe 
in 1794. 

A second covered wooden bridge crosses the Vorder- Rhein, 
immediately before its confluence with the Hinter-Rhein. (Through 
the valley of the Vorder-Rhein a post-road, not crossing this bridge, 
leads to Disseniis , whence a bridle-path crosses the Lukmiinier to 
Olivone; a post-road leads from the latter to Biasca on the St. 
Gotthard route, p. 40.) 

The road soon ascends for a short distance, and passes the villages 
of (1 M.) Bonaduz (2146 ft.) and (3/ 4 M.) Rhazuns, with a castle 
of the Vieli family. The Domleschg Valley, Romansch Tomiliasca, 
as the E. bank of the valley of the Hinter-Rheir. is here termed 
(the W. side is called Heinzenberg, or Montagna) , is remarkable for 
its fertility and its numerous castles . 

THTJSIS. 5. Route. 43 

Between the Bridge of Rotheribrunnen and Katzia are the castles 
of Juvalta, Ortenstein, Paspels, Canova, and Rietberg on the 1. and 
that of Realta on the r. Towards (2y 4 M.) Katzis (2185 ft.) (Kreuz) 
the scenery is particularly fine. To the S. rises the snow-clad 
summit of the Piz Carver (9761 ft.); beyond this, to the 1., the 
Schyn Pass with the majestic Piz St. Michel (10,371 ft.) in the 
background ; to the N. the Rirtgelspitz (10,659 ft) and the Trinser- 
horn (9934 ft.). Near the village Of Masein rises the castle of 

11 M. Thusis (2447 ft.), Romansch Tusaun (Tuscia) (*Via 
Mala; *Adler ; *Rhaetia), lies at the confluence of the Rhine and 
the Nolla , the turbid water of which tinges the Rhine for a con- 
siderable distance. Interesting view from the bridge over the Nolla. 
In the background of the valley towers the barren Piz Beverin 
(9843 ft.). The valley of the Rhine is apparently terminated by lofty 
mountains. The entrance of the ravine of the Rhine is guarded on 
the r. bank by the ruined castle of Hohen-Rhatien, or Hoch-Realt, 
on the S. side of the mountain; while on the N. side stands the 
Chapel of St. John, the oldest Christian church in the valley. 

Prior to 1822 the bridle-path from Thusis ascended the valley 
of the Nolla on the r. bank through forest , and entered the gorge 
below Rongellen. The path through the gorge, the celebrated *Via 
Mala, was then only 4 ft. wide, and followed the 1. bank. The 
new road was constructed in 1822. The limestone-rocks rise almost 
perpendicularly on both sides to a height of 1600 ft. At the Kan- 
zeli , a little way from the entrance of the ravine, there is a fine 
retrospect. About H/ 2 M. from Thusis is the Verlorne Loch, a 
tunnel 50 yds. long, penetrating the projecting rock. Beyond it 
the road passes beneath a huge overhanging cliff. At the point 
where the side-wall ceases aijd the wooden railings recommence, a 
view of the brawling torrent is obtained. The retrospective view, 
through the narrow and gloomy defile , of the solitary tower of 
Hohen-Rhaetien and the sunny slopes of the Heinzenberg beyond is 
very striking. 

Near the (8/4 M.) post-house of Rongellen the gorge expands, 
but soon again contracts. The road crosses the river three times at 
short intervals. The scene is most imposing in the vicinity of the 
*Second Bridge, 1 M. from Rongellen. The Rhine, 300 ft. below the 
road, winds through a ravine so narrow that the precipices above 
almost meet. In Aug. 1834 and Sept. 1868 the river rose to within 
a few feet of the arch of the bridge. At the third bridge, about 
1 M. farther, the Via Mala ends. 

The road now enters the more open Valley of Schams (2838 ft. , 
Vallis Sexamniensis, from the six brooks which descend from the 
rocks ; Ital. Sessame), the green meadows and cheerful cottages of 
which present a pleasant contrast to the sombre defile just quitted. 
To the S. in the background are the peaks of the Hirli (9360 ft.). 

44 Route 5. SPLUGEN. From Coire 

Above the old bridge the Rhine forms a small waterfall. The first 
village in the valley of Schams (6 M. from Thusis) is Zillis, Roman. 
Ciraun (Inn), 'with the oldest church in the valley. On the hill 
to the r. stands the ruined castle of Fardiln, or La Turr. Far- 
ther down is the village of Donat, above which towers the Piz 
Be verin . 

71/2 M. Andeer (3212 ft.) (*Krone, or Hotel Fravi) is the 
principal village in the valley, with 583 inhab. Near it stands 
the tower of Castellatsch. Fine view of the valley from the church, 
built in 1673. 

The road ascends in windings , passes the ruins of the Baren- 
burg , and enters the *Roffna Ravine , a gorge 3 M. in length, in 
which the Rhine forms a series of waterfalls. Near the entrance 
the Averser Rhein descends from the Ferrera Valley and joins the 

Towards the end of the gorge, the Einshorn comes into view. 
An ancient bridge crosses the Rhine here. Farther on, a rocky 
gateway (Sassa. Plana), 16 yds. in length, is passed. The open 
Alpine landscape of the Rheinwaldthal (Vol Rhein) is now dis- 
closed ; to the r. is the village of Suvers (4672 ft.) ; opposite rise 
the Pizza Uccello (8910 ft.) and the Einshorn (9649 ft.); to the 1. 
of the Spliigen , near the Uccello , is the Tambohorn (10,748 ft.) ; 
to the W. the Zapporthorn (9803 ft.), etc. 

8V4 M. Spliigen (4757 ft.), Roman. Spluga (*HotelBodenhaus), 
the capital of the Rheinwaldthal , is a busy place, owing to its po- 
sition at the junction of the Spliigen and Bernardino routes. The 
latter (p. 46) here runs towards the "W. The Spliigen route turns 
to the 1., crosses the Rhine, and ascends in windings, passing 
through a tunnel 93 yds. in length. Retrospect of the barren Kalk- 
berg rising above Spliigen. The road then enters a bleak valley 
and ascends on the W. side by numberless zigzags, passing a soli- 
tary Refuge, to the summit of the Spliigen Pass (6945 ft.) (Colmo 
dell' Orso), 3803 ft. below the precipitous Tambohorn, or Schnee- 
horn (10,748 ft.). To the E. rise the Surettahorner (9925 ft.). 
This narrow ridge forms the boundary between Switzerland and 
Italy. The pass , which was known to the Romans, was traversed 
by a bridle-path only down to 1818. The road was constructed by 
the Austrian government in 1819 — 21. About 3 / 4 M. beyond the 
pass is the Dogana (6247 ft.), the Italian custom-house, a group 
of houses with a poor inn, at the head of a bleak valley surrounded 
by lofty mountains. 

The road now descends by numberless zigzags along the E. 
slope, being protected against avalanches by three long galleries. 
Beyond the second gallery a beautiful view is obtained of Isola and 
the old road, destroyed by an inundation in 1834. The new road 
avoids the. dangerous Liro gorge between Isola and Campo Dolcino. 
Beyond Pianazzo, near the entrance to a short gallery, the Madesimo 

to Colico. CHIAVENNA. 5. Route. 45 

forms a magnificent *waterfall , about 700 ft. in height , which is 
best surveyed from a small platform by the road-side. 

15'/2 M. Campo Dolcino (3553 ft.) consists of four groups of 
houses. The first contains the church , surrounded by ash-trees, 
and the ' Campo Santo'. At the second, ^2 M. farther, is the Post 
Inn (R. 1^2 B. 1 fr.). The Liro Valley is strewn which fragments 
of rock, but the wildness of the scene is softened by the luxuriant 
foliage of the chestnuts lower down , from which rises the slender 
white campanile of the church of Madonna di Gallivaggio. Near 
8. Oiacomo there are whole forests of chestnuts, which extend far 
up the steep mountain slopes. The vineyards of Chiavenna soon 
begin, and the rich luxuriance of Italian vegetation unfolds itself 
to the view. 

8 1/ 2 M. Chiavenna (1040 ft.) (*ffitel Conradi; CMaved'Oro; 
Chiavenna beer is the best in N. Italy), the Roman Clavenna, an 
ancient town with 3800 inhab., is charmingly situated on the Maira, 
at the mouth of the Vol Bregaglia, through which the road to the 
Maloja Pass and the Engadine leads. Opposite the post-office are 
the extensive ruins of a castle, formerly the property of the Dt 
Sails family, and frequently besieged in ancient times. Picturesque 
view from the castle-garden or 'paradiso' (fee Y2 fr-)' which ex- 
tends along an isolated vine-clad rock. S. Lorenzo , the principal 
church, near the post-office, has an elegant slender clock-tower or 
campanile, rising from the old Campo Santo, or burial-ground, with 
its arcades. The Battisterio contains an ancient font adorned, with 

The road to Colico at first traverses vineyards ; farther on , the 
effects of the inundations of the Maira, and its tributary the Liro, 
which joins it below Chiavenna, become apparent. Near 

6 M. Riva the road reaches the Lago di Riva , or di Mezzola, 
which , before the construction of the road, travellers were obliged 
to cross by boat. This piece of water originally formed the N. bay 
of the Lake of Como , but the deposits of the Adda have in the 
course of ages almost entirely separated the two lakes , and they 
are now connected by a narrow channel only. The road skirts the 
E. bank of the lake, in some places supported by embankments and 
masonry, in others passing through galleries, and crosses the Adda. 
Before the road joins the Stelvio route (p. 52), the ruins of the 
castle of Fuentes, erected by the Spaniards in 1603 , and destroyed 
by the French in 1796, are seen on the r. It was formerly situated 
on an island, and considered the key of the Val Tellina. At 

9 M. Colico (722 ft.) {Isola Bella, Angelo, both in the Italian 
style), the Lake of Como is reached. The Swiss diligence runs as 
far as Lecco (p. 136). Diligence to Bormio in 14, to Sondrio 5, 
Tirano 9 hrs. — From Colico to Como, and from Como to Milan, 
see R. 20. 

6. From Spliigen to Bellinzona. S. Bernardino 

45i| 2 M. Diligence in 7'|2 hrs. (fare 15 fr. 20, coupe 17 fr. 55 c). 
Carriage with two horses from Coire to Bellinzona 170, to Lugano 200 fr. 

Spliigen, see p. 44. The road ascends the upper Rheinwald- 
thal , or Val Rhein , where traces of the great inundation of 1868 
are still visible , and passes (IV2 M.) Medels , (IV4 M.) Ebi, and 
(l 3 / 4 M.) Novenna, or Nufenen (5170 ft.), at the mouth of the 

6V2 M. Hinterrhein (5328 ft.J (*Post) is the highest village in 
the valley. The source of the Hinter- Rhein may be visited hence 
in 4 hrs. 

The Bernardino Road , constructed in 1819 — 23, crosses the 
Rhine J /2 M. beyond the village, and winds up a steep slope com- 
manding a fine view of the valley. On reaching the top it leads 
through a bleak valley to the S. Bernardino Pass (6768 ft.), which 
was known to the Romans, and was called the Vogelberg down to the 
15th century. When >S. Bernardino of Siena preached the gospel in 
this region a chapel was erected on the W. slope and gave its name 
to the pass. Near the small ( 3 |4M.) Lago Moesola, where several 
rare plants occur, is the large Casa di Rifugio (Inn). From the S. 
end of the lake issues the Mo'esa , which the road follows down to 
its confluence with the Ticino above Bellinzona. The river forms 
a fine waterfall and is crossed by a handsome bridge. Farther on, 
the road is protected against avalanches by a roof. The S. side of 
the mountain is much more precipitous than the N., but the wind- 
ings of the road are so ingeniously contrived that the descent pre- 
sents no difficulty. 

10!/2 M. S. Bernardino (5335 ft.) (Hotel Brocco ; Ravizza; 
Motto), the highest village in he Val Mesocco, or Mesolcina, pos- 
sesses a mineral spring which attracts invalids in summer. The val- 
ley opens into the Riviera (p. 40) near Bellinzona. The lower part 
of this valley contrasts strongly with the Rheinwaldthal in language, 
customs, scenery, and climate. Everything here is Italian and the 
inhabitants exclusively Roman Catholic , Card. Borromeo having 
successfully crushed the first germs of the Reformation in the 16th 

The road ascends : l 3 / 4 M. fall of the Mo'esa, l 3 / 4 M. S. Giacomo, 
1/2 M. Cebbia. In order to see the fall to advantage, take the path 
between S. Bernardino and S. Giacomo which runs first on the 1., 
and then on the r. bank. The road descends in numerous wind- 
ings, which command fine views. Beautiful distant views from 
the bridge of S. Giacomo (3757 ft.). 

9 VF. Mesocco, or Cremeo (2559 ft.) (*Toscani; Desteffanis) is 
charmingly situated amidst walnuts, chestnuts, vines, and maize- 
fields. Numerous brooklets fall from the surrounding mountains. 

INNSBRUCK. 7. Route. 47 

Between Mesocco and Lostallo there are eight considerable -water- 
falls. Fine view here of the imposing ruins of the castle of Misox 
(Monsax, Matux, Mesocco), V2 M. below the village , destroyed 
in 1526. 

Beyond (IV2 M Soaxm (2067 ft. J the bottom of the valley is 
reached, and the road becomes level. Near the second bridge below 
Soazza the Buffalora forms a fine cascade near the road. Near 
(13/ 4 M.) Cabbiolo another waterfall ; then (1 M.) Lostallo (1562 ft.) 
(Posta), with extensile vineyards. The first figs and mulberries 
are seen near the Capuchin monastery of 

93/4 M. Coma (1260 ft.). The next villages are (3/ 4 M.) Leggia 
and (1^4 M.) Orono (1000 ft.), the latter at the entrance to the 
Val Calanca, with the massive tower of Florentina; then (l'/4 M.) 
Roveredo (974 ft.) (Posta; Croce; *Angelo), the capital of the 
lower Val Mesocco with the ruined castle of the Trivulzio family. 

S. Vittore (882 ft.) is the last village in the Grisons, Lumino 
the first in the Canton Ticino. On this side the bridge over the 
Moesa the road unites with the St. Gotthard route (p. 40). Below 
the confluence of the Moesa and the Ticino stands Arbedo (813 ft.), 
where a battle was fought in 1422 between 24,000 Milanese and 
3000 Swiss, in which 2000 of the latter fell. 

9 3 /4 M. Bellinzona, see p. 40. 

7. From Innsbruck to Colico (and Milan) over the 


200 M. Diligence from Innsbruck to Landeck daily (at 4 a. m.) in 
8 3 |4 hrs., from Landeck to Mala 4 times weekly in 8'|2 hrs. — Stellwagen 
daily from Innsbruck to Landeck, and from Landeck to Mais. — Diligence 
in summer from Eyrs to the Baths of Bormio daily in ll'la hrs. (fare 
12 fr. 55 c). There are also open carriages. (If a seat in one of the 
latter cannot be procured, it is pleasanter in fine weather to walk over 
the pass.) — Messagebie between Bormio and Sondrio, and between Sondrio 
and Colico daily. From 1st Oct. to 15th June no diligence from Eyrs to 
Sondrio (carriage with two horses 60 fr.). 

The Stelvio Road , the highest in Europe , 9045 ft. above the sea- 
level, was constructed by the Austrian government in 1820—25. The bold 
and skilful construction of the road and the grandeur of the scenery ren- 
der this one of the most remarkable routes in E»rope. The vast glaciers 
and snow-fields of the Ortler and Monte Cristallo present a striking con- 
trast to the vineclad slopes of the Valtellina, and the luxuriant southern 
vegetation of the banks of the Lake of Como. Pedestrians are strongly 
recommended not to take any of the short cuts , as all the finest views 
are from the road itself. Since the evacuation of Lombardy by the Aus- 
trians, the road on the Tyrolese side was much neglected, but has since 
been repaired. 

Innsbruck {Oesterreich. Hof, *Goldne Sonne, both near the 
post-office ; *Europdischer Hof, opposite the station ; Stadt Miinchen, 
near the station; *Goldner Adler ; Hirsch; Stem, on the 1. bank of 
the Inn), the capital of the Tyrol, with 16,000 inhab. and a gar- 
rison of 1500 men, is charmingly situated on both banks of the 
Inn, in the midst of a broad and fertile valley enclosed by lofty 

48 Route 7. LANDECK. From Innsbruck 

mountains. The chief object of interest in the town is the *Hof- 
kirche, or Franciscan Church, built at the beginning of the 16th 
cent., and containing the *monuments of Emp. Maximilian I. by 
Alex. Colin (d. 1612) and of Andreas Hofer, in white marble, by 

The road ascends on the 1. bank of the Inn , passing the Mar- 
tinswand (3778 ft.) , a precipice where the Emp. Maximilian I. 
nearly lost his life in 1493, while chamois-hunting. At the base 
of the cliff lies 

8 M. Zirl (2001 ft.) (*Stem; Lowe). On the r. rises the 
ruined castle of Fragenstein. Near 

9 M. Telfs (Post; Lowe) the road crosses the Inn and passes 
the considerable (1.) Cistercian monastery of Stams. Beyond 

8 M. Silz (Steinbock), with a handsome modern church, rises 
the wooded Petersberg on the 1., crowned with the ruined castle of 
that name. Beyond Haimingen the road crosses the Inn to Mager- 
bach (*Inn by the bridge) and skirts the base of the Tschurgant 
(7766 ft.). A remarkable view is obtained here of the masses of 
debris with which the Oetzihaler Ache, descending from the Oetz- 
thal, covers the whole valley. 

IIV2 M. Imst (*Post) is a well-built village at the base of the 
Laggersberg and the Platteinkogl. The road again descends and 
approaches the Inn at the base of the Laggersberg. Mils possesses 
a pretty modern church. Beyond Starkenbach the imposing ruins 
of the Kronburg rise on a lofty eminence on the opposite bank. 
The bridge over the Inn near Zams (2722 ft.) has frequently been 
the scene of fierce battles 

14 M. Landeck (2638 ft.) (*Schwarzer Adler; Post; Ooldner 
Adler), a considerable village on both banks of the Inn, is com- 
manded by the old castle of the same name. A road leads hence 
over the Arlberg to Bludenz, from which a railway runs to Bregenz 
and to Lindau. 

The road passes the castle on the r. bank of the river, which 
here forces its way through a narrow ravine and forms several ra- 
pids. The Pontlatzer Bridge, 6 M. from Landeck , has frequently 
proved a most disastrous spot to the Bavarian invaders of the Tyrol. 

On the r., on a precipitous rock above Prutz, stands the ruin of 
Laudegg. Near it, on the height, is the village of Ladis, 1 hr. from 
Prutz, with sulphur-baths ; */2 hr. higher up are the charmingly 
situated baths of Obladis. Prutz (Rose), where the road recrosses 
the Inn, lies in a swampy plain at the entrance of the Kaunserthal. 

91/4 M. Kied (2871 ft.) (*Post; Adler) is a thriving village, 
with the castle of Siegsmundsried , the seat of the local authorities. 
At Tosens the Inn is again crossed. 

9!/ 4 M. Pfunds (*Traube) consists of two groups of houses, 
separated by the river. To the S. W. rises the Mondin-Femer, 
one of the N. Engadine chain. 

to Colico. MALS. 7. Route. 49 

Above Pfunds the road crosses the Inn and gradually ascends 
on the r. bank, hewn at places in the perpendicular rock , or sup- 
ported by solid masonry, and commanding picturesque views of the 
narrow valley of the Inn. The finest point is at *Hoch-Finstermunz 
(3730 ft.) (*Inn), about 41/2 M. from Pfunds, a small group of houses 
on the road. Far below is the old Finstermunz tower (3294 ft.) 
and a bridge over the Inn. These, with the defile through which 
the river issues from the Engadine, and the mountains in the back- 
ground, form a very striking picture. 

9y 2 M. Nauders (4462 ft.) (*Post; Mondschein), with the old 
castle of Naudersberg, which contains the district court of justice. 

The road now ascends to the Reschen-Scheideck (4898 ft.), the 
watershed between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. Beyond the 
village of Reschen (4839 ft.) (*Stern), near the muddy lake of that 
name, a very striking *view is disclosed. The entire background is 
formed by the snow and ice-fields of the Ortler chain. The Etsch, 
Italian Adige, rises near Reschen, flows through the lake , and also 
through the Mittersee and Heidersee, which the road passes farther on. 

9 M. St. Valentin auf der Heide (4695 ft.) (*Post) , formerly 
the hospice of the bleak and rocky Maker Heide, where 8000 in- 
habitants of the Grisons defeated an army of Emp. Maximilian of 
double that number in 1499. The beauty of the view increases as 
the road approaches the Vintschgau (Val Venosta). The Ortler con- 
tinues to form the imposing background. As the road descends, 
the villages of Mais, Olurns, and Tartsch, when viewed from the 
height, almost appear to form a single town. To the r., before 
Mais is reached , is seen the village of Burgeis, with its red spire, 
and the castle of Furstenburg , now occupied by a number of poor 
families. Farther on, the Benedictine Abbey of Marienberg lies on 
the hill to the r. 

7 M. Mais (3478 ft.) (*P6st; *Hirsch; Gam) is a small town 
of Roman origin. Beyond it the ancient tower of the Frblichsburg 
is passed. In the distance to the r., on the opposite bank of the 
Etsch, rises the handsome but dilapidated castle of Lichtenberg. To 
the 1. of the road , near Schluderns, is the Churburg , a chateau of 
Count Trapp. At Spondinig (2917 ft.) (*Inn) the road crosses the 
broad, marshy valley of the Etsch and the river itself by a long bridge, 
which forms the boundary between the Upper and Lower Vintschgau. 

91/4 M. Prad (3100 ft.) (Post), or Bivio di Prad. The road now 
enters the narrow valley of the Trafoi-Bach. On the mountain to 
the r. lies the village of Stilfs, Ital. Stelvio, from which this route 
derives its name. 

Pedestrians are recommended to cross the valley from Mais to Glurns, 
a small town with an ancient church, and proceed thence along the 
foot of the mountain by the castle of Lichtenberg and Agums , to Prad, a 
walk of 2'|2 hrs. 

Near Oomagoi (Inn), with its large 'Defensive Barracks', the 
wild Suldenthal opens on the E. To the S. the snow mountains of 

B/kdekeb. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 4 

50 Route 7. STELYIO PASS. From Innsbruck 

Trafoi come in sight ; to the N. the Weisskugel, the second highest 
of the Oetzthal Alps, long remains visible. 

6 M. Trafoi (5079 ft.) (*Post), a group of half-a-dozen houses, 
is beautifully situated. Pleasant walk of 3 4 hr. to the *Three Holy 
Springs , which rise in the valley below at the foot of the Ortler 
(guide unnecessary). 

The Stelvio route now ascends in bold windings, commanding 
a fine view of the vast Mondatsch or Madatsch Glacier, overshadowed 
by the Madatsch-Spitz. At the Cantoniera al Bosco, which was 
destroyed in 1848, the road passes close to the glacier. 

4'/ 2 M. Franzenshohe (7159 ft.) (* Wallnofer), a post-station 
destroyed by Italian irregular troops in 1848, has since been re- 
stored. The road ascends in numerous windings. Vegetation grad- 
ually disappears , and scanty moss alone is seen clinging to the 

The summit of the Stelvio Pass (9045 ft.), Germ. SUlfser Joch, 
about Q l /-2 M. from the Franzenshohe , is the boundary between 
Austria and Italy ; l /-> M. N. is also the boundary of Switzerland 
(Grisons). A workmen's house stands at the top. 

A footpath ascends by the house to the 1. in 20 min. to a rocky 
height which commands an extensive *panorama. The view of the Ortler 
(12,812 ft.), the highest mountain in Germany, is very striking. Below 
in the foreground are the ravines of the Stelvio route. The Monte 
Pressura towards the N. W. intercepts the view of the Miinsterthal. 

Immediately to the 1. of the road rise the huge icy masses of 
Monte Cristallo, and several glimpses are obtained of the Miinster- 
thal in the Grisons to the r. The road here is seldom free from 
snow except in warm seasons , and icicles are frequently seen 
hanging from the roofs of the galleries. 

7 M. S. Maria (8317 ft.) (Inn), the fourth Cantoniera and the 
Italian custom-house (y 2 hr. from the summit of the pass), is 
situated in a bleak basin, almost destitute of vegetation, and sur- 
rounded by barren mountains. The diligence runs from this point 
to Bormio (p. 51) in less than 2 hrs. (in the opposite direction in 
4^2 hrs., while a good walker will accomplish the journey in 3 hrs.) 

The road next reaches the third Cantoniera al Piano del Braulio 
(inn tolerable), in a green valley, with a chapel ; then the Casino 
dei Rotteri di Spondalonga, a road-menders' house. 

The road descends by innumerable windings ('</iraooMeV, which 
the pedestrian can generally avoid , skirts the rocky slopes , and 
passes a number of waterfalls. 

A succession of galleries , partly of wood and partly hewn in 
the rocks , protect the road against avalanches and waterfalls in 
the defile termed l Il Diroccamento\ Near the ( second) Cantoniera 
al Piede di Spondalonga (6906 ft.), which was destroyed by the 
Garibaldians in 1859 and has since been a ruin, are two picturesque 
waterfalls of the Braulio, which falls from a cleft in the rock above. 
The (first) Cantoniera di Piatta Martina is a refuge for travellers. 

to Colico. BOEMIO. 7, Route. 51 

Several more waterfalls are passed. Farther on to the r. , the 
Adda emerges from the wild Val Fraele (a considerable brook 
issuing from the rocks below the Val Fraele is sometimes erroneously 
termed the Source of the Adda). A magnificent view is now 
disclosed, comprising the valley from Bormio to Ceppina, S. "W. 
the Piz S. Colombano (9655 ft.), the Cima di Piazza, and the Pin 
Redasco, W. the Val Viola, S. E. the Cima di Oobetta and the ice 
pyramid of the Piz Tresero (11, 604 ft.). To the r. lies the old 
bath-house on the brink of a profound ravine. 

Beyond the Qalleria dei Bagni, the last tunnel, a fine view is 
obtained near the bridge. To the r. of the road, perched on the 
rocks, are the Bagni Veechi, or Old Baths. Far below flows the 
Adda. The handsome *New Bath-House (Bagni Nuovi, 4580 ft.) 
(R. from 2'/2) B. H/2, -A-. and L. l 1 ^ fr.), situated on a terrace 
commanding a fine survey of the valley of Bormio and the sur- 
rounding mountains, is much frequented in July and August, but is 
closed about the end of September. The mineral water (containing 
salt and sulphur, 117°) is conducted hither by pipes from the 
springs at the old bath, 1 M. higher up. The windings of the road 
terminate at 

12 M. Bormio (4012 ft.) (Posta; Cola, in the market-place), 
an old-fashioned little town of Italian character , with several 
dilapidated towers. 

The road crosses the muddy Frodolfo , which unites with the 
Adda below the bridge, and turning towards the S. enters a 
broad green region of the valley termed Piano di Bormio, extending 
to the village of Ceppina, and enclosed by lofty mountains. Below 
Ceppina is the hamlet of <S. Antonio; then Morignone, in the green 
Valle di Sotto, with its church on the hill above. 

The defile of La Serra , 1 M. in length , here separates the 
'Paese Freddo', 'cold region', 'or district of Bormio, from the Val- 
tellina , which belonged to the Grisons down to 1797, then to 
Austria , and has since 1859 been Italian. The broad valley is 
watered by the Adda , the inundations of which often cause 
considerable damage. The vineyards on the slopes yield excellent 
red wine. The climate is considered unhealthy, and cretinism is 
not unfrequent. The Ponte del Diavolo was destroyed by the 
Austrians in 1859. Near the issue of the defile are the ruins of a 
house ; farther on, to the r. , fragments of an old fortification. The 
valley now expands, and the vegetation of the south gradually 
develops itself. 

12 M. Bolladore (2838 ft.) (Angela). On the hill to the W. 
rises the picturesque church of Sondalo. Near the considerable 
village of (3V2 M.) Orosio the road crosses the Adda and recrosses 
it below ( 3 / 4 M.) Orosotto (Leone), at Mazzo. To the S.W. rises 
the precipitous Fiz Masuccio (9245 ft.), a landslip from which 
in 1807 closed the narrow bed of the Adda and converted the 


52 Route 7. SONDRIO. 

populous and fertile valley, as far as Tovo, into a vast lake. The 
devastation caused by subsequent inundations is still observable. 
The road now descends from the district of Sernio, passing vine- 
clad hills, to 

II1/2 M. Tirano (1509 ft.) (*Posta; Due Torri), a small town 
with old palaces of the Visconti, Pallavicini , and Salis families, 
which has often suffered from the inundations of the Adda. 

About 8/4 M. farther, on the r. bank of the Adda, lies Madonna 
di Tirano (*S. Michele). (The road which here diverges to the r. 
leads to Poschiavo and over the Bernina to the Upper Engadine; 
see Baedeker's Switzerland. The 'Confine Svizzero' is 8/4 M. N. W. 
of Madonna di Tirano.) 

The road next crosses the Poschiavino , a stream descending 
from the Bernina glaciers. At Tresenda the new road over the 
Monte Aprica diverges (R. 31 ). About halfway up the N. slope of 
the valley rises the ancient watch-tower of Teglio, whence the 
valley (Val Teglino) derives its name. Near Sondrio the churches 
of Pendolasco and Montagna are seen on the hill to the r. 

16 M. Sondrio (1197 ft.) (*Posta; Maddalena), the capital of 
the Valtellina, is situated on the Malero, a wild torrent which has 
frequently endangered the town , but is now conducted through a 
broad artificial channel. The Nunnery, a large edifice outside the 
town, is now a prison ; the castle of the governors is used as a barrack. 

Farther to the W. rises the church of Sassella, built on a rocky 
eminence and supported by galleries. Vines, mulberries , and 
pomegranates flourish luxuriantly in the valley, while injthc back- 
ground tower the snowy peaks of the Monte _ della Disgrazia 
(12,057 ft.), one of the Bernina range. 

16'/2 M. Morbegno (*Regina d' Inghilterra , or Posta) is noted 
for its silk-culture. The lower part of the Yaltellina is rendered 
unhealthy by the inundations of the Adda. Before reachingj 

9 M. Colico (p. 45) the road joins the Spliigen route (R. 5). 

8. From Innsbruck to Verona by the Brenner. >i 

Railwat in Q l \ t — 12 hrs. ; express fares 15 fl. 91, 11 fl. 84 kr. ; or- 
dinary 13 fl. 32, 9 fl. 99, 6 fl. 66 kr. (these are (he fares in silver, to 
which is added a trifling stamp duly, and, if they are paid in paper, the 
difference in value between silver and paper). There are two stations at 
A'erona; a ticket should be taken to the Porta Nuova only (comp. p. 171). 
Views on the right as far as the summit of the Brenner. 

The Brennek, the lowest pass over the principal chain of the Alps, is 
tr.-.versed by the oldest, of the Alpine routes, used as early as the Roman 
period, and rendered practicable for carriages in 1772. The railway, opened 
in 1S67, one of the grandest modern works of the kind, affords "the most 
direct communication between Germany and Italy. It ascends for 21 M. 
with an incline of I : 40 to Ihe culminating point. The descent to Brixen 
is less rapid. There are 23 tunnels in all. 

Jnnsbmrk, see p. 47. The train passes the Abbey of Wilten 
(r.) and penetrates the hill of Isel by a tunnel. It then ascends 

BRENNER. 8. Route. 53 

on the r. bank of the Sill, by a cutting in the rock ; far below runs 
the brawling river. As far as stat. Patsch seven tunnels. 

The valley becomes narrower and wilder. Four more tunnels. 
The Sill is crossed twice. 

Stat. Matrey (3241 ft.) (*Stern; *Krone), with the chateau of 
Trautson, the property of Prince Auersperg, is charmingly situated. 

Stat. Steinach (3448 ft.). The village (Post ; Steinbock), rebuilt 
since a Are in 1853J lies on the other side of the valley, at the 
mouth of the Oschnitzthal. 

The train then passes the village of Stafflach in a wide curve, 
turning into the Schmirner Thai. Three tunnels. Beyond stat. 
Ories the train ascends in long curves, high above the profound 
ravine of the Sill, passes the small green Brennersee, and reaches 

Stat. Brenner (4485 ft.), with the old Post-House, the watershed 
between the Black Sea and the Adriatic. View limited. The Sill, 
which rises on the N. side of the pass , falls into the Inn ; the 
Eisack, rising on the S. side, descends to the Adige. The train 
follows the course of the Eisack and soon stops at stat. Brennerbad, 
a solitary bath-establishment. It then descends rapidly by means 
of a long embankment and through two tunnels to stat. Schelle- 
berg (4069 ft.), where it turns into the Pflersch-Thal. Here it 
enters the N. slope of the valley by a curved tunnel , 800 yds. 
long, from which it emerges in the opposite direction, soon reaching 
stat. Oossensass, which lies 588 ft. below Schelleberg. This is one 
of the most interesting parts of the line, and is most striking when 
seen in the reverse direction. 

The train now runs high above the Eisack , passing through 
wild rocky scenery at places. 

Stat. Sterzing (3107 ft.) (*Post, *Rose, both 1/2 M. from the 
station), a clean and picturesque little town with curious old build- 
ings and arcades , deriving its prosperity from mines formerly 
worked here, lies in the broad Sterzinger Moos, or Upper Wippthal. 

From Sterzing to Franzensfeste the valley of the Eisack is wild 
and romantic , and the mountains precipitous. High above the 
line are the castles of Sprechenstein on the 1. and Reifenstein on 
the r. 

Stat. Freienfeld. On the 1. rises the ruined castle of Welfen- 
stein , where Roman mile-stones have been found. Beyond stat. 
Orasstein the train enters a narrow defile in which the *post-inn 
of Mittewald is situated, where the French were defeated in 1809. 

The lower end of the defile, termed the Brixener Klause, near 
Unterau (2703 ft.), is strongly fortified by the Franzensfeste, 
constructed in 1833 — 38. These works , which are very conspi- 
cuous when seen from the S., command the Brenner route. 

Stat. Franzensfeste (*Rail. Restaurant) is the junction for the 
Pusterthal line, which diverges to the 1. within the precincts of 
the fortifications, a little farther on, and crosses the Eisack by a 

54 Route 8. BOZEN. From Innsbruck 

lofty bridge. (Change carriages for the Pusterthal; halt of 15 — 30 
min.J. The vegetation now assumes a more southern character, 
vineyards and chestnuts gradually appearing. 

Stat. Brixen (1867 ft.), Ital. Bressanone {^Elephant, adjoining 
the post-office ; *Sonne ; Ooldnes Kreuz • all l/ 2 M. from the station ; 
Rail. Restaurant) was for nine centuries the capital of a spiritual 
principality, which was dissolved in 1803, and is still an episcopal 
residence. Most of the churches are of the last cent., the principal 
being the Cathedral which contains a good Crucifixion by Schopf. 
To the r. of the portal is the entrance to the old ^Cloisters, at the 
beginning of which is the tomb of the German minstrel Oswald von 
Wolkenstein (d. 1445). At the S. W. end of the town is the Epis- 
copal Palace with an extensive garden. 

Stat. Klausen (1791 ft.) (Rbssel; Post), consisting of a single 
narrow street, is situated in a defile, as its name imports. The 
Benedictine monastery of Seben, on the r., commands a very striking 
view. It was once a Rhsetian fortress , then a Roman fort under 
the name of Sabiona , afterwards an episcopal residence down to 
the 10th cent., and finally a baronial castle. The Loretto Chapel 
adjoining the Capuchin Monastery (where visitors apply for ad- 
mission) contains the most valuable collection of ecclesiastical 
treasures in the Tyrol , presented in 1699 by the founder of the 
monastery, who was confessor to the queen of Carlos II. of Spain. 

Below Klausen the valley contracts. The line skirts precipitous 
porphyry cliffs. On the heights above extend fertile plains, 
sprinkled with numerous villages. 

Stat. Waidbruck. Near Kollmann (Kreuz) the Grbdmerbach 
descends from a deep rocky gully to the Eisack, above which rises 
the Trostburg with its numerous towers and pinnacles, the property 
of Count Wolkenstein. This is the most picturesque point in this 
narrow part of the valley of the Eisack. 

Stat. Atzwang (1214 ft.) (*Post). To the r. opens the valley 
of the Finsterbach. Four short tunnels, then stat. Blumau. The 
valley again contracts. Beyond the defile an extensive plantation 
of chestnuts on the slope of the mountain is passed. The train 
now enters the wide basin of Bozen, a district of luxuriant fertility, 
resembling a vast vineyard. 

Bozen (850 ft.), Ital. Bolzano ('* Kaiserkrone ; Mondschein; 
*Goldne Traube; Erzherzog Heinrich ; *Badl, beyond the Talfer, 
on the road to Meran; Schwarzer Adler ; Stadt Meran), with 9000 
inhab. , the most important commercial town in the Tyrol , is 
situated at the confluence of the Eisack and the Talfer, which 
descends from the Sarnthal on the N. The background towards the 
E. is formed by the strikingly picturesque dolomite mountains of 
the Fassathal. 

The Gothic *Parish Church of the 14th and 15th cent, has a 
W. Portal, with two lions of red marble, in the Lombard style. 

to Verona. TRENTO. 8. Route. 55 

Beautiful open tower, completed in 1519. On the E. side a 
gateway with the inscription ' Resurrecturis' leads to the *Cemetery, 
surrounded by arcades. A chapel adjoining the sacristy in the 
Franciscan Monastery contains a finely carved old German altar. 
The *Calvarienberg (25 min. walk ; beyond the Eisack bridge cross 
the railway to the 1. and ascend to the r.) commands a fine view of 
the town and environs. 

Beyond Bozen the train crosses the Eisack, which falls into the 
Etsch (or Adige") 4 M. below the town. The latter becomes navigable 
at stat. Branzoll (Ital. Bronzollo~). Beyond stat. Auer (Ital. Ora), 
where the road through the Fleimserthal diverges, the train crosses 
the river. The next stat. Neumarkt , Ital. Egna (Krone ; Engel), 
where the German element still preponderates, lies on the 1. bank 
of the Adige, and consists of a single street only. 

On the slopes to the r. lie the villages of Tramin, Kurtatsch, 
and Margreid. Stat. Solum is the last place where German is 
spoken. The village lies on the 1. bank of the river , commanded 
by a dilapidated castle on an apparently inaccessible rock. 

The Rojchetta Pass to the r. leads to the Vol di Non. Mexzo 
Tedesco and Mezzo Lombardo (or Deutsch and Walsch - Metz), 
situated on different sides of the pass , separated by the Noce , are 
both Italian. 

S. Michele , or Walsch- Michael (Aquila) , with a handsome old 
Augustine monastery, founded in 1143, but now suppressed, is the 
station for the Val di Non. The train again crosses the Adige. 
Next stat. Lavis on the Avisio , which here descends from the Val 
Cembra. This impetuous torrent with its different ramifications 
is crossed above its junction with the Adige by a bridge 1000 yds. 
in length. 

Trento (715 ft. J, or Trent, Lat. Tridentum (*Europa ; the dining- 
room is adorned with the armorial bearings at Count Artois, afterwards 
Charles X. of France, Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy, and other 
princes who once lodged here; *H6tel de la Ville; both of these near 
the station, R. 80, B. 50, A. 25 kr. ; Corona; Al Rebecchino, next to the 
Hotel de la Ville, Aquila Bianca, and Castello on the road to the Val 
Sugana are second class inns; Cafi adjoining the Europa), with 17,000 
inhab. , formerly the wealthiest and most important town in the 
Tyrol , founded according to tradition by the Etruscans , and 
mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, possesses numerous 
towers, palaces of marble, dilapidated castles, and broad streets, 
and is surrounded by imposing groups of rocks. Above the town 
rises the considerable castle of Buon Consiglio, once an archie- 
piscopal residence, now a barrack. 

The *Cathedral, founded in 1048, begun in its present form in 
1212, and completed at the beginning of the 15th cent., is a 
Romanesque church surmounted by two domes. The portal, as at 
Bozen, is adorned with a pair of lions (p. 54). In the S. transept 
are several old monuments , half-faded frescoes , and on the wall 

56 Route 8. BASSANO. From Innsbruck 

the porphyry tombstone of the Venetian general Sanseverino, 
whom the inhabitants of Trent defeated and killed at Galliano (see 
below) in 1487. In the Piazza of the cathedral , which is embel- 
lished with a fountain , are the courts of justice and the old guard- 

S. Maria Maggiore, where the celebrated Council of Trent sat 
in 1545 — 63, contains a picture, on the N. wall of the choir, covered 
with a curtain , with portraits of the members of the council 
(7 cardinals, 3 patriarchs, 33 archbishops, and 235 bishops), and 
an excellent organ. Adjoining the S. side of the choir is a column 
dedicated to the Virgin , erected in 1855 on the 300th anni- 
versary of the meeting of the Council. 

The rocky eminence of Verruca, or Dos Trento, on the r. bank 
of the Adige, was fortified in 1857, and is not accessible without 
special permission. The best point of view in the environs is the 
terrace of the Capuchin Church on the K. side of the town. 

From Trent to Venice by the Val Sugana, 115 M. Diligence 3 
times daily between Trent and Borgo (1 11. 40 kr.); twice daily from 
Borgo by Primolano to Bassano in 7 hrs. ; from Bassano to Padua, to 
Treviso, or to Vieenza in 6 — 7 lirs. ; railway from Padua or Treviso to 
Venice, see pp. 185, 233. Arrival at Venice, see p. 196. 

This direct route to Venice (although not the most expeditious) tra- 
verses the beautiful Venetian Mountains. The road , which ascends soon 
after Trent is quitted, is hewn in the rocks or supported by buttresses 
of masonry as far as Pergine. Near 

9 M. Pergine (Cavallo), an extensive prospect is enjoyed; to the 1., on 
a commanding rocky height, rises the handsome castle of that name. To 
the r. lies the picturesque lake of Caldonazzo , which is drained by the 
Brenta (on the mountain to the S.W. lies Calceranica, with a fine view). 
Farther on is the smaller lake of Levico, in which Monte Hcanupia (7050ft.) 
is reflected. The Val Sugana begins at Levico, its capital being 

8'|z M. Borgo ( + C'roce), on the N. side of which rises the ruined 
castle of Telvana , with the remains of a second castle high above it. 
Below the town is the beautiful chateau of Ivano. 

"Near Grigno the valley of Tesino opens on the X., watered by the 
Qrigno. Beyond Gris;no the valley is confined between lofty cliffs which 
barely leave room for the road. The Austrian custom-house is at Le 
Tezze, the Italian 3 |4 M. beyond it. In a rocky cavity beyond 

16 31. Primolano (Inn) is situated the ruined castle of Covelo, a me- 
diaeval stronghold, which could only be reached by means of a windlass. 
About 1 M. farther the Cismone descends from the Val Primiero. Valslagna 
is inhabited chiefly by straw-hat makers. 

(About 12 M. to the S.W. is situated Asiago, with 5000 inhab., capital 
of the Sette Comuni, or seven parishes, where an unintelligible German 
patois is spoken in the midst of an Italian population. Down to 1797 they 
formed an independent republic under the protection of Venice. The dia- 
lect is rapidly giving way to Italian.) 

At Solagna the ravine of the Brenta expands, the road turns a corner, 
and a view is obtained of the broad plain with extensive olive-plantations 
in which lies the town of 

18 31. Bassano (<S. Antonio, near the chief piazza), picturesquely situ- 
ated, with 14,827 inhab., and surrounded by lofty old ivy-clad walls. 
In the centre of the town rises the once fortified tower of the tyrant 
Ezzelino. Bassano possesses no fewer than 35 churches, the chief of which 
is the Cathedral, containing good pictures, the finest of which are by 
Giacomo da Ponte, surnamed Bassano, this town having been his birth- 
place. His beat work, a Nativity, is in the Oratorio S. Giuseppe. The 

to Verona. ROVEREDO. 8. Route. 57 

Villa Rezzonica, l 1 ^ M. from the town, contains Canova's Death of Socrates 
and other valuable works of art (application for admission must be made 
the day before the intended visit). 

On 8th Sept. 1796, four days after the battle of Roveredo, Napoleon 
defeated the Austrians under W urmser near Bassano. In 1809 he erected 
the district of Bassano into a Duchy, with which he invested Maret, his 
secretary of state. 

(Possagno, Canova's birthplace , is beautifully situated at the base of 
the mountains, 12 M. N.E. of Bassano. The road to it is rough and hilly. 
The church, in the form of a circular temple, designed by Canova, con- 
tains his tomb and ait altar-piece painted by him. The bridge which 
here spans the river by a single arch was built with funds bequeathed by 
Canova for the purpose. The Palazzo, as his house is termed, contains 
models and casts of his works.) 

14 M. Castelfranco, an ancient town surrounded by walls and towers, 
was the birthplace of the painter Giorgione. The principal church con- 
tains a *Madonna by him; in the sacristy is a fresco by Paolo Veronese, 
representing Justice. 

16 M. Treviso, and railway thence to Venice, see R. 39. 

From Teent to Vebona Br Riva akd thb Lago di Garda. From 
Trent to Riva 25 M., omnibus once daily (9 a. m.), fare 2 11. ; one- 
horse carr. 8, two-horse 14 fl. Steamer from Riva to Peschiera in 4'|« hrs., 
see p. 158. Railway from Peschiera to- Verona in 1 hr., see p. 157. 

This route is far preferable to the direct railway-journey, on account 
of the charming scenery of the Lago di Garda. The traveller from Bo- 
zen, whose time is limited, may shorten the route by taking the railway 
as far as stat. Mori and driving thence to (10 M.) Riva (see p. 161). 

The road crosses the Adige, traverses the suburb Pie di Cattello, and 
ascends. Fine retrospect from the height (li|s M.). A wild and rocky 
defile (Bucco di Vela) is now entered, terminating in a kind of (l'|2 M.) 
fortified vault, beyond which the road emerges suddenly on a smiling and 
fertile district. Farther on (life M.), the view of Terlago and its lake at 
the base of Monte Gazza (6696 ft.) is beautiful and imposing. Then (lifeM.) 
Vigolo-Baselga and (3 M.) Vezzano (Corona), the principal place between 
Trent and Arco. At (life M.) Padernione the road turns to the r. and 
passes the Lake of Toblino and the picturesque castle of that name. Below 
(life M.) Le Sarche, where the Sarca emerges from a gorge, and the road 
to Giudicaria diverges, is a bridge over the Sarca, the scene of a skir- 
mish between Italians and Austrians in 1848. Next (life M.) Pietra Mu- 
rata. Near (4 1 Ja M.) Drb is the ruined Castello di Drena on an eminence 
to the 1. 

The road now traverses a more fertile district to (3 M.) Arco (*Co- 
rona; Olivo), with a handsome parish-church with metal-clad domes, 
a place where invalids sometimes winter. The vegetation now becomes 
most luxuriant (olives , pomegranates , figs , grapes). The peaches and 
other fruit of Arco are in high repute. To the N., on a precipitous height, 
rises the Chdteau of Arco, with well-kept gardens. The road which turns 
to the r. from the S. gate of Arco leads to C3 3 f« M.) Riva (p. 159), that 
to the 1. to Nago. 

Beyond Trent the railway continues to traverse the broad and 
fertile valley of the Adige. To the S. "W. of Trent, on the r. bank, 
is the village of Sardagna, with a considerable waterfall. Stat. 
Matarello. On a height near stat. Calliano rises the extensive 
castle of Beseno , the property of Count Trapp. The rocky debris 
here are the result of a landslip. 

Roveredo (Cervo; Corona) is noted for its silk-culture. The 
most remarkable building is the old Castello in the Piazza del 

58 Route 8. MORI. 

The lower part of the valley of the Adige, down to the Italian 
frontier, is termed Vol Lagarina. On the r. bank lies Isera, with 
vineyards, numerous villas, and a waterfall. On the 1. bank, 
to the E. of the railway, near Lizzana , is a castle , which about 
the year 1302 was visited by Dante when banished from Florence 
as an adherent of the Ghibellines. 

The line follows the 1. bank of the Adige. Stat. Mori; the 
village lies in a ravine on the opposite bank, on the road leading 
to Riva (p. 159), and is famed for its asparagus. Omnibus to Riva 
twice daily in 2y 2 hrs., fare 65 — 75 kr. ; one-horse carr. 4, two- 
horse 7 fl. (comp. p. 161). 

Near S. Marco on the 1. bank are the traces of a vast landslip, 
which is said to have buried a town here in 833, and is described 
by Dante (Inferno XII, 4 — 9). At Serravalle , a fort which once 
guarded the defile, the valley contracts. 

Stat. Ala (Posta), a place of some importance, possesses velvet- 
manufactories which once enjoyed a high reputation, and is the 
seat of the Italian and Austrian custom-house authorities. Those 
who have forwarded luggage by this route to or from Italy should 
take the precaution to enquire for it at the custom-house here. 
Halt of Y2 hr. Avio is the last station in the Austrian dominions. 
The village , with a well preserved chateau of Count Castelbarco, 
lies on the r. bank. 

Peri is the first Italian station. The Monte Baldo (7090 ft. J on 
the W. separates the valley of the Adige from the Lago di Garda. 
Stat. Ceraino. The line now enters the celebrated Chiusa di 
Verona , a rocky defile which was defended against the Milanese 
in 1155 by the German army under Otho of Wittelsbach , in the 
reign of Frederick Barbarossa. On an eminence on the r. bank 
lies Rivoli . which was stormed several times by the French in 
1796 and 1797 under Massena, and afterwards furnished him with 
his ducal title. 

Next stations Domegliara, Pescantina, and Parona. The train 
crosses the Adige , reaches the Verona and Milan line at 8. Lucia 
(p. 158), and a little farther the railway-station (outside the Porta 
Nuova) on the S. side of 

Verona, see p. 171. 

9. From Vienna to Trieste. Semmering Railway. 

Austriaii S. Railway. Express (1st, in winter 1st and 2nd class) 
in 14'| 4 hrs., ordinary trains in 22 — 23 hrs.; fares 28 fl. 26, 21 fl. 20, 
14 fl. 13 kr. (express 'Isth more). Fifty lbs. of luggage free, provided 
it is at the station at least >| 2 hr. before the departure of the train; 
otherwise the whole is liable to be charged for. Best views generally 
on the left. For farther particulars, see Baedeker's S. (imminy and Austria. 

The station of the S. Railway is between the Belvedere and the 
Favorite 'Lines', or boundaries of the city. The train, soon after 

NEUSTADT. 9. Route. 59 

starting , affords a good survey of Vienna, the environs , and the 
surrounding ranges of mountains. On a hill to the 1. of stat. At%- 
gersdorf is the large reservoir of the Vienna water-works, by which 
spring water is conducted from the Hollenthal to the city, a dis- 
tance of 73!/2 M. On the hills to the r. near stat. Brunn are 
several artificial ruins , and Liechtenstein , a genuine ruined castle 
which was destroyed by the Turks. Near stat. Mbdling the Briihl, 
a picturesque rocky '•alley, opens on the W., and a branch-line di- 
verges to the E. to the imperial chateau and park of Laxenburg. 
Stat. Oumpoldskirchen. To the r. as Baden is approached rise the 
Calvarienberg and the ruins of Rauhenstein and Rauheneck, with 
the chateau of Weilburg and the Helenenthal between them. The 
view to the 1. over the broad plain, sprinkled with villages, is 
bounded by the Leitha Mts. 

Baden (Stadt Wien; *Schwarzer Adler), with handsome vil- 
las, the Roman Thermae Pannonicae, is celebrated for its mineral 
springs (72—100° Fahr.). 

Voslau (*Hdtel Back), which yields the best Austrian wine, 
is also frequented as a watering-place (74° Fahr.). 

Stations Kottingbrunn, Leobersdorf (where the barren Schnee- 
berg, 6808 ft., rises on the r.), Felixdorf, Theresienfeld. 

Neustadt, or Wienerisch- Neustadt {Hirsch ; Ungar. Krone, both 
in the town ; Stadler, near the station), has been rebuilt since a 
fire in 1834 (popul. 18,070). On the E. side is the old ducal 
Castle of the Babenberg family, converted in 1752 into a military 
academy. Branch-line to the S.E. in 2 hrs. to Oedenburg, which 
lies 7 M. to the W. of the saline Neusiedler See. 

On the r. beyond Neustadt the Schneeberg is visible almost 
from base to summit; on the 1. rises the Leitha range. On 
the hills to the r. , in the[ distance , stands the well-preserved 
castle of Sebenstein , the property of Prince Liechtenstein. Near 
stat. Ternitz the Schneeberg is again visible on the r. ; then stat. 
Pbtschach , a manufacturing place. On the height to the 1. near 
Gloggnitz rises the castle of Wartenstein. Schloss Gloggnitz on 
the hill , with its numerous windows, was a Benedictine Abbey 
till 1803. 

At stat. Gloggnitz (1378 ft.) (*Rail. Restaurant) begins the 
*Semmering Railway, one of the most interesting lines in Europe 
(best views on the left), and the train now ascends. Fine retrospect 
of Gloggnitz. In the valley lies the green Schwarzau, with the 
imperial paper-factory of Schleglmuhl. On the 1. the three-peaked 
Semmering ; to the "W. in the background the Raxalp. The line 
describes a wide circuit round the N. side of the valley to stat. 
Payerbach and crosses the Valley of Reichenau by a viaduct 300 
yds. long (gradient 1 : 40). Two small tunnels ; to the 1. an 
extensive view over the plain. Gloggnitz now lies 558 ft. below 
the line. 

60 Route 9. GRATZ. From Vienna 

The OoUchakogel is next skirted and two more tunnels are tra- 
versed. Stat. Klamm ; the half-ruined castle of Prince Liechten- 
stein, on a rocky pinnacle, was once the key of Styrla. Far below 
runs the old Semrnering road ; the green dale visible beyond the 
next tunnel is the Untere Adlitzgraben. The Weinzettelwand is 
next skirted by a long gallery ; then a tunnel, and two bridges 
which carry the line to the S. slope of the Obere Adlitzgraben. 
After three more tunnels the train reaches 

Stat. Semrnering (2894 ft.), the culminating point of the line. 
At the highest point of the road (3255 ft.) is the *Erzherzog Johann 
Inn, 1 M. from the station. In order to avoid the remaining part 
(360 ft.) of the ascent the train now penetrates the highest part of 
the Semrnering , the boundary between Austria and Styria , by 
means of a tunnel nearly 1 M. in length, beyond which it traverses 
the peaceful dale of the Froschnitz. Stat. Spital; then Miirzzu- 
schlag (2178 ft.) (*Brauhaus ; Elephant; Rail. Restaurant), where 
the express trains stop 1/4 hr. 

The line now follows the picturesque , pine-clad valley of the 
Milrz, containing numerous forges. To the r. in the valley, beyond 
Krieglach, is the new chateau, and on the height the old castle of 
Mitterdorf. Then Kindberg and Kapfenberg with the castles of 
these names. Nearstat. Bruck rises the ancient castle of Landskron. 

Bruck (Eisenbahn- Oasthof; Adler ; Mitterbrau) is a small town 
at the confluence of the Miirz and the Mur , with an old castle. 
The train now enters the narrow valley of the Mur. Stat. Pernegg, 
with a large chateau. The forges of Frohnleiten on the r. bank and 
the castle of Pfannberg on the 1. belong to Prince Lobkowitz. 
Schloss Rabenstein on the r. bank is the property of Prince Liechten- 
stein. The line next passes the Badelwand and skirts the river 
by means of a rocky gallery of 35 arches , above which runs the 
high road. Stat. Peggau possesses silver and lead mines. 

The train crosses the Mur , passes stat. Klein- Stiibing , and 
enters the fertile basin in which Gratz is situated. On an emi- 
nence to the W. rises the picturesque Gothic pilgrimage-church 
of Strassengel (1443 ft.). To the r. rises the castle of Obsting, 
the property of Count Attems , a favourite resort of the Gratzers. 
Farther on is the castle of Eggenberg, 3 M. from Gratz. 

Gratz (1068 ft.) (On the r. bank of the Mur, *Elephant, E. 1 fl.; 
Oesterreiciiischer Hof; Goldnes Ross; #Florian; Goldner Lowb; 
Drei Raben. On the 1. bank, +Erzherzog Johann ; Stadt Trikst ; Kaiser- 
krone ; Ungar. Krone), the capital of Styria (81,000 inhab.), pictu- 
resquely situated on both banks of the Mur, which is here crossed by 
four bridges, is one of the pleasantest provincial capitals of Austria. 
The *Schlossberg, which rises about 400 ft. above the river , com- 
mands one of the finest views in Germany, embracing the course of 
the Mur and the populous valley, enclosed by picturesque mountains : 
N. the Schockel (4586 ft.), N.W the Upper Styrian Mts., S.W. the 

to Trieste. MARBURG. 9. Route. 61 

Schwanberg Alps, S. theBachergebirge. The Gothic Cathedral dates 
from 1446. The Landhaus, or Council Hall, an extensive and imposing 
pile, was erected in 1569. The *Joanneum , a spacious edifice 
with gardens, was founded by Archduke John in 1811 as an insti- 
tution for the promotion of agriculture and practical science in 
Styria. It contains specimens of the staple commodities of this 
district, and a well arranged natural history museum. 

As the train proceeds , indications of the richer vegetation of 
the south become more apparent. On the mountains to the r. rises 
the castle of Premstetten ; on the 1. beyond stat. Kalsdorf the 
castle of Weisseneck. The mountains on the r. separate Styria 
from Carinthia. 

Near Wildon the Kainach is crossed. To the r. near Leibnitz 
is the archiepiscopal chateau of Seckau; farther on, the castles of 
(1.) Labeck, and (r.) Ehrenhausen. The chateau of Spielfeld, which 
comes in view, once belonged to the Duchess de Berry, whose sump- 
tuous chateau of Brunnsee is 4*/ 2 M. distant. 

The line quits the Mur and enters the mountainous district 
which separates the Mur from the Drau. Near Pbssnitz a viaduct 
700 yds. in length (64 arches) and a tunnel of equal length are 

Marburg (Stadt Wien ; Stadt Meran ; both near the station) 
is the second town in Styria. To the S.W. extends the long vine 
and forest-clad Bacher-Oebirge. (Branch-line from Marburg to 
Klagenfurt, "Villach, and Franzensfeste.) 

A pleasing view is obtained from the train as it crosses the 
Drau. Stations Kranichsfeld and Pragerhof (whence a line runs 
to Stuhlweissenburg and Pest). Beyond stat. Poltschach , at the 
foot of the Botsch, the scenery improves. 

The German language is now replaced by a Sclavonic or Wend 
dialect. The line winds through a sparsely peopled district. The 
valleys are generally narrow and picturesque, the mountains richly 
wooded, with occasional vineyards and fields of maize. Several 
small stations and foundries are passed, and an extensive view of 
the Sannthal , a populous and undulating plain , bounded by the 
Sulzbach Alps, is at length suddenly disclosed. 

Cilli (787 ft.) (Krone; Elephant, new; Rail. Restaurant), an 
ancient town, founded by the Emp. Claudius (Claudia Celleia). 
Roman reliefs and memorial stones are still found imbedded in the 
town-walls. On a wooded height in the vicinity stands the ruined 
castle of Obercilli; on the slope to the N.E. theLazarist monastery 
of St. Joseph with its two towers. 

The train crosses the green Sann , and enters the narrow and 
wooded valley of that stream. The most picturesque part of the 
whole line is between Cilli and Sava. Stations Markt Tuffer, with 
a ruined castle , and Romerbad (which memorial stones prove to 
have been known to the Romans), also called Teplitz (i. e. 'warm 

62 Route 9. LAIBACH. From Vienna 

bath'), are watering-places with attractive grounds and promenades 
much visited from Trieste. 

Steinbriick (*Rail. Restaurant ; 25 min. allowed for express 
passengers to dine, D. 1 fl. 5 kr., or a la carte), a thriving village 
on the Save or San, which here unites with the Sann. (Branch- 
line to the S.E. to Agram.) The train now runs for 1 hr. in the 
narrow valley of the Save, enclosed by lofty limestone cliffs, and 
often barely affording space for the river and railway. Stations 
Hrastnig (with valuable coal-mines), Triffail, Sagor (the flrst place 
in Carniola), and Sava. 

The valley now expands. At Littai the Save is crossed. Scen- 
ery still very picturesque. Stations Kressnitz , Laase. At the 
influx of the Laibach into the Save , the line quits the latter and 
enters the valley of the former. The lofty mountain-range now 
visible is that of the Julian or Carnian Alps. Stat. Salloch. 

Laibach (994 ft.) (*Stadt Wien ; Elephant ; Europa), Sclav. 
Ljubljana , on the Laibach , the capital of Carniola, with 23,000 
inhab., is situated in an extensive plain enclosed by mountains of 
various heights. An old Castle, now used as a prison , rises above 
the town. The Cathedral, an edifice in the Italian style , is deco- 
rated with stucco and numerous frescoes of the 18th cent. The 
Congress-Platz (Narodny-Terg), so named from the congress which 
sat here from 27th Jan. to 21st May 1821 , is adorned with a 
Monument of Radetzky, a bust in bronze erected in 1860. 

The line now traverses the marshy Laibacher Moos by means 
of an embankment , l 3 / 4 M. in length , and crosses the Laibach, 
which becomes navigable here , although hardly 3 M. below the 
point where it issues from the rocks near Oberlaibach. 

Near stat. Franzdorf the line is carried past Oberlaibach by a 
viaduct 625 yds. long , 120 ft. high in the centre, and supported 
by a double row of arches (25 in number), and enters a more moun- 
tainous district with beautiful pine-forest. Stat. Loitsch (1555 ft.) 
(Post or Stadt Triest). 

Quicksilver Mines of Ideia, 15 M. N.W. of Loitsch ; carriage thither 
in 4 hrs. , 6 — 8 fl. for the excursion; inspection of the mines 3 — 4 hrs.; 
drive back 4 hrs. The entrance to the mines is approached by 787 steps 
hewn in the limestone-rock, in the ancient town of Idria (1542 ft.) (Schtcar- 
zer Adler) , which lies in a sequestered valley. Drops of the pure metal 
are seen adhering to the ore which is brought to the surface in tuns from 
a depth of 2661 ft. Annual yield 125 tons , part of which is converted 
into cinnabar on the spot. 

Next stat. Rakek , 31/2 M. to the S.E. of which is the Zirk- 
nitzer See , enclosed by lofty mountains. Then stat. Adelsberg 
(1798 ft.) (Krone; Eisenbahn), Sclav. Postdjna. 

The celebrated * Stalactite Caverns, known in the middle ages and 
accidentally re-discovered in 1816, are s j t M. W. of Adelsberg. All the 
fees are fixed by tariff and are somewhat high for a single visitor , hut 
less when shared" by a party. Brilliant illumination is necessary in order 
to produce a satisfactory effect. A visit to the grotto occupies 2"(2— 3 
hrs., or if prolonged to the Belvedere 4 hrs. Temperature 48° Fahr. Ful- 
ler particulars, see Baedeker's S. Ueiniaiiy and Austria. 


1 16,700 

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to Trieste. TRIESTE. 9. Route. 63 

The train now traverses a dreary , inhospitable plain, strewn 
with blocks of limestone , termed the Karst (Ital. Carso, Sclav. 
Gabrek), extending from Fiume (p. 66) to Gorizia (p. 234). At 
stat. Prestranek it crosses the Poik , and beyond stat. St. Peter 
(branch line to Fiume , p. 66) passes through six tunnels. Next 
stations Leseee, Divazza (2^2 M. to the S.E. are the grottoes of 
S. Canzian), Sessana (1627 ft.). The train now descends to stations 
Prosecco and Nabreslna (Hotel Daniel), where the line to Venice 
by Udine diverges (R. 39), and affords a magnificent *view of the 
blue Adriatic , Trieste , and the Istrian coast (views to the right). 
The slopes are planted with olives , fig-trees , and trellised vines. 
Orignano, the last station, is not above l'/a M. below Prosecco in a 
straight direction. On the Punta Orignana, which here projects 
into the sea, is situated the handsome chateau of Miramar (p. 65). 
The train then passes through a tunnel and reaches the station of 

Trieste. Hotels. *H6tel de la Ville (PI. a), R. l'| 2 fl., L. 40, B. 70, 
A. 40 kr. ; Hotel Delorme , opposite the Exchange ; Locanda Grande , in 
the Pescheria; *Europa (PI. c), nearest the station; Aquila Neha, in 
the Corso; Hotel de France (PI. d) ; Albergo Daniel (PI. e). 

Cafes. Hdlel de la Ville (see above); Degli Specchi, Piazza Grande; 
several near the post-office and many others. — Restaurants. Alia Borsa 
Vecchia, Berger, both in the old town; Monte Verde, Scala d'Oro, Cervo 
d'Oro, Sotto il Monte, and many others with gardens in which concerts 
are frequently given. 

Fiacres. From the station to the town, one-horse 60 kr., two-horse 
l'Jz fl. ; from the town to the station 40 kr. or 1 fl. ; drive in the town, 
'| 4 hr. 30 or 45 kr. , i| 2 hr. 50 or 80, 3| 4 hr. 75 kr. or 1 fl. 10 kr., 1 hr. 
1 fl. or 1 fl. 80 kr., each additional ij 4 hr. 20 or 30 kr. ; at night 5 kr. 
more per l \t hr. ; luggage 15 kr. per box. — Omnibus from the station to 
all the hotels 20, at night 30 kr. 

Steamboats of the Austrian Lloyd, to Venice (E. 39) three times weekly, 
to Pola three times weekly ; to Greece , Constantinople , and the Levant 
once weekly ; to Alexandria every Saturday. 

Baths. Oesterreicher , near the Artillery Arsenal ; H6tel de la Ville ; 
warm salt and fresh-water baths at both. Turkish baths at the Bagni 
Russi, near the public gardens. Sea-baths at the Bagno Maria, opposite 
the Hotel de la Ville ; Bagno Boscaglia, to the r. of the last ; Bagno Angeli 
(al Soglio di Settuno), at the Pescheria; Military Swimming Bath, to the 1. 
below the lighthouse. Ferry to the baths 4, back 2 kr. — Boats 1 — l l \z fl. 
per hour. 

Public Gardens. One by S. Antonio Vecchio ; another in the Piazza 
Grande ; also the pleasant Giardino Pubblico by the Boschetto. 

Theatres. Teatro Grande (PI. 21) , opposite the Tergesteo ; Teatro 
Mauroner (PI. 22) , Corsia Stadion ; Teatro Filodrammatico (PI. 23) ; Ar- 
monia (PI. 24). Italian plays and operas usually performed at all these. 

Railway Station, a handsome structure 1 M. from the Exchange. 

English Church Service performed by a resident chaplain. 

Trieste (more fully described in Baedeker's 8. Germany and 
Austria), the Tergeste of the Romans, situated at the N.E. extremity 
of the Adriatic , is the capital of Illyria and the most important 
seaport of Austria (popul. 70,274). It was constituted a free har- 
bour by Emp. Charles VI. in 1719, and may be termed the Ham- 
burg of S. Germany. Every European nation has a consul here. 
The population is very heterogeneous , but the Italian element 
predominates. The Harbour is the centre of business. It is enter- 

64 Route 9. TRIESTE. From Vienna 

ed and quitted by 15,000 vessels annually, of an aggregate burden 
of one million tons. The quays are being greatly extended to meet 
the increasing requirements of the shipping trade. A lofty Light- 
house rises on the S.W. Molo. 

The well-built New Town, adjoining the harbour, is intersected 
by the Canal Grande (PI. 5), which enables vessels to discharge 
their cargoes close to the warehouses. At the end of the Canal is 
the modern church of S. Antonio (PI. 7) in the Greek style. 

Near the Hotel de la Ville is the Greek Church (PI. 10) with 
its two green towers, sumptuously fitted up (divine service at 6 a. 
in. and 5 p. m.). To the 1. of the Hotel de la Ville is ihe^Palazzo 
Carciotti , with a green dome. In the vicinity is the *Tergesteo 
(PI. 25), an extensive pile of buildings , on the outside of which 
are shops, and in the interior a glass gallery in the form of a cross, 
where the Exchange (12 — 2 o'clock) is situated. The principal 
part of the edifice is occupied by the offices and *Reading Room of 
the ' Austrian Lloyd', a steamboat- company established in 1833. 
Strangers are seldom denied access. The adjacent Old Exchange 
is disused. In front of it are a fountain, and a Statue of Leopold I. 
erected in 1660. 

The Corso, the principal street of Trieste, connecting the Piazza 
Grande with that of the Exchange , separates the new town from 
the old. The latter, nestling round the hill on which the castle 
rises, consists of narrow and steep streets, not passable for carriages. 
To the 1. on the route to the cathedral and the castle is situated 
the Jesuit/ Church (.9. Maria Maggiore, PI. 9), containing a large 
modern fresco by Sante. Nearly opposite is the Piazzetta di Ric- 
cardo , named after Richard Coeur de Lion , who is said to have 
been imprisoned here after his return from Palestine. The Arco di 
Riccardo (PI. 2) is believed by some to be a Roman triumphal arch, 
but probably belonged to an aqueduct. 

The "'Cattedrale S. Giusto (PI. 8) consisted originally of a basi- 
lica , a baptistery , and a small Byzantine church, dating from the 
6th cent., which in the 14th cent, were united so as to form a 
whole. The tower contains Roman columns, and six Roman 
tombstones (busts in relief) with inscriptions are immured in the 
portal. The facade is adorned with three busts of bishops in 
bronze. The altar-niches of the'iinterior contain two ancient mo- 
saics, representing Christ and Mary. The Apostles in the 1. bay, 
under the Madonna, are Byzantine (6th cent.). Some of the capi- 
tals are antique , others Romanesque. The S. aisle contains the 
tombstone of Don Carlos, pretender to the Spanish crown (d. 1855). 

A disused burial-ground adjoining the church is now an open- 
air Museum of Roman Antiquities (PI. 16) of no great value, those 
on the upper terrace having been found at Trieste , those on the 
lower at Aquileia (key kept by the sacristan of the cathedral, 50 kr.). 
vVinckelmann , the German archaeologist , who was robbed and 

to Trieste. TRIESTE. 9. Route. 65 

murdered by an Italian at the former Locanda Grande in 1768, is 
interred here, and a monument was erected to him in 1832. 

Fouchi, Due d'Otranto, once the powerful minister of police of 
Napoleon I., died at Trieste in 1820, and was interred on the 
terrace in front of the church. Fine view thence of the town 
and sea ; still more extensive from the height on which the Castle 

A long avenue, skirting the coast and commanding a succession 
of beautiful views , leads from the Campo Marzo , on the E. side 
of the town , past the Villa Murat , the Lloyd Arsenal , and the 
Oas -Works, to Servola. To the 1. are the five picturesque cem- 

Another pleasant walk is along the Acquedotto through a pretty- 
valley to the Boschetto , a favourite resort (large brewery). On the 
opposite hill is the * Villa Botacin with a garden containing rare 
plants. From the Boschetto a shady road leads to the Villa Fer- 
dinandiana (restaurant), adjoining which is the Revoltella Chapel 
commanding a charming view of the town, the sea, and the coast. 

A very pleasant excursion (carr. 3 fl., boat 4 fl.) may be made 
to the chateau of *Miramar, formerly the property of Emp. Maxi- 
milian of Mexico (d. 1867), charmingly situated in a park near 
rail. stat. Qrignano (p. 63), and commanding a fine view of Trieste, 
the sea, and the coast. It is open to the public on Sundays. The 
chateau contains a suit of handsome "apartments hung with modern 
and eopies of ancient pictures (fee to attendant 40 — 50 kr.). A 
small museum near the entrance to the garden contains Egyptian 
and Greek antiquities collected by the archduke. Barcola (restau- 
rant) is a favourite resort halfway between Trieste and the chateau. 

The extensive Wharves of the Lloyd Co. opposite Servola (4M.) 
may be visited daily, except holidays, Saturdays, and between 11 
and 1 o'clock (guide l / 2 — 1 n\). 

Excursions to Optschina (Inn), commanding a beautiful view 
of the town and the sea ; Servola ; 8. Oiovanni ; the grotto of Cor- 
niale, 9 M. to the E. ; to Lipizza (imperial stables), etc. 

Fbom Thieste to Pola, Fiume and Dalmatia. Steamboat three times 
weekly to Pola in 10 hrs. ; thence to Fiume twice weekly in 11 hrs. ; 
return by railway (p. 66). 

The steamer skirts the undulating, olive-clad coast of Istria. In a dis- 
tant bay to the S.E. lies Capo a" Istria with an extensive house of correction. 
On an eminence rises the church of Pirano; the town itself, with 9000 
inhab., is picturesquely situated in a bay; the pinnacles and towers of 
the disused fortress peep from amidst olive-plantations. The lighthouse 
of Salvore is next passed, then Umago, the castle of Daila, Qittanova, Pa- 
renzo (with remarkable cathedral, a basilica of 961), and Orsera. In the 
distance to the E. rises Monte Maggiore (4560 ft.). The vessel now stops 
at Rovigno (Sismondi), a prosperous town with 14,000 inhab. ; staple com- 
modities wine, oil, and sardines. To the r. near Fasana rise the Brionian 
Islands, separated by a narrow strait from the mainland. Immediately 
beyond this strait the grand amphitheatre of Pola comes in sight. The 
excellent harbour, the principal station of the Austrian fleet, and now 
of considerable commercial importance, is defended by two towers. 

BiEDBKEB. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 5 

66 Route 9. POL A. From Trieste 

Pola (*Hdtel Riboli, near the harbour; Pavanello; beer at Zeiser^s; 
Trattoria al Buon Pesce, on the way to the Arena), a thriving seaport 
with 16,324 inbab., is of very ancient origin, having been founded, accord- 
ing to tradition, by the Colchians who pursued Jason in order to recover 
the golden fleece. It was afterwards the Pietas Julia, a war-harbour of 
the Romans, from which period its magnificent and highly interesting 
antiquities date. These may be visited in the following order (guide 

The * Temple of Augustus and Roma (B. C. 19) , 26 ft. in height and 
50 ft. in width, with a colonnade of six Corinthian columns 23 ft. in height, 
and with admirably executed decorations on the frieze , is in almost per- 
fect preservation. The collection of antiquities in the interior is insig- 

In the vicinity stood a temple of Diana, or more probably of Roma, 
of which the posterior wall only is preserved. This fragment was em- 
ployed about the year 1300 in the construction of the Palazzo Pubblico, 
which is incorporated with it with some skill. A bust of Signor Carrara 
(d. 1854), to whose efforts the antiquities are partly indebted for their 
preservation , has been erected here. 

The traveller now crosses the market-place towards the S. , and at 
the end of a long street reaches the Porta Aurata , an elegant isolated 
arch in the Corinthian style , 20 ft. in height, erected by the Sergian 
family. At some distance to the r. stood the ancient Theatre, the site of 
which only is now recognisable by a semicircular depression in the hill. 
The remnants were employed in 1630 in the construction of the fort. 

Excavations which are still prosecuted have brought to light the an- 
cient. Porta Eradea and the Porta Gemina. The latter formed the entrance 
to the Roman capitol , the site of which is now occupied by the Castle. 
On the E. side of the latter is a Franciscan Monastery, erected in the 13th 
cent., now a military magazine. It possesses fine cloisters, and an elegant 
Romanesque portal on the W. side. A celebrated old laurel-tree in the 
court, which was said to be a s'cion of that which yielded its foliage to 
grace Caesar's triumphal entry into the capitoJ , had to be replaced by a 
young tree in 1864. 

Beyond the latter the + Arena is reached. It was erected about the 
period of the Antonines (A. D. 150) and could accommodate 15,000 specta- 
tors. Height 78 ft., diameter 344 ft. The lower storeys consist of two se- 
ries of arches (72 in number) 18 ft. in height, one above the other; the 
upper storey is a wall with square openings for windows. The exterior is 
in admirable preservation, but the interior presents a scene of desolation ; 
the arrangements for the Naumachia in the centre can alone now be 
traced. Four gates, with projecting buttresses of which the object is un- 
known, form the entrances. 

The steamboat (once weekly) generally quits Pola late in the evening 
and arrives at Fiume early next morning. The broad Quarnero Bay is 
traversed. To the 1. rises Monte Maggiore (4688 ft.); r. in the distance 
the Croatian Jits, of which the Capella range is the most prominent. 

Fiume, Illyr. Reka ("+ Evropa , on the quay; Cafe" near the market; 
-+swimming-bath on the X. W. side of the town, 35 kr.), the capital of 
the Hungarian coast-district, with 13,000 inhab., contains little to interest 
the traveller. On a height, l \ 2 hr. from the inn, is the ruined castle of 
TertatOj the property of the Austrian Marshal Nugent. A small temple 
here contains a good collection of ancient reliefs, busts, statues, Ac, 
among them a Venus with admirable drapery. In the vicinity a much 
frequented Pilgrimage- Chu rch , with an image *of the Madonna of Lorcto, 
painted according to tradition by St. Luke himself. *View of the Bay of 
Quarnero with its islands, Fiume, and the adjoining coast. 

[Railway from Fiunv to />V. Peter in 3' fa hrs.; fares 2 11. 76, 2 fl. 8, 
1 11. 38 kr. Si nt ions Maftuglie , .lurdani , Kupiune , Dornegg , Kiillenberg '. 
The line is uninteresting, except tin- first part, which commands some 
fine views of the sea. >S(. Peter, and thence to Trieste, sec p. 63. j 

Excursion to Dalmatia. Voyage to Pola, see above. The steamer 
next touches at Lutsin- Piccolo , the capital of the island of Lussin , with 

to Dalmatia. SPALATO. 9. Route. 67 

7000 inhab., and the most important place in the Quarnero Islands. Then 
at the island of Selve. Zara, the capital of Dalmatia, the Roman Jadera, 
with 8000 inhab. , is quite Italian in character. The lofty ramparts are 
now used as promenades. The Cathedral , in the Lombard style , was 
erected by the Doge Enrico Dandolo, in the 13th cent., after the town 
had been stormed by the Venetians and French at the beginning of the 
4th Crusade. The Porta Maritima is one of the few relics of the Roman 
period. The handsome Porta Terra Ferma was erected by Sanmicheli. 
Maraschino is made in large quantities (from cherries) at Lunardo's 

From Zara the steamer proceeds in 6 hrs. to Sebcnico (Pellegrino) , a 
town with 7000 inhaj). , picturesquely situated near the mouth of the 
Kerka. A narrow canal connects it with the sea, from which it is 3 M. 
distant. Handsome Cathedral in the Italian Gothic style (15th cent.). 
About 9 M. farther inland lies Scardona, on a lake formed by the Kerka. 
The fine Fall of the Kerka, l l |2 M. higher up, is precipitated in a broad 
volume from a height of 160 ft. in several leaps. 

The steamer rounds the Punta della Planca, 3 hrs. after leaving Se- 
benico. To the S. in the distance is the island of Lissa, where the 
Austrians gained a naval battle in July, 1866. Spalato (Hotel on the 
quay), with 12,000 inhab., is the most beautiful town in Dalmatia. Nu- 
merous remains of a vast palace of Diocletian, on the foundation of which 
half the town is built , are still extant. The Cathedral in the Piazza del 
Duoino, once a temple of Jupiter, is an octagonal edifice in the Corinthian 
style. Opposite to it is the Church of St. John, once a temple of JSscu- 
lapius, with handsome external frieze. The ruins of Salona, the Roman 
capital of Dalmatia, lie 3 31. to the E. A good road leads from Spalatu 
along the coast to the N. W. to Trau, beautifully situated on a lofty 
peninsula , with an interesting cathedral of the 13th cent. 

The steamer next touches at Milna , the harbour of the island of 
Brazza, the largest belonging to Dalmatia, Leaina, and Curiola (separated 
from the long peninsula of Sabioncella by a narrow strait). It then passes 
the island of Meleda and stops at Ragusa (Inn , near the Porta Pille) , a 
town with streets rising in terraces, and a number of handsome buildings 
in the Venetian style (Cathedral, Palazzo, Dogana, etc.). Outside the Porta 
Maritima a bazaar in the Turkish fashion is held three times weekly. — 
From Ragusa either by steamer in 7 hrs. (or by land through the narrow 
Turkish coast-district of the Suttorina in 12 hrs.) to Castel Nuovo, a town 
with 8000 inhab. , beautifully situated at the entrance to the Bay of Cat- 
taro. The entrance into the harbour , the *Bocche di Cattaro , is grand 
and striking. Cattaro, a strongly fortified town with 4000 inhab., at the 
foot of the lofty mountains of Montenegro, is uninteresting. A good road 
leads from Cattaro to Cettinje , the capital of the Zrnagora (a ride of 6 
hrs.). The traveller may then either proceed to Corfu via. Antivari and 
Durazzo , or return to Trieste by steamer (twice weekly). 

o "' 



10. Turin, Ital. Torino. 

Arrival. The principal railway-station at Turin is the Stazione Cen- 
trale , or Porta JS'iiora (l'l. G, 7, 8) , in the Piazza Carlo Felice , at the 
end of the Via Roma, a handsome edifice with waiting-rooms adorned 
with frescoes , and the terminus of all the lines. Travellers to Milan 
may take the train at the Stazione Porta Sitsa (PI. C, 5, 6) , at the end 
of the Via della Cernaia, the first stopping place of all the trains of the 
Novara-Milan line (omnibuses and carriages meet every train) , or at the 
Stazioue Snccursale , on the 1. bank of the Dora , a station of the slow 
trains of the Xovara line. — Station of the branch line to Rivoli in the 
Piazza della Statuto ; of that to Cirie between the Piazza Emanuele Fili- 
lierto and the Ponte Mosca. 

Hotels. +Eukopa (PL a) , Piazza Castello 19, R. from 3, L. 1, B. 2, 
1). 4'|2, A. I fr. ; *Gkand Motel de la Ligurie, Via Roma 31, R. 3, D. 4, 
L. and A. l'| 2 fr. ; -Hotel Fedek (PI. c), Via S. Francesco di Paola 8, near 
I lie corner of the Via di Po , R. 3, P. 4^2, A. 1 fr. ; Grand Hotel de 
Turin , opposite the central station , D. 5 fr. ; Bonne Femme, or Grand 
Hotel d'Angleterre (PI. f.) , Via Barbaroux 1; Hotel Trojibetta, Via 
Uoma, corner of Via Cavour; Albergo Cf.ntrale , Via delle Finanze, 
H. 2, B. lijt, A. 3| 4 fr. — Second class, with restaurants: Caccia Reale 
(PI. gl, Piazza Castello 18; +Hotel de France et de la Concorde (PI. 
h), Via di Po, R. from 2, D. 3'/ 2 , L. and A. 1, omnibus 1 fr. ; Tre Corone, 
ViaS. Tominaso ; Bologna, Piazza d'Armi ; H)oi;asa Vecchia, Via Corte 
d"Appello4, near the Palazzo di Citta (PI.. 27), I). 3 fr. — Table d'hote 
generally at 5 o'clock , also D. a la carte , or at a fixed charge (3'|2 to 
5 fr.). The Crissini, a kind of bread in long, thin, and crisp sticks, are 
said to be particularly wholesome. Best wines: Barber a, Barolo, Xebiolo, 

Restaurants. Canibio, Piazza Carignano 2, good wines ; Paris (PI. k), 
Via di Po 21, good cuisine, D. 4 fr. ; Biffo , Via Roma 13; S. Carlo (PI. 
n) ; Concordia (PI. h) , Via di Po 20; Meridiana (PI. m); Due Indie, Vir 
Guasco 4. Good wines at the Trattoria d'Oriente, Via Lagrange, and 
at the Coccagna, Via Bora Grossa. 

Cafes. Caff de Paris (PI. k) ; S. Carlo, handsomely fitted up, Piazza 
S. Carlo 2; Xazionale , Via di Po 20; Madera, Via Lagrange 10; Alfleri, 
Via di Po; Aleve , Piazza Carlo Alberto; Borsa , Via Roma 25; Roma, 
corner of the Via di Po and Via Carlo Alberto; Bava Giuseppe, Via di 
Po 24; Liynria , Corso del Re, near the station; Cafe'-Restanrant at the 
Central Station. Ices everywhere, sorbetti and pezzi dnri (the former half, 
the latter quite frozen). A favourite morning beverage is a mixture of 
coffee, milk, and chocolate, '»« biccliieriiio" 20 c. — Confectioner. Bass, 
Piazza Castello, S. side. — Beer, 40 c. per bottle, generally bad: Orosetti, 
Via di Po ; Luinjiji , at the corner of Via dell' Arsenate and Via Alfieri.' 
Vienna Beer: Via di liora Crossa :j ; liirraria di Vienna, Via Lagrange C; 
Birraria Cenlrale, Via di Po. 

Cabs, or Citladiiie , stand in most of the piazzas and in the streets 
leading out of the Via di Po. Per drive (corsa) 1 fr. , at night (12 — 6 a. 
m.) 1 fr. 20 c. ; first i| 2 hr. 1 fr., first hr. (ora) 1 fr. 50 c, each following 
1J2 hi. 75 c. , at night 1>J 2 lr. and 2 fr.; each trunk 20 c. — Two-horse 
carriage per drive 1 fr. oO c. ; first i| 2 hr. li| 2 fr. , first hour 2 fr. , each 
additional '| 2 hr. 1 fr. 25 c; at. night per drive 1 fr. 70c, first l | 2 hr. 2fr.. 
e t c . — (imiiibiise* run frequently from the Piazza Castello to each of the 
four gates, and by the Via Borgonuovo to the Via della Rocca, fare 10 c. 
— Tramway from the Piazza Castello by the Via Lagrange to the Barriera 
di Ni/za, 10 c. 

Railway (Central Station in the Piazza Carlo Felice, see above). To the 
B to Alessandria (Genoa, Bologna), see RR. 12, 13; S. to Saluzzo, Bra, and 
Cimeo (Xice) in 2M 2 hrs. (R. 17); S.W. to Pinerolo (p. 78) in 1 hr. ; W 

TURIN. 10. Route. 69 

to Susa (Mont Cenis , p. 32) in l^U hr. ; N.E. to Ivrea (p. 78), Biella and 
iVovura (Arona, Milan), see R. 18. 

Diligence (froin Cuneo) to Nice : Office BalUsio, Strada Cavour (coupe 1 
22, interieur 20 fr.). 

Post Office (Posta Leltere) , Via del Teatro d'Angennes 10 (branch- 
offices Via Dora Grossa 22 and at the Central Station). Telegraph Office, 
Via del Teatro d'Angennes 8. 

Booksellers. Loescher, Via di Po 19, with circulating library of Eng- 
lish, French, German, and other books; Beuf, Via dell' Accademia delle 
Scienze 2. 

Military music in front of the Royal Palace daily, in winter at 4, in 
summer at 5 o'clock ; on Sunday 12—2, in summer in the Giardino Reale, 
in winter in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele; in the evening in the Piazza 
d'Arnie (daily, in summer only). 

Baths, Via di Po 51 (1 fr. 25 c.) and Via della Consolata. Swimming 
Bath (scuola di nuoto) above the old bridge over the Po (p. 77), 60 c. 

Commissionaires, or ciceroni, are to be found in the Piazza Castello 
and Carignano , but their services may be dispensed with (5fr. per day I. 
Theatres. Teatro Regio (P. 36) , in the Piazza Castello , with seats 
for 2500, generally open during the Carnival only; Carignano (PI. 35), in 
the Piazza of that name, open the greater part of the year; WAngemies 
(PI. 34); Nazionale, for operas, Via Borgo Nuovo (these two generally 
closed) ; Rossini , Via di Po 24 ; Scribe , Via Zecca 29, French ; Gerbino, 
corner of Via Plana and Via del Soccorso , Italian comedies ; Vittorio 
Emanuele, Via Rossini 11, a circus; Balbo, Via Andrea Doria; Alfieri, 
Piazza Solferlno, etc. 

Consuls. British, Via di S. Filippo 20. American, Via de' Fiori 19. 
English Church Service performed in a chapel at the back of the 
Teinpio Valdese (PI. 8). 

Pbincipal Attractions: Armoury (p. 71), Picture Gallery (p. 73) and 
Museum of Antiquities , monuments in the cathedral (p. 74), view from 
(he Capuchin monastery (p. 77). 

Turin (820 ft. J, the Roman Augusta Taurinorum, founded by 
the Taurini, a Ligurian tribe, destroyed by Hannibal B. C. '218 
and subsequently re-erected , was the capital of the County of 
Piedmont in the middle ages , and in 1418 became subject to the 
Dukes of Savoy, who frequently resided here. From 1859 to 
1865 it was the capital of Italy and residence of the king. The 
population, in 1813 only 66,000; is now 207,770. The University 
has a staff of 85 professors and is attended by 1500 students. 
Turin is situated in an extensive plain on the Po, which rises on 
Monte Viso, about 45 M. to the S. W., and receives the waters 
of the Dora Riparia (p. 31) below the city. The plain of the Po 
is bounded on the W. by the Graian and Cottian Alps, and on the 
E. by a range of hills rising on the r. bank, opposite the city (hill 
of the Capuchins, p. 77; Superga, p. 78). Since the removal of 
the court, the trade and manufactory of the town have rapidly in- 
creased,. The Piedmontese dialect forms a kind of transition from 
French to Italian and is hardly intelligible to foreigners. French 
is spoken everywhere. 

On 7th Sept., 1706, a celebrated battle was fought under the walls of 
Turin between the Imperial army of Germany with its allies under Prince 
Eugene and the French, in which the latter were signally defeated (comp. 
78) ' I" consequence of this victory the House of Savoy regained posses- 
sion of the duchy, and by the Peace of Utrecht (1713) obtained the kingly 
rank which it still possesses. 

70 Route 10. TURIN. Palazzo Madama. 

The plan of the old town, which is intersected by the Via di 
Dora Grossa from the Piazza Castello to the Via della Consolata , is 
but slightly altered from that of the colony founded by Augustus, 
having remained unchanged throughout the middle ages. At length 
under the Savoy princes in the 17th cent, a systematic extension 
of the town was begun. The architecture of the city, with its spa- 
cious squares and regular streets (formerly termed eontrada, now 
generally via'), differs materially from that of the other large Italian 
towns. Most of the buildings are comparatively modern, the older 
buildings having been destroyed by Francis 1. in 1536 and during 
the siege of 1706. The fori ifi cations were demolished by the 
French when in possession of the city and environs in 1800, and 
the citadel was almost entirely removed in 1857. 

The busiest streets are the Via Roma (formerly Nuova), between 
the Piazza Carlo Felice and the Piazza Castello , the Via di Dora 
Grossa between the Piazza Castello and the Piazza dello Statute, 
and especially the broad and handsome *Via di Po, leading from 
the Piazza Castello to the bridge over the Po, and flanked by ar- 
cades (Portioi). The best shops are near the Piazza Castello ; those 
in the direction of the Po, towards the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, 
are inferior. 

The Palazzo Madama (PI. 29), the ancient castle, a lofty and 
cumbrous pile in the centre of the Piazza Castello , is the only 
mediieval structure of which Turin boasts. It owes its present 
name to the mother of King Victor Amadeus II. , who as Dowager 
Duchess (■Madama Rente') occupied the building, and embellished 
it in 1 7 1 S by the addition of a handsome double flight of steps and 
the facade with marble columns on the YV. side. The original 
towers on the li. side are still standing. Down to 1865 the Palazzo 
Madama was the seat of the Italian senate, and contained the Royal 
Picture Gallery, recently transferred to the Palazzo dell' Accademia 
delle Scienze (p. 72). In front of the Palace stands a Monument to 
the Sardinian Army (PI. 15) by Vine. Vela, erected by the Milanese 
in 1850, and representing a warrior in white marble defending a 
banner with his sword. In relief, Victor Kmmaiinel on horseback 
at the head of his troops. 

On the X. side of the Piazza Castello is situated the Palazzo 
Keale, or Royal Palace (PI. 31), erected about the middle of the 
17th cent. , a plain edifice of brick , sumptuously litted up in the 
interior. The palace-yard is separated from the Piazza by a gate, 
the pillars of which are decorated with two groups in bronze of 
Castor and Pollux , designed by Abbondio Samjioraio in 1842. To 
the 1. in the hall of the palace , to which the public are admitted, 
in a niche near the staircase, is the 'Cavallo di Marmo', an 
equestrian statue of Duke Victor Amadeus I. (d. 1675); the statue 
is of bronze, the horse in marble ; beneath the latter are two slaves. 
The royal apartments are generally accessible in the absence of 

Armoury. TURIN. 10. Route. 71 

the king. The private library contains a very copious collection of 
historical and genealogical works , and a valuable cabinet of 
drawings. Visitors apply to the custodian in the palace itself. 

The Palace Garden (Oiardino Reale), entered from the arcade 
opposite the Palazzo Madama , is open daily from 1 st May to 30th 
Sept. 11 — 3 o'clock (military music, see p. 69). Adjacent to the 
Oiardino Reale is a well-stocked Zoological Garden (open to the 
public Mond. and T hurs. 2 — 3 ; to strangers daily on application 
at the palace). — Services of a commissionaire in the palace and 
armoury unnecessary. 

The long S. E. wing of the edifice (Galleria Beaumont) contains 
the *Armoury [Armeria Reale, PI. 11), entered from the arcade 
(first door to the r. when approached from the palace), opposite and 
to the N. E. of the Palazzo Madama. It is open to the public on 
Sundays, 11 — 3 o'clock , and daily at the same hours by tickets 
(obtained between 11 and 3 o'clock at the office of the secretary of 
the Armoury, on the ground-floor). The collection is very choice 
and in admirable order (custodian 1 /-2 — 1 fr.). 

In the centre of Boom I. is a handsome modern * marble group by 
Finelli, representing St. Michael with raised sword keeping down Satan 
in fetters, presented in 1844 by 'M. Cristina di Borbone vedova del Re Carlo 
Felice*. By the pedestal are two French regimental eagles and the sword 
worn by Napoleon I. at the battle of Marengo. Numerous models of mo- 
dern weapons; Japanese and Indian weapons and armour; busts of cele- 
brated Piedmontese and Savoyards. A cabinet on the r. contains gifts 
presented to the king by Italian towns , a sword presented by Rome in 
1859 , a crown by Turin 1860 , and a sword in 1865 , on the occasion of 
the Dante Festival ; in the centre the favourite horse of Charles Albert ; 
Piedmontese flags from the wars of 1848 — 49 over the cabinets, and the 
costume of the notorious brigand Monaco, etc. The long Hall adjoining 
Room I., contains cavalry-accoutrements; the first sword to the r. (Ni>. 
949) at the top of cabinet K. is by Benvenuto Cellini. The finest suits of 
armour are those of the Brescian family Martinengo. A saddle of Emp. 
Charles V. in red velvet. On the middle of the wall to the r. a gigantic 
suit worn by an equerry of Francis I. of France at the battle of Pavia ; 
at the end of it the armour of Prince Eugene worn at the battle of Turin, 
and a Roman eagle of the 8th Legion. Over the door a bust of King 
Charles Albert (d. 1849) ; also two of his swords, sword of St. Maurice, 
sabre of Tipoo Sahib ; two Austrian flags captured in 1848 at the battle 
of Somma Campagna. A cabinet here contains a rare and valuable col- 
lection of 32 halberds. (A small adjacent room is occupied by a very 
valuable Collection of Coins, trinkets, mosaics, carved ivory, etc.) On the 
r., as the long hall is re-entered, .under glass, a *shieid by Benvenuto 
Cellini, embossed and inlaid with gold, representing scenes from the 
wars of Marius against Jugurtha. A number of ancient helmets are also 
preserved here. The sword of the Imperial General Johann v. Werth (d. 
1652) bears a curious German inscription in verse. 

In the Piazza Carignano, near the Piazza Castello, and reached 
by the Via Lagrange leading to the S., rises the Palazzo Carignano 
(PI. 26), with its curious brick ornamentation , where the Italian 
Chamber of Deputies met down to 1865. A new facade has bet]! 
built at the back , towards the Piazza Carlo Alberto , and part of 
the collections of the Academy (p. 72) will be transferred to this 
palace. — In the Piazza Carignano, in front of the palace, stands 

72 Route 10. TURIN. Academy. 

the finely-executed marble statue of the philosopher and patriot 
Ohberti (PI. 20), by Albertoni, erected in 1859. — The Piazza 
Carlo Alberto (E. side of the Palazzo Carignano) is embellished with 
a bronze monument of King Charles Albert (PI. 18), designed by 
Marochetti, and cast in London. The pedestal stands on four steps 
of Scottish granite ; at the corners below are four colossal statues of 
Sardinian soldiers ; above them are four allegorical female figures, 
representing Martyrdom, Freedom, Justice, and Independence. 

In the vicinity, at the corner of the Piazza Carignano and the 
Via dell' Accademia, is the Palazzo dell' Accademia delle Scienze 
(PI. 10), containing a picture-gallery and museums of natural his- 
tory and antiquities. To the r. on the ground-floor are the Egyp- 
tian, Roman, and Greek sculptures; on the first floor the natural 
history collection ; on the second floor smaller Egyptian antiquities 
and the picture gallery (all collections open on week-days 9 — 4, 
Sund. 9—1). 

The Natural History Museum contains fossil impressions of iish ; a 
cabinet with fossil teeth and bones of an antediluvian ' Tetralophodon 
Arverne/tsis\ found during the construction of the railway ; opposite to it 
a gigantic l Gl/q>/>jdon clavipes'' from the La Plata district; also a '■Mega- 
therium Cnvieri ; valuable collection of stuffed animals. — The Mineralogi- 
cal Collection is considered good. 

The Museum of Antiquities ( Afuseo Egizio e di ' Anliclrita <!reco-Romane) 
consists of two sections. An ante-room on the ground-floor, to the r., 
contaiui the complete skeleton of a whale. The door leads to Hall I., 
containing Egyptian statues and late Creek work a found in Egypt; on the 
r. a good torso, on the 1. four figures placed round a column, bearing Ihe 
name ofProlys the sculptor. Minerva, over life-size. In the centre of the 
room ^mosaics found at Stampacei in Sardinia, representing Orpheus with 
his lyre, and a lion, goat, and ass, probabJy the animals listening to 
him. Hall II.: large Egyptian sphynxes, figures of idols and kings, sar- 
cophagi, reliefs; over the sitting figure of Sesostris is an inscription in 
honour of the celebrated Parisian antiquariati Champollion, '•qui arcanae 
Aegyptiacorum scrip turac reronditam doctvinatu primus aperuit.'' — The visi- 
tor now enters the 1st Gallery to the left. In the centre, statue of a 
youth, Hercules killing the snakes (in Greek marble). Posterior wall, 
colossal female head (Venus), found at Alba in 1839. used as a fountain- 
jet; Antinous ; repetition of Marsyas and Olympus. On the pillar, Athlete 
offering sacrifice (a relief). Window-wall, head of basalt with Coptic in- 
scription. 2nd Gallery: two rows of busts of emperors. On the pillar, 
works in ivory and wood: Judgment of Solomon and Abrahams Sacrifice, 
by Simon Trogcr of Munich , 1741. The cabinets contain statuettes and 
busts in marble and bronze, many of them modern. Along the window- 
wall busts of philosophers and poets. Last Room : Vases; by the pillar 
dishes and terracottas ( *head of Medusa, Mercury and a youth, Olympus 
from the group already mentioned, graceful dancing nymphs). By the 
wall opposite, a '^statuette of Minerva in bronze, found in the Versa near 
Stradella in IS'29: a tripod and *Faun found near Turin. — The smaller 
antiquities are on the Second Floor (visitors ring a bell on the r.), con- 
sisting of mummies , papyrus writings, searabees, statuettes, trinkets, 
vases, etc. In the centre of the second room is the formerly celebrated 
Tabula /tiara, found under Pope Paul III. (d. 1540) in the Villa Caffarelli 
at Rome . a tablet of bronze with hieroglyphics and figures partially in- 
laid with silver. Attempts to decipher the characters elicited the most 
profound and erudite explanations and conjectures from the savants of 
three centuries , but it. has been recently proved that the taolet is spu- 
rious, having been manufactured at Rome under Hadrian. The cele- 

Picture Gallery. TURIN. 10. Route. 73 

brated papyrus with the annals of Manetho, discovered by Champollion, is 
also preserved here. Finally a number of roman and mediseval antiqui- 
ties , at present in disorder. 

The Picture Gallery ( Pinacoteca) consists of 15 rooms containing 514 
paintings , many of them very valuable (catalogue I'll fr.). Room I. : 
Princes of the House of Savoy and battle-pieces. Beginning on the r. : 
ten of the battles fought by Prince Eugene , by Huchtenburgh , thirteen 
portraits of members of the House of Savoy; No. 28 is by Horace Vernet; 
29, 81. Clouet; 39. Van Dyck; 4. Van Schuppen, Prince Eugene on horse- 
back. — The 2nd , 3rd and 4th Kooms contain works of the school of 
Vercelli and Monferrato. of no great value. Room II.: *49. Gavdenzio 
Ferrari (the best master of the school, 1484 — 1559), St. Peter; 49 bis. 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Child ; 50. Sodoma (Giov. Ant. Bazzi, 1477—1549), 
Holy Family (not of this school); 54. Ferrari, Descent, from the Cross. — 
Room III. : "*55. Sodoma, Madonna and saints. — Room IV. : 99. Landscape 
by Massimo oVAzeglio, the celebrated author and statesman (d. 1866). — 
Room V.: 93. Fra Angelica da Fiesole (?) , Madonna; *94, 96.' Adoring 
angels, by the same ; 97. Pollajuolo , Tobias and the angel ; 98. Sandra 
Botticelli, Same subject; 101. Fr. Francia, Entombment; 103. Lorenzo di 
Credi, Madonna and Child; 106. Bugiardini, Holy Family; 108bis. After 
Raphael, Portrait of Pope Julius II. in "the Palazzo Pitti at Florence ; 111. 
Sodoma, Madonna and John the Baptist ; 118. Girolamo Savoldo, Holy Fami- 
ly; 122. Franc. Penni, Good copy (1518) of Raphael's Entombment in the 
Palazzo Borghese at Rome; 127 bis. Clovio, Entombment; 123. After Ti- 
tian, an old copy, Pope Paul III.; 130. Paris Bordone, Portrait of a lady. 

— Room VI. : 132. Bonifazio , Holy Family ; 137, 138, 142, 143. Andrea 
Schiavone, Mythological scenes; 140. Antonio Badile, Presentation in the 
Temple; 152. Rinaldo Mantovano, God the Father; *157. Paolo Veronese, 
The Queen of Sheba before Solomon; 158. Annibale Caracci, St. Peter; 
161. Caravaggio, Musician. — Room VII. : 163. Guido Reni, John the Bap- 
tist; 166. Badalocchio, St. Jerome with the skull; 162. Tintoretto, The Tri- 
nity; 177, 178. Albani, Salmacis and the hermaphrodite; 174. Spagnoletto, 
St. Jerome; 189 bis. Christ at Emmaus, after Titian. — Room VIII.: por- 
celain-paintings by Constantin of Geneva, copied from celebrated originals. 

— Room IX. : fruit and flower-pieces. Then a corridor with copies. — 
Room X.: *234. Paolo Veronese, Mary Magdalene washing the Saviour's 
feet; 236. Guido Reni, Group of Cupids ; 237, 238. Poussin, Waterfall, Cas- 
cades of Tivoli ; 239, 242. Guercino, S. Francesca, Ecce Homo ; 244. Orazio 
Gentileschi, Annunciation; 251. Strozzi, Homer. — Room XI.: 257, 258. 
Sassoferrato , Madonnas, the first termed 'della rosa' ; 260, 264, 271, 274. 
Albani, The four Elements ; 276. Carlo Bold, Madonna ; 284, 288. Bernardo 
Bellotti, Views of Turin; 295. Maratta, Madonna; 299,300. Angelica Kauff- 
mann, Sibyls. — Room XII. : Netherlands and German school : 306. Engel- 
brechtsen, Passion; 309. Adoration of the Magi in the style of Hieron. Bosch 
(15th cent.) ; 318. Bruyn, Portrait of Calvin (?) ; 322. Paul Bril, Landscape ; 
325. Goltz, Warriors; *388. Van Dyck, Children of Charles I. of England ; 
340. Rubens, Sketch of his apotheosis of Henry IV. in the Uffizie; 351. 
Van Dyck, Princess Isabella of Spain. — Room XIII. , containing the gems 
of the collection: 355. Mantegna, Madonna and saints; *358. Hans Mem- 
ling, Seven Sorrows of Mary, forming the counterpart of the Seven Joys 
of Mary at Munich ; *363. " Van Dyck, Prince Thomas of Savoy ; 364. D. 
Teniers , Tavern ; 366. Wouwerman , Cavalry attacking a bridge ; 368. D. 
Teniers , Younger, The music-lesson; *373. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda 
(a very fine picture, but the original is at Munich) ; 378. Sodoma, Lucretia 
killing herself; *377. Paul Potter (1649), Cattle grazing; 377 bis. Jan Li- 
vens, Man asleep; 378. Jan Breughel, Landscape with accessories; 379. Frans 
Mieris, Portrait of himself; 360. Velvet Breughel, Quay; *383 bis. Murillo, 
Capuchin; *384. Van Dyck, Holy Family; 385. Honthorst (Gherardo delle 
Notti), Samson overcome by the Philistines; *386. H. Holbein, Portrait of 
Erasmus; 382. J. Ruysdael, Landscape; 391. Gerard Dow, Girl plucking 
grapes; 392. Velasquez, Philip IV. of Spain ; 393. Rubens (?), Holy Family; 
395. C. Netscher, Scissors-grinder. — Room XIV. : 410. Floris, Adoration 

74 Route 10. TURIN. Cathedral. 

of the Magi; 417. School ofRtibens, Soldier and girl; 420. Wouwerman, 
Horse-market ; 435. Gerard Dow , Portrait ; 434. 5. Ruysdael, Landscape ; 
4:28. Tenters, Younger, Card-Players ; 430. School of Rembrandt , Portrait 
of a Rabbi; 458. Schalkeri , Old woman; *470 bis. Murillo , Portrait of a 
boy. — Room XV. . 478, 483. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; 484 bis. Netscher, 
Portrait, of Moliere. 

The spacious Piazza S. Carlo, which adjoins the Academy, is 
embellished with the equestrian * Statue of Emmanuel Philihert 
(PI. 19), Duke of Savoy (d. 1580), surnamed 'Tete de Fer, in 
bronze, designed by Marochetti, and placed on a pedestal of granite, 
with reliefs at the sides. On the W. side the Battle of St. Quen- 
tin , gained by the duke under Philip II. of Spain against the 
French in lfif)?; on the E. side the Peace of Cateau Cambre'sis 
(lftfiH), by which the duchy was restored to the House of Savoy. 
The duke as 'pacem redditurus' is in the act of sheathing his sword 
(his armour preserved at the armoury is placed in the same 

The Via Roma (formerly Nuova) leads in a straight direction 
from the Piazza S. Carlo to the Piazza Carlo Felice and the railway- 
station. To the 1. in the Via dell' Ospedale is the Exchange, the 
Industrial Museum and the Ospedale S. Giovanni Battista. Near 
the latter, in the Piazza Carlo Emanuele II, a handsome monu- 
ment to Count Camilla Canour, by Dnpre of Florence, was erected 
in 1873. 

To the r. of the Via Roma, in the Via dell" Arsenale is 
the spacious Arsenal (PI. 12), containing the Museo Nazionale 
d'Artigleria (shown to strangers only by special permission of the 
war minister), the artillery- workshops , a manufactory of arms, 
stores of weapons, cannon-foundries, laboratories . a library, and a 
collection of maps. 

In the Via Cavour , at the corner of the Via Lagrange, is the 
house in which Count Cavour was born in 1810 (d. 1861), with a 
memorial tablet. 

Adjoining the Palazzo Reule on the W. side rises the Cathedral 
of S. Giovanni Battista (PI. 3 1, with a marble facade in the Renais- 
sance style erected by Baccio Pintelli in 1498. It is a cruciform 
structure with aisles, and covered with an octagonal dome in the 
centre. Over the W. Portal in the interior is a copy of Leonardo da 
Vinci's Last Supper (p. 121). Over the second altar on the r. are 
18 small pictures, blackened with age, erroneously attributed to 
Alb. Diirer; altar-piece on a gold ground in Gothic framework, 
by a good master. Frescoes on the ceiling modern. The seats of 
the royal family are on the 1. of the high altar. Behind the high 
altar is situated the *Cappella del SS. Sudario (open during morn- 
ing mass till 9 o'clock ), approached by 37 steps to the r. of the 
high altar , constructed in the 17th cent, by the Theatine monk 
Guarini. It is a lofty circular chapel of dark brown marble contrast- 
ing strongly with the white monuments, separated from the choir by 

La Consolata. TURIN. 10. Route. 75 

a glass partition, and covered with a curiously shaped dome. This 
is the burial-chapel of several Dukes of Savoy, ar d was embellished 
by King Charles Albert in 1842 with statues in white marble and 
symbolical figures to the memory of the most illustrious members 
of his family: (r.) Emmanuel Philibert(&. 1580), 'restitutor imperii', 
by Marchesi ; Prince Thomas (d. 1656) , by Gaggini ; Charles 
Emmanuel II. (d. 1675), by Fraccaroli ; Amadeus VIII. (d. 1451), 
by Cacciatori. The chapel also contains the marble monument of 
the late Queen of Sardinia (d. 1855), by Revelli : 'Conjugi dul- 
cissimae Marine Adelaidi posuit Victorius Emanuel 1856' . The pe- 
culiar light from above enhances the effect. In a kind of urn over 
the altar is preserved the SS. Sudario, or part of the linen cloth 
in which the body of the Saviour is said to have been wrapped. 
The door in the centre leads to the upper corridors of the royal 
palace, which are used as a public thoroughfare. 

Corpus Domini (PI. 5), near the cathedral, was erected in 1647. 
The church was restored in 1753 by Count Alfieri, then 'decurione' 
of the city, and lavishly decorated with marble, gilding, and paint- 
ings. — In the adjacent church of #. Spirito Rousseau when an 
exile from Geneva, at the age of 16, was admitted within the pale 
of the Roman Catholic Church in 1728, but again professed himself 
a convert to Calvinism at Geneva in 1754. 

The Piazza del Palazzo di Citta is adorned with a monument to 
Amadeus VI. (PI. 16), surnamed the 'conte verde\ the conqueror 
of the Turks and restorer of the imperial throne of Greece (d. 1383), 
a bronze group designed by Palagi, and erected in 1853. The 
marble statues in front of the portico of the Palazzo di Citta (town- 
hall) of (1.) Prince Eugene (d. 1736) and (r.) Prince Ferdinand 
(d. 1855), Duke of Genoa and brother of Victor Emmanuel , were 
erected in 1858 ; that of King Charles Albert (d. 1849) in the hall 
to the 1. was erected in 1859 ; that of the present king to the r. in 
1860. Opposite these statues are several Memorial Tablets. 

In the Piazza Savoia rises the 'Monumento Siccardi' (PI. 23), an 
obelisk 75 ft. in height, erected in 1854 to commemorate the abo- 
lition of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, named after Siccardi, minister 
of justice , on whose suggestion it was erected with the consent of 
the king and Chambers. The names of all the towns which con- 
tributed to the erection of the monument , are inscribed on the 
column . 

The Via della Consolata leads hence to the E. to the church of 

La Consolata (PI. 4), containing a highly revered Madonna, 
and formed by the union of three churches ; the present structure 
is in the 'baroque' style of the 17th cent. The chapel to the 1. 
beneath the dome contains the kneeling statues of Maria Theresa, 
Queen of Charles Albert, and Maria Adelaide, Queen of Victor 
Emmanuel (both of whom died in 1855), erected in 1861. The 
passage to the r. of the church is hung with votive pictures, most 

76 Route 10. TURIN. Oiardino Pubblico. 

of them very rude. The piazza adjoining the church is adorned 
with a granite column surmounted with a statue of the Virgin, erect- 
ed in 1835 to commemorate the cessation of the cholera. 

Returning to the Piazza Savoia and crossing the Corso Siccardi, 
we reach the new Giardino della Cittadella , where statues were 
erected in 1871 to Brofferio , the poet and orator, and in 1873 on 
the opposite corner to the jurist J. B. Cassini ; on the other side 
of the street a bust of Dr. Borella. Farther on , in the triangular 
Piazza Pietro Micca, at the corner of the Via della Cernaja is a mon- 
ument in bronze , erected in 1864 in memory of Pietro Micca, 
the brave 'soldato minatore', who at the sacrifice of his own life 
saved the citadel of Turin , on 30th Aug., 1706, by springing a 
mine when the French grenadiers had already advanced to the very 
gates. Nearly opposite rises the statue of Count Alex. Lamarmora 
(d. 1855 in the Crimea). 

In the Via di Po (p. 70) which leads to the S. from the Piazza 
Castello, on the 1., is the University (PI. 38), with a handsome 
court in the late Renaissance style with two arcades one above 
the other. It contains a Museo Lapidario of Roman antiquities, 
chiefly inscriptions. Marble statues have been erected here to 
Prof. Riberi (d. 1861) and Dr. L. Gallo (d. 1857). On the corridor 
of the first floor are busts of celebrated professors and a large alle- 
gorical group presented by Victor Emmanuel. The library, on the 
second floor ('200,000 vols.), contains a number of valuable manu- 
scripts and rare editions. 

No. 6, to the r. in the Via dell' Accademia Albertina , is the 
Accademia Albertina delle Belle Arti (PI. 9 ; shown on week- 
days on payment of a fee). It contains a small collection of pic- 
tures ; among them a Madonna ascribed to Raphael, a cartoon by Leon, 
da Vinci, and 2i cartoons by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

The Via Montebello , the next cross-street , leads to the new 
Synagogue, a square building resembling a tower, and the loftiest 
in the city , with a singular facade consisting of several rows of 

The streets leading out of the Via di Po to the S. terminate at 
the former Giardino dei Ripitri, on the site of the old fortifications, 
now superseded by new streets and squares in course of construction. 
The statues formerly placed here of the Dictator Manin, of Cesare 
P.alho and of the Generals Bava and Pepe are at present removed. 

S. Massimo, between Via S. Lazzaro and Via Borgonuovo , is 
in the style of a Roman temple, surmounted by a dome. The fa- 
cade is adorned with statues of the Four Evangelists. Good modem 
frescoes in the interior, and several statues by Albertoni. 

A favourite promenade, especially in the evening, is the *Nuovo 
Oiardino Pubblico, above the iron bridge on the I . bank of the Po, 
with a Cafe in the Swiss style. It comprises the Botanical Garden. 
and extends beyond the royal chateau 11 Valentino , a turreted 

Cemetery. TURIN. 10. Route. 77 

building of the 17th cent., now occupied by the Polytechnie 
School ('scuola superiore d'applicazione degli Ingegneri'). 

In the Corso del Re , which leads from the Iron Bridge to the 
Piazza Carlo Felice, on the 1., is the handsome Protestant Church 
(Tempio Valdese , or church of the Waldenses , see p. 78; PI. 8), 
completed in 1854 , the first erected at Turin since the establish- 
ment of religious toleration in 1848. — In the Piazza Carlo Felice, 
near the station , is a statue of Massimo cCAzeglio, the author and 
statesman (d. 1866); to the r., in the Piazza Lagrange, of the 
mathematician Lagrange (d. 1813 at Paris) ; to the 1., in the Piazza 
Paleocapa, of the engineer and minister of that name. 

Opposite the spacious Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, at the end of 
the Via di Po, the Po is crossed by a Bridge of five arches construc- 
ted of granite in 1810. (Above the bridge is the swimming-bath, 
p. 69). Beyond the bridge , on the r. bank of the river is a flight 
of 32 steps ascending to the spacious dome-church of Gran Madre 
di Dio (PI. 7), erected in 1818 in imitation of the Pantheon at 
Rome , to commemorate the return of King Victor Emmanuel I. in 
1814. The groups sculptured in stone on the flight of steps are 
emblematical of Faith and Charity. The lofty columns of the por- 
tico are monoliths of granite. A few hundred yards farther is the 
Villa della Regina , now a school for the daughters of officers who 
have fallen in battle, commanding a fine view of the town. 

On the wooded hill to the r. rises the Capuchin Monastery 
(PI. 24), 74 hr. walk from the bridge, approached by broad paths 
on the S. and N. sides. The latter is to be preferred, being 
shady and unpaved. The terrace in front of the church (morning 
best time for a visit, as the evening light is dazzling) commands a 
fine *survey of the river, city, plain, and the chain of the Alps in 
the background , above which (r.) the snowy summit of Monte Rosa 
is prominent, then the Grand-Paradis and Monte Levanna ; farther 
W. the valley of Susa (p. 32), S. Miehele della Chiusa (p. 32), 
rising conspicuously on a hill, above it the Roche-Melon, to the r. 
of Mont Cenis, farther S. W. Monte Viso. This hill of the Capu- 
chins has always been a point of great importance in the military 
history of Turin. 

The Cemetery [Cimitero, or Campo Santo, open 12 — 4 o'cl. in 
winter, 3 — 8 in summer; in Sept. and Oct. 2 — 4 only), l'/a M. 
N.E. of Turin, on the road to Chivasso (see p. 112), is superior 
in extent and arrangement to most of the Italian burial-grounds, 
but contains few monuments worthy of note. The front part is 
enclosed by a wall with arches, while the more interesting portion 
beyond is surrounded by arcades covered with small domes. To 
the 1. by the wall in the first section is the tomb of Silvio Pellico 
(d. 1854). A separate space on the N. side is reserved for the 
interment of non- Romanists. 

78 Route 11. IVREA. 

The *Superga (2555 ft.), the royal burial-church, a handsome edifice 
with a colonnade in front, and surmounted by a dome, conspicuously situ- 
ated on a hill to the E. of Turin, is well worthy of a visit (l l \t hrs. walk) 
and commands a splendid view. It. is said that Prince Eugene recon- 
noitred the hostile camp from this height before the commencement of the 
battle of Turin (1706), and that, observing symptoms of irresolution in 
their movements , he observed to Duke Amadeus II. 'Jl me semble , que 
res gens-la sont a demi battus*. The latter, it is said, on this occasion 
vowed to erect a church here in honour of the Virgin, in case of his suc- 
cess in the battle. The building was begun in 1717 and completed in 1731. 
The kings of the House of Savoy are interred in the vaults here •, the 
last was Charles Albert in 1849. 

The pleasantest route to the Superga is to descend by boat (barchelta) 
on the Po (also an omnibus from Piazza Castello every ife hr.) to the 
Madonna del Pilone , about 1 II. below Turin, where donkeys (somarelli, 
3 fr.) may be engaged for the accent of the hill. 

Excursion from Turin to the Valleys of the Waldenses ( ValUes Vau- 
doises), extending along the French frontier, about 30 M. to the S. W. 
The well-known and interesting Protestant communities (about 26,000 
souls) who have occupied these valleys for 600 years , have steadily ad- 
hered to the faith for which they were formerly so cruelly persecuted. 
Their language is French. Railway from Turin to Pignerol (Ital. Pine- 
rolo) (Corona grossa) in Hfe hr. (fares 3 fr. 55, 2 fr. 55, 1 fr. 70 c); omni- 
bus thence in 1 hr. to La Tour, Ital. Torre Luserna (IS Ours; Lion d'Or), 
the chief of these communities, which possesses excellent schools. — From 
Pignerol a road ascends the valley of the C'Msone by Perosa and Fenes- 
Irelle, a strongly fortified place, to the Mont Qenevre and the French 
fortress of Briancon in the lofty valley of the Durance. At Cesanne this 
road unites with that from Turin by Svisa (p. 32). 

11. From Turin to Aosta. 

Railway to Ivrea (38 M.) in 4 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 85, 5 fr. 80, 3 fr. 45 
c.l. Diligence thence to Aosta in 9 hrs. (fare 8 fr.). 

From Turin to Chivasso, see p. 112. Between the depressions 
of the lower mountains the snowy summits of the Grand Paradis 
are conspicuous, which conceal the view of Mont Blanc; farther to 
the E. , Monte Rosa is visible. 

At Chivasso carriages arc changed. Next stations Montanaro, 
(-'aluso , and Strambino , villages of some importance. 

Ivrea (768 ft.) (*Europa; Vniverso), a town with 9600 inhab., 
is picturesquely situated on the Dora Baltea (French Doire), on the 
slope of a hill crowned by an extensive and well-preserved ancient 
Castle, with three lofty towers of brick, now a prison. Adjacent 
is the modern Cathedral, the interior of which was restored in 1855. 
An ancient sarcophagus adorns the adjoining Piazza. Ivrea is 
an episcopal see and capital of the province of that name. This 
was the ancient Eporedia, which was colonised by the Romans, B.C. 
100. in order to command the Alpine routes over the Great and 
Little St. Bernard. Pleasant walk to the Madonna del Monte 
(pilgrimage church) and the lake of <S. Giuseppe with a ruined 
monastery (1 hr.). 

Ivrea may be termed one of the S. gateways to the Alps. The 
luxuriantly fertile valley, here l'/2 M. in breadth , is flanked with 

VBRREX. ;;. Route. 79 

mountains of considerable height. The post -road skirts the 
Dora Baltea the whole way to Aosta. On a height to the r. stands 
the well-preserved, pinnacled castle of Montalto (a waterfall near 
it) ; several other ruins crown the hills farther on. The vines 
which clothe the slopes are carefully cultivated. The road leads 
through the villages of Sett imo- Vittone and Carema. At 

12 M. Pout St. Martin (Rosa Rossa) the road crosses the 
Lysbach, which descends from Monte Rosa. The bold and slender 
bridge which crosses the brook higher up is a Roman structure. 
This and the ruined castle here are most picturesque features in 
the landscape. Several forges are situated on the bank of the Dora. 

Beyond Donnaz the road ascends rapidly through a profound 
defile. On the 1. flows the river, on the r. rises a precipitous rock. 
The pass is terminated by the picturesque Tort Bard (1019 ft. J, 
which stands on a huge mass of rock in a most commanding posi- 
tion. The fort is of very ancient origin. In 1052 it was taken by 
Duke Aniadeus of Savoy after a long and determined siege. In 
May, 1800, three weeks before the battle of Marengo , an Austrian 
garrison of 400 men here kept the whole French army in check for 
a week after their passage of the St. Bernard. The French, howe- 
ver , succeeded in conveying a small field-piece to the summit of 
Monte Albaredo , which overtops the fort , whence they partially 
disabled the battery commanding the entrance to the town. 

The new road , hewn in the solid rock, no longer leads by the 
village of Bard, but follows the course of the Dora, below the fort. 
On the 1. the Val di Camporciero, or Champorcher, opens. 

71/2 M. Verrex (1279 ft.) (Ecu de France, or Poste; *Couronne) 
lies at the entrance of the (r.) Val de Challant. 

The valleys of Aosta and Susa (p. 32) were alternately occu- 
pied by the Franks and the Lombards , and belonged for a con- 
siderable period to the Franconian Empire, in consequence of which 
the French language still predominates in these Italian districts. 
Bard is the point of transition from Italian to French , while at 
Verrex the latter is spoken almost exclusively. 

Above Verrex the valley expands. The ruined castle of St. 
Germain, loftily situated, soon comes into view. The road ascends 
through the long and steep *Defile of Montjovet. The rock-hewn 
passage is supposed to have been originally constructed by the 
Romans. The Doire forms a succession of waterfalls in its rugged 
channel far below. The small village of Montjovet , on the roofs 
of which the traveller looks down from the road , appears to cling 
precariously to the rocks. The castle of St. Germain is again 
visible from several different points of view. 

As soon as the region of the valley in which Aosta is situated 
is entered , a grand and picturesque landscape , enhanced by the 
richest vegetation , is disclosed. The Pont des Salassins (see 

80 Route 11. AOSTA. 

belowj , a bridge crossing a profound ravine, commands a magnifi- 
cent view. On the 1. rises the castle of Vsselle. 

Near St. Vincent (Lion d'Or ; Ecu de France) is a mineral 
spring and bath-establishment. Then (l'/2 M. farther) 

9 M. Chatillon (1738 ft.) (Hotel de Londres ; Lion d'Or, poor), 
the capital of this district, possessing a number of forges an.l hand- 
some houses. To the N. opens the Val Tournanche, through which 
a bridle-path leads to the Matterjoch (10,899 ft.) and Zermatt, and 
thence to Vispach (p. 33) in the Rhone Valley (see Baedeker's 

The road is shaded by walnut and chestnut-trees and trellised 
vines. The wine of Chnmbace, about 3 M. from Chatillon, is one 
of the best in Piedmont. A slight eminence here commands an 
imposing retrospect; to the E. rise several of the snowy summits of 
Monte Rosa, r. Castor and Pollux (Les Jumeaux), 1. the bold peak 
of the Matterhorn and the Matterjoch (see above). The whole of 
the background towards the W. is formed by the Mont Blanc chain. 

To the 1., at the entrance of the valley, stands the picturesque 
castle of Fenis. The poor village of Nus, with fragments of an old 
castle, lies midway between Chatillon and Aosta. 

A footpath leads from Villefranche to the castle of Quart on the 
hill above (now a hospital) and descends on the other side. Beau- 
tiful view from the summit. 

15 M. Aosta (1912 ft.) (*H6tel du Montblanc, at the upper 
end of the town, on the road to Courmayeur, R. from 2, I). 4, 
A. 1 fr. ; Couronne, in the market-place, conveniently situated, 
R. 2, B. 1 !/ 2 fr.) , the Augusta Praetoria Salassorum of the Ro- 
mans , now the capital (7760 inhab.) of the Italian province 
of that name , lies at the confluence of the Buttier and the 
Doire, or Dora Baltea. The valley was anciently inhabited by 
the Salassi , a Celtic race , who commanded the passage of the 
Great and the Little St. Bernard, the two most important routes 
from Italy to Gaul. They frequently harassed the Romans in 
various ways , and on one occasion plundered the coffers of Caesar 
himself. After protracted struggles the tribe was finally extirpated 
by Augustus , who is said to have captured the whole of the sur- 
vivors, 36,000 in number, and to have sold them as slaves at Epo- 
redia. He then founded Aosta to protect the high roads , named 
it after himself, and garrisoned it with 3000 soldiers of the Prae- 
torian cohorts. The antiquities which still testify to its ancient 
importance are the Town Walls , flanked with strong towers, the 
double S. Gate, resembling the Porta Nigra of Treves in miniature, 
a magnificent Triumphal Arch constructed of huge blocks and 
adorned with ten Corinthian half-columns, the half-buried arch of a 
bridge , the ruins of a basilica, etc. The walls are reached in a 
few min. by one of the streets leading to the N. from the Place 
(Varies Albert in the centre of the town, and the other relics may be 

VOGHERA. 72. Route. 81 

seen in ^2 nr - (from the Place follow the principal street towards 
the E. leading to the Roman Gate and the Triumphal Arch; 200 
paces straight beyond the latter, bearing to the 1., is the narrow Rue 
du Pont Romain crossing the Roman bridge, the construction of 
which is seen by descending a few paces to the left). 

The modern Cathedral possesses a singular Portal , with fres- 
coes ; above it the Last Supper in terracotta , gaudily painted. 
Near the church of St. Ours are cloisters with handsome early 
Romanesque columns. m Modern Town Hall in the spacious Place 
Charles Albert, or market-place. 

The *Becca di Nona (10,354 ft.), which rises to the S. of Aosta, com- 
mands a superb view of the Alps. Good bridle-path to the summit (6'|j 
hrs. ; small inn three-quarters of the way up). 

From Aosta over the Great St. Bernard to Martigny (p. 33), and from 
Aosta to Courmayeur and round Mont Blanc to Chamouny, see Baedekers 
Switzerland. One-horse carr. to St. Remy (where the carriage-road to the 
Great St. Bernard at present terminates) 15, to Courmayeur 20, to Chatillon 
(p. 80) 12 fr. — Diligence to Courmayeur and Pre St. Didier. 

12. From Turin to Piacenza by Alessandria. 

116M. Railway in i v , 2 — 6'| 2 hrs.; fares 20 fr. 75, 14 fr. 55, 10 fr. 40 c. 

From Turin to Alessandria, see R. 13. Beyond Alessandria 
the train traverses the Battle-field of Marengo (p. 151). The village 
of that name lies a little to the N. "W. of the first stat. Spinetta. Next 
stat. S. Oiuliano. The train then crosses the Scrivia and reaches 
the small town of Tortona (Croce Bianca), the ancient Dertona, 
with a Cathedral erected by Philip II. in 1584, containing a re- 
markably fine ancient sarcophagus. 

Railway to JYovi (p. 151), by stat. Pozzuolo , in 35—45 min. (2 fr. 10, 
1 fr. 50, 1 fr. 5 c). 

The train traverses a fertile district , and near stat. Ponte 
crosses the impetuous Curone. Stat. Voghera (Italia; Albergo del 
Popolo), a town with 10,173 inhab. on the 1. bank of the Staffora 
(perhaps the ancient Iria), was once fortified by Giov. Galeazzo 
Visconti. The old church of S. Lorenzo, founded in the 11th cent., 
was remodelled in 1600. This town was frequently mentioned in 
the war of 1859. 

On the high road from Voghera to the next station Casteygio, 
to the S. of the railway, is situated Montebello , where the well 
known battle of 9th June, 1800 (five days before the battle of Ma- 
rengo), took place, and whence Marshal Lannes obtained his ducal 
title. On 20th May, 1859, the first serious encounter between the 
Austrians and the united French and Sardinian armies also took 
place here. Casteggio, a village on the Coppa , is believed to be 
identical with the Clastidium so frequently mentioned in the an- 
nals of the wars of the Romans against the Gauls. — From Voghera 
by Pavia (and the Certosa) to Milan, see R. 26. 

The train skirts the base of the N. spurs of the Apennines. 
Stations S. Oiuletta, Broni, Stradella. At stat. Arena-Po it enters 

BituEKEK. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 6 

82 Route 12. PIACENZA. 

the plain of the Po , through which it runs, at some distance 
from the river, to Piacenza. Stat. ('astel S. Giovanni is situated in 
the ex-Duchy of Parma. Stations Sarmato, llottofreno ,- then S. 
Xiccolb, in the plain of t]\el'rebia, memorable for the victory gain- 
ed by Hannibal, 15. C. 218, over the Romans, whom he had shortly 
before defeated near Somina. 

Piacenza, French Plaisance (*S. Marco, It. l 1 / 2 . I'- 1 fr. ; 
Italia; *Croce Bianca ; Caffe Battaglia in the Piazza; Caff'i Grande 
in the Str. di S. Raimondo, S. of the Piazza; cab with one horse 
! /') fr. per drive, with two 75 c.; at night 75 c. or 1 fr. 10c; each box 
25 c. ). situated near the S. bank of the Po, which is here crossed 
by a bridge of boats [iron bridge in course of construction), is a 
large and dreary town with 34,985 inliab.. founded by the Romans, 
i'i. C. 219, as Colonia Plarentia, at the same time with Cremona, 
in the middle ages it held a high rank in the league of the Lom- 
bard towns , and was afterwards frequently the subject of tierce 
party-struggles between the Scotti, Torriani, and Visconti. In 
1488 it was plundered by Francesco Sforza, a blow from which it 
never entirely recovered. In 1545 it finally came into the posses- 
sion of the Farnese family and was united to Parma. 

In the Piazza de' Cacalli is situated the * Palazzo del Cormtne, 
erected at the end of the 13th century. On the ground-floor there 
is a spacious arcade with rive pointed arches; in the upperfloor are 
six rich round-arch windows above which rise handsome pinnacles. 
In front of it stand the equestrian Statues of the Dukes Alessandro 
and Ranuccio Farnese , erected 1620 — 24, by Francesco Mocchi, a 
pupil of Giovanni da Bologna. Alessandro attained to great dis- 
tinction in the wars in the Netherlands as governor under 
Philip 11. He took Antwerp in 1585, besieged Paris in 1591, and 
died at Arras in 1592. He was succeeded by his tyrannical son 
Ranuccio (d. 1622). 

<S'. Francesco, a brick edifice in the Piazza, with Gothic interior, 
was erected in 1278. In front of it rises a statue to Romagnosi, 
professor of constitutional law at Parma, and editor of the new 
Italian penal code. The principal street ( Strada Diritta) leads to 
the E. to the 

* Cathedral, a Romanesque-Lombard edifice dating from 1122, 
with superstructure of brick added in the 13th cent., containing 
admirable frescoes by Guercino (prophets and sibyls) on the dome 
and Lodovico Caracci on the arch of the choir, and pictures by Pro- 
caccini (in the choir), and by Andrea and Elisabetta Sirani. The 
crypt is borne by 100 columns. In the vicinity (take the first side- 
street to the 1. on leaving the cathedral) is 

8. Antonino. formerly the cathedral, dating from 903, 1104, 
and 1561, with a line old vestibule, termed '11 Paradiso', of curious 
irregular shape, and a tower borne by the eight massive round co- 
lumns in the interior. Return to the piazza by the Via S. Anto- 

PIACENZA. 12. Route. 83 

nino ; turn to the r. past the Palazzo Comunale, and follow the 
Strada Campagna to the r. to the church of 

S. Marin della Campayna (at the W. end of the town), said to 
have been erected by Bramante, but disfigured by alterations. It 
contains some admirable frescoes by Pordenone (to the 1. of the en- 
trance St. Augustine), paintings in the two chapels on the 1. with 
small domes, and also in the large dome. Behind the high-altar 
is a Descent from the Cross, after Tintoretto. Return by the Str. 
Campagna, and, where several streets converge, turn to the 1. to 
the church of 

*S. Sisto, at the N. end of the town, the richest in Piacenza, 
erected in 1499 — 1511 with an Ionic atrium. About 1518 Raphael 
painted for this church his master-piece, the Sistine Madonna 
(Madonna with St. Sixtus and St. Barbara, now at Dresden), 
which was sold in 1753 to King Augustus III. of Poland for 20,000 
ducats and replaced by a copy by Avanzini (beginning of 18th 
cent.). The choir contains pictures by Camillo Procaccini, 
Palma Oiovane, etc.; also several good intarsias and (in the 1. 
transept) the monument of Margaret of Austria (d. 1586), daughter 
of Charles V. and wife of Ottavio Farnese , Duke of Parma, the 
father of Alessandro Farnese. 

A little to the E. of S. Sisto is the Palazzo Farnese, erected in 
a magnificent style by Vignola during the reign of Margaret in 
1558, one of his first great works. It was never completed and is 
now a barrack. On the S.W. side of the town is the Citadel, 
erected in 1547, and once strongly fortified by the Austrians. 

About 24 M. to the S. W., in the valley of the Trebbia, lies the small 
town of Bobbio, once famous for the Library of the monastery founded 
here by St. Columbanus in 712, which on the dissolution of the abbey was 
dispersed. This library contained the palimpsests from which the learned 
Angelo Mai (born at Bergamo in 1782, librarian of the Vatican in 1819, 
cardinal in 1833, d. at Albano near Rome in 1854) brought to light so 
many valuable ancient works, among others 'Cicero de Republica' in 1822. 

The remains of the ancient town of *Velleia , which is believed to 
have been buried by a landslip in the reign of the Emp. Prohus (about 
278), are also- 24 M. from Piacenza. Various antiquities excavated here 
in 1760 — 75 are now in the museum at Parma. An amphitheatre, temple, 
forum, etc. have also been discovered. The route to Velleia is by S. Solo, 
S. Giorgio on the Nure, with a villa of the Scotti erected by Vignola, 
Rezzano, and Badagnano (where the carriage-road terminates). 

13. From Turin to Genoa. 

103 M. Railway in 4'/i — 5 3 U hrs. (Alessandria is about half-way); fares 
18 fr. 30, 12 fr. 80, 9 fr. 15 c. 

The line at first proceeds towards the S., at some distance from 
the 1. bank of the Po, which here skirts the extreme spurs of the 
Apennines rising on its r. bank. Near stat. Moncalieri, where the 
line turns to the E., the river is crossed by a bridge of seven 
arches. On a height above Moncalieri, which is picturesquely 


81 Route. 13. AST!. 

situated on the liill-side. vises the handsome royal chateau, where 
Victor Emmanuel T. died in 18'23. A final retrospect is now ob- 
tained of the hills of Turin, and, to the 1., of the principal snowy 
summits of the Alps (p. 77). At stat. Troffarello the line to Cuneo 
(p. tl'2) diverges to the r. (S."). Stations Cambiano , Pesshne, 
1 lllunuora, Yillafrimcti, lialdichieri, S. Damiano. The line pene- 
trates still farther into the mountainous district (numerous cut- 
tings), crosses the Borbone, and reaches the valley of the Tanaro, 
on the 1. bank of which it runs to Alessandria. 

Asti (Leone d'Oro, H. '2y 2 , B. JM/ 2 fr. ; Alberyn tteale), an an- 
cient town (31,033 inhab. ) with numerous towers, the birthplace 
of the dramatist ,4 Ifieri (d. 1803), is famous for its wine and its 
horticulture. The Gothic Cathedral , erected in 1348, contains a 
Nativity by a master of the Cologne School to the 1. of the high 
altar. ^ The Piazza was adorned with a Statue of Alfieri, by Yini, 
in 1802. On the r. audi., at some distance from the town, rise 
the vine-clad hills which yield the excellent wine of Asti. 

.Next stations Annone. Cerro. Felr,r,ano, The country 
is Hat and fertile ; the Tanaro flows on the r. Before Alessandria 
is reached, the line to Arona (11. *2ff| diverges to the N. The train 
now crosses the Tanaro by a bridge of 15 arches, winds past the 
fortifications, and reaches Alessandria, sec p. 151. 

From Alessandria to Genoa, see p. 151. 

14. Genoa, Italian Geiiova. French Genes. 

Railway Stations, fitazionc ()n-ideiilalc , for Alessandria, Turin, etc., 
and for Savona and Nice, in the 1'iazza del Principe (PI. I), 1,2); iitttiivne. 
Orientate, fur Chiavari and Scstri Levante , at the end of the Via Serra 
(Pi. H, 4). 

Hotels, all of unattractive exterior. *1Ioti:i. Tku.mbktta (successor In 
1'ctlrr) (PI. a), fonnei'h (lie Palace of the Admiral! v. entrance Via Bogiiin 
9, It. 3 fr. and upwards. L. i. IS. l>j-... I>. 4'j-., A. f fr. — Hotel d'Italik 
et Cnoix de Maltk (PI. h), K. from 2'[-j. L. 1, 1). 4, A. 1, omn. 1 fr. ; 
uiattho Xazioni (PI. d), Palazzo Serra; ''Hotel de la Ville (PI. c), 
K. 2'|v. 1>. 4'ja. I.. F| 2 , A. 1, oiunilius l>| 2 fr.: *Hotel Oenova (PI. h), near 
(lie Toatro Carlo Felice, K. 'J'j-.., A. ; <| 4 fr. ; + Hotel de France (PI. g). 
opposite the lintel Trombetla, 1). 4 fr. ; Pension- Suisse, R. 2, It. 3, A. 
',-j fr. ; Albekoo della Vittoiua, Piazza delP Aununziata 16, 1!. 2'|2, '•• 
•'| 1, A. 3| 4 fr. ; Hotel he l'Evcope, Via Teud,,ro, and Hotel Smith, near 
tlic exchange. Via l'onte Keale, are unpretending :. K. and A. 2>|- fr. : 
Hotel de Loni.rks, near the stalion, well spoken of.'— Those who make 
a prolonged slay al any of Hie hotels should come lo an understanding he- 
forehand as to the charges. 

Cafe-Restaurants. ■ I'mnordia, Via N'uova. opposite I lie Palazzo Unsso 
(PI. 25). dinner i - f> fr.. good ices 60c, music frc|uentlv in the evening: 
■Cufr .Vllali,' al Aequa Sola (p. 93), in summer only, 1).' 4 fr. ; faft'c deW 
A,;/int<ol,i, corner of Via and Salita Acquasola ;l t'af,' de Fiance, Via Carlo 

Felice, I). 2'|a fr. ; * Rossini, opposite the posluliiee: Matlttl rill . by I he 
Teal rii Carlo HYlice: Kin-lien. Via Giulia : del Centra. Via Nuova 8- delV 
omnibus. Via LomcJIina, and many others. < Trattoria ,1,11a Cunjideit'a 
Via Carlo Felice I), 1). 3—4 IV. : Trattoria deir Union,-. Piazza Campelto 9.' 
Birraria Midler. Via C'aflaro. heer onlv. 


1 . -Accademia (USeJleArti' e, 

BibUoteea czviea. ■ ■ . . E. i 

2 ■ Arehivio Oovematiro, 

YwboJLArmmsaavwto H . F.* 

3; ArchhriodiS. Giorgio 

Tia, del Commercio -b .E.3* 

*. Areirescorato Wf.* 

5 . 1'imra Xazionah 

TmSIonmzo IZ . . . . E*. 

6. Hibliuleen Franxoniidia 
TiaOiusfiniani, 11 . . .E.*. 

7. Borm o Loggia E.3 

8 . Camera di Commerdo 

Piazza, Sencurega 1 ■ ■ E.3, 

Clues e : 

9. S.Lorenzo metropol. . . E* 

WS.SJhuuaiziata, E.2 

WS-Sienuvo &.4- 

\2.SJbnbrogio P.*. 

lS.SJHdriadiCarignano . F.5 

\*.S.Mattw F.4- 


ViaZomeflini .... E.2.3. 
1 6. SMaria di CasteUo 

TiaSM.diCasteZlo. . E* 

1 7. S. Mm- in i lei if Vigne, 

Piazza, delie, Tigne, . . 
l%.S.Siro, Piazza S.Siro . . 

Palazzi : 
19.Bal/>i, E.2.1 

2 0. Bvurazzo, Marcello o delta Srtda E.2 .| 



2 3.delJMunicipio 

2 1. Andrea Doria, 

2 5. Brbgnole, 


27.Durazzo,Tia,Balbi 6 . 
2 8.1hipazzo Gropalbo 

JHazzwdeUoZe/r'biiioiZ H,3 

2 9Jmperiale,, Piazza, Campetto 8. . E.F.3.* 

3 O.PaUxwiciid,, SoJUa, S.Jlarfolommeo 

degH^drmeni, 3 . H 3 
3 XSaUaviano, Piazza Foniane 

Morose, Z7. . F.3. 
3 ZBosazza,, Piazza. Pineffro. . . . F.3 

3S.Serra,,7ia,Miava,lZ F.3 

Si.Spinola,TiaJ'junra,S E.3, 

3h.Spiiwla,~Ha,aUAepuasola,. . .E.G.*. 
Teatri : 

3 Q.Carlo Felice, E.J 

3 7. ^Andrea, Boria, G.5 

SS^fyoUo E.5 

39. Colombo F.ji 

QtO.lTajsionaZe, E.*, 

1 \~Acq-iuL8ola, (Anfifaafro ) > 

SaUta del, Cappucakz, IS 0.3. 

it2Paganati,Tia Caffaro W . . . . E.2.3. 

4 SFetc/aereLAnfUetOroJ 

•Salda KBurtohmrmeodeyU^trme/u 3 H.3 
bbJlegiefJalconi.)Tia,Baai 10. . . . BE.2 
1 hyigne, (Marionette,) 

Tieo del TeaXro deZb.Yigne-7 . . . E.3. 

ItS.YMalTegro . E.3 

\7 Momimvniodi CrixUrf. Colombo. . . . ~D.l 
ItS.Musica.Jiiitubo di, 

YiaMaschero/wt, 9. E.4.5 

*9.P«wfct dette, lettwe, P.3 

bO.R.Fre/Wtura, r.PaZaz.BucaZe, 
5 l L.Siewezza,Pubbliea,T:Palaz.Puoale, 
bZ.Staziane, deUa Ferroria, .... D.1,2 

5 3. Tribunale, di, Commerdo 

Via, SJBernardo E* 

hb.R.Vhbrerriaz E.2 

55.Zecca,,Piazza, deiFomi, 5. . . EE.3. 



h. Ifu/it/ . . 

c. H2td de la Vtlle 

il. Qiiattro Jirxui/ii 

e. Sdtel Moral . . 

f . Croce diJtalbt . 

g. Mid de France 
h. jObergo di Geno-ra. 


. E.3. 

. E.i. 

GENOA. 14. Route. 85 

Consulates. English, Salita di S. Caterina; American, Salita de' Cap- 
puceini, near the Acquasola. Also a German and a French consulate. 

Steamboats: 1o Leghorn (It. 48) daily in 9 hrs., fares 32'| 8 , 20'| 2 fr.; 
to Spezia'(R. 49) three times a week in 5 — 6 hrs. ; to Leghorn, Civita- Vecchia 
and Naples, twice weekly in 32—42 hrs.; to Marseilles (p. 22) daily in 
18—20 hrs., fares 70, 08, 37 fr. ; to Sice (p. 103) daily in 9—10 hrs., fares 
27'|a, 17'|2 fr. ; to Sardinia by Leghorn 3 times weekly; to Tunis once 
weekly. Embarcation in each case 1 fr. for each pers., incl. luggage. 

Boat for 2 — 4 person,? with one rower 2 fr. per hour. 

Baths. Via delle Grazie 11, Piazza Sarzano 51, Via delle Fontane 12 
(charge 80 c). Sea-Baths at the Punta della Cava, to which omnibuses 
(20 c.) ran in summer, and at Pegli (p. 95); accommodation poor. Swim- 
mers are recommended to bathe from a boat. 

Post Office, Piazza delle Fontane Morose, open 8 a. m. to 8 p. m. 

Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 22). 

Cabs'. Per drive 80 c, at night l'|4 fr. ; per hour H|a, at night. 2 fr. 

Omnibuses traverse the city in every direction , fare 10 c. From the 
Piazza Carlo Felice to the Stazione Occidentale 20 c. — Smaller vehicles 
run to places in the environs, but are often crowded. 

Theatres. Carlo Felice (PI. 36), built in '1827, one of the largest in 
Italy, with five tiers of boxes , holding nearly 3000 persons; parterre 2, 
fauteuil 5 fr. ; operas performed here. Faganini (PI. 42), Str. C'affaro 10. 
Teatro Diurno (PI. 41), Salita Cappuccini 19, and several others. 

Photographs, etc. at Arnulfs, Via Nuovissima 41. 

English Church Service in an apartment in the Via Assarotfi (PI. H, 3). 
Presbyterian at the Waldensian Church in the same street. 

Principal Attractions. Walk in the morning on the Gran Terrazzo 
(p. 88); walk through the Via S. Lorenzo past the Cathedral (p. 88) and 
back to the Piazza Nuova; ascend to the Madonna di Carignano (p. 87) 
and return to the Piazza Fontane Morose (or descend from the Madonna 
di Carignano by the Via Oaleazzo Alessi and Mura S. Stefano to the 
park of Acqua Sola and the Villa Negro, comp. p. 93, and thence to the 
Fontane Morose); walk through the line of streets mentioned at p. SG 
with their numerous palaces, and visit the Palazzi Pallaviciui (p. 90) and 
Srignole (p. 91) (the mansions of the Genoese noblesse are generally shown 
between 11 and 4 o'clock, and probably earlier in summer), the Monument 
of Columbus (p. 92), and the Palazzo Doria (p. 93). Make excursion in the 
afternoon to the Villa Pallaviciui (p. 94; permease), p. 92); or, if pre- 
ferred, visit the latter the following morning, or on the way lo Nice, 
and devote the afternoon to a drive to the C'ampo Sanlo (p. 94), after 
which the evening may be spent in the park of Acqua Sola (p. 93). 

The city of Genoa (with 130,269 inhab.J, justly termed Ha 
superbd , owing to its beautiful situation and its numerous palaces 
.of marble, stands on a slope rising above the sea in a wide semi- 
circle. It has been celebrated as a harbour from a very remote 
period, and under the Romans was a great mart for the products 
of the coast-districts of the Ligurian sea. The city in its present 
dimensions, however, dates from the middle ages. At the begin- 
ning of the 10th. cent, a republic, presided over by doges, was con- 
stituted here. The citizens participated in the crusades , and ac- 
quired valuable possessions in the distant East. Their great rivals 
were the Pisans and Venetians, with whom they waged fierce and 
interminable wars (pp. 201, 292). 

The History of Genoa, consists of a succession of violent , and often 
sanguinary party-struggles, originated chiefly by the Doria and Spinola 
(Ghibellines) and the (Irimaldi and Fieschi (Guclphs) families, to which 
the Doges, the presidents of the republic belonged. Andrea Doria (p. 93) 
at length restored peace by the establishment of a new oligarchical con- 

86 Route U. GENOA. Fortifications. 

stitulion, and (lie unsuccessful conspiracy of Fieschi in 1547 was one of 
the last instances of an attempt to make the stipreme power dependent 
on unbridled personal ambition. The power of Genoa was, however, al- 
ready on the wane. The Turks conquered its Oriental possessions one 
after another, and the city was subjected to severe humiliations by its 
powerful Italian rivals, a.s well as by the French, who took Genoa in 
1684. In 1736 the ambition of Theodore de Xettliof, a Westphalian noble- 
man, occasioned great disquietude to the republic. He "was created king 
by the inhabitants of Corsica, who had been subjects of Genoa. !mt now 
threw off their yoke. The Genoese pronounced the newly elected king 
guilty of treason Cqtial sednttore del popolo, reo di lesa maesfa), in conse- 
quence of which the usurper lied, and, with the aid of the French, they 
succeeded in re-establishing their supremacy over Corsica. After the battle 
of Marengo (1800) Genoa was taken possession of by the French. In 1805 
it was formally annexed to the Empire of France, and in 1815 to the 
Kingdom of Sardinia. — According to an old saying of the Tuscan's, which 
is very characteristic of the ancient rivalry between them and the Genoese, 
and in its first half not untrue, Genoa possesses 'inare senza peace , mon- 
tagnc senza alberi, uomini senza fede, e donne senza vergogna\ 

The city possesses a double lino of Fortifications. The ttrst 
of these, about 7 M. in length, encloses the city itself; the other 
consists of a broad rampart, 20 M. in length, which extends along 
the hills at some distance from Genoa and at the highest points is 
defended by small fortified towers and intrenchments , completed 
in 1632, and recently strengthened. 

Genoa is the chief commercial town in Italy. The annual im- 
ports are valned at 300 million fr., the exports at 120 million. 
Of the imports about one-third is from England, and the rest 
chiefly from France and North America. 

The great business thoroughfare of Genoa is a lino of broad 
and handsome streets, which, like the boulevards at Paris, encircle 
the old town, beginning at the Western Station, passing the Mon- 
ument of Columbus (p. 92"), continued by the Yin Balbi, passing 
.^. Annun'iata (p. 91); then by the Via Nuoi'issima, Via Ntiora. 
Piazza (telle Fontane Morose for delln Pn.rtu), Yin Carlo Felice, 
Piazza S. l>r,uienico (or Carlo Felice). Piazza Nuorn, and thence 
by the \'ia $. Lorenzo past the Cattedrale S. Lorenzo to the Har- 
bour- The principal churches and most of the numerous palaces 
for which Genoa is famous are situated in these streets. Many of 
them were erected by (laleuzzo Alcssi (a pupil of Michael Augelo, 
born at Perugia lfiOH, d. lf>72"), whose example was generally fol- 
lowed by subsequent architects. In spite of occasional defects, 
the architecture of the city is of an imposing and systematic cha- 
racter, and great ingenuity has boon displayed in employing an un- 
favourable and limited site to the best advantage. The palaces 
moreover contain a considerable number of works of art. while 
iiubons, who resided at Genoa in 160G — 1608. and Van Dyck at a 
later period have contributed to preserve the memory of many 
members of the noblesse. between these loftily situated streets 
and piazzas a labyrinth of narrow streets and lanes descend to the 
harbour, those adjacent to which are the most ancient. 

Harbour. GENOA. 1.4. Route. 87 

The beauty of its situation and the interesting reminiscences 
of its ancient magnificence render a visit to Genoa very attractive, 
especially to the traveller who is visiting Italy for the first time. 
The finest general view is obtained from the church of *S. Maria 
di Carignano (PI. 13), which occupies one of the highest sites at 
the S.E. end of the city, and is most conveniently reached from 
the Piazza Nuova (PI. F, 4; p. 89) thus: follow the Salita Polla- 
juolo opposite the Palazzo Ducale, then ascend the Stradone Ago- 
stino to the r., cross the .piazza to the 1. and follow the Via al Ponte 
Carignano to the r. to the Ponte Carignano, a bridge over streets 
nearly 100ft. below, and leading direct to the church. This struc- 
ture, in the form of a Greek cross, with a lofty dome, designed by 
Galeazzo Alessi, is an imitation of the original design of St. Peter's 
at Rome, and is of harmonious proportions in the interior. The 
tasteless statues beneath the dome are by David and Puget ; the 
paintings by Vanni, Maratta, Guercino, and Cambiaso. The *view 
from the highest gallery of the dome (ascended by an easy and well 
lighted stair of 249 steps), embraces the city, harbour and for- 
tifications , and the well peopled coast (W. the Riviera di Ponente, 
11. 15; E. the Riviera di Levante, R. 49), being bounded on the E. 
by the picturesque promontory of S. Martino d'Albaro, and stretch- 
ing to the S. over the vast blue expanse of the Mediterranean. 
(Sacristan 25 c, his attendance for the ascent is unnecessary.) 

The "Harbour (Porto) consists of a semicircular bay, about 2 M. 
in diameter, into which two long and substantial Piers project. 
That on the E. is the Molo Vecchio, with the small old lighthouse ; 
that on the W. the Molo Nuovo, adjoining which is the new 
lighthouse, or Lanterna, with its dazzling reflectors 520 ft. above 
the sea-level. The summit commands a fine view (fee >/2 f r 0- 
and the arrangements of the interior may also be inspected (best 
visited by boat, as the road is-dusty and glaring). On the N. E. 
side is the Naval Harbour (Darsena Reale) with the Arsenal (Ar- 
senate di Marina), accessible by special permission only. It was 
here that Gian Luigi de' Fieschi was accidentally drowned in 1547, 
when he and the other conspirators against Andrea Doria had taken 
possession of the harbour. The Dogana occupies the building of 
the Banco di S. Giorgio, an institution founded in 1?>46, but sup- 
pressed during the French Revolution. The large hall contains 
two rows of statues of Genoese celebrities, some of them of the 
15th cent. 

On the E. side is the Porto Franco, or Commercial Harbour, 
where numerous vessels lie at anchor. The quay is connected by 
rails with the railway station. A lofty wall with arcades separates 
the harbour from the houses , most of them six storeys in height, 
of the long Via Carlo Alberto and the Piazza di Caricamento, 
in which almost all the hotels are situated. These arcades are 
the favourite lounge of the red-capped denizens of the harbour, 

88 Route 14. GENOA. S. Lorenzo. 

sailors and boatmen, porters, valets-de-place, etc. The best point 
for surveying the harbour is the (IranTerrazzo Marmoreo, the mar- 
ble platform of these arcades, about 500 yds. long and 15 yds. 
wide, which affords a very pleasant *walk in the early morning, 
but is exposed to the sun later in the day (three approaches : one 
to the N. of the Hotel t^uattro Nazioni; another in the centre, 
opposite the Hotel de la Ville, called the Scala della Rotonda, and 
always open ; and a third to the >S. of the Hotel Trombetta). As 
the traveller approaches , he is assailed by the boatmen with 
offers of their services (p. 85). If a boat be taken it is sufficient 
to row out Y2 — 3 /i M- ln order to obtain the finest view of the city. 

The long Via Carlo Alberto leads from the principal railway- 
station past the large hotels (p. 84-) to the Piazza Caricamento, 
and is continued by the Via Commercio leading past the Gran 
Terrazzo Marmoreo and the warehouses of the harbour to the lower 
end of the Via S. Lorenzo; the Via Vittorio Emanuele leads hence 
to the S. to the Piazza C'avour, from which the Via and Porto 
(built by Alessi about the middle of the 16th cent.) del Molo Yec- 
r-hio descend to the Molo Vecrhio (see above). 

The following route (oomp. p. 85) is more interesting. From 
the railway-station pass at the back of the hotels to the Via di Pre 
and Piazza della Darsena (the Via dille Fontane to the 1. leads to 
the Piazza Annunziata, p. 91), then through the Via del C'arnpo 
(to the 1. at the back of the Hotel d : ltalie is the small Piazza Var- 
rltero, where, as an inscription at the back of the fountain record?, 
Giulio Cesare Vacchero was executed for high treason in 1628, 
while his children were banished, and his house razed to the ground) 
to the Piazza Fossatello, from which the Via Lomellini leads to the 
Via Annunziata to the 1. Then follow the Via S. Luc a (in a side- 
street to thel. is the church of 8. Siro, erected in 1576, modernised 
in I8'20, containing statues by Taddeo and frescoes by (liov. Bait. 
('nrlone) to the Piazza Banchi, in which is situated the Exchange 
(Loggia de' Banchi, Borsa, PI. 7), erected at the end of the 16th 
cent, from plans by Alessi, and adorned with a sitting Statue of Ca- 
non r in marble by Vine. Vela. The narrow but handsome *Via 
degli Orefici to the 1. (at the beginning of it, on the r, is a door 
with an interesting Adoration of the Magi in relief, of the middle 
of the 15th cent. J and then the Via Luc.coli. lead to the Piazza delle 
Fontane Morose (p. 110), from which the Via 8. Lorenzo and the 
piazza of that name are reached in a straight direction. 

*S. Lorenzo (PI. 11), the cathedral, erected in 1100 on the site 
of an earlier edifice, was subsequently so much altered that it now 
presents three distinct styles, the Romanesque, the French Gothic, 
anil the Renaissance. Tin- lower part of the facade, which consists 
of alternate layers of black and white marble, was constructed in 
the 13th cent, in the style peculiar to French churches; the two 
lower of the recumbent lions with which it is adorned, on the r. 

S. Matteo. GENOA. 14. Route. 89 

and 1. of the steps, are modern. The sides of the principal portal 
are decorated with good reliefs representing the early history of 
Christ (end of 13th cent. J; the sculptures in the lunette, Christ 
and the emblems of the four evangelists, with the martyrdom of 
St. Lawrence below them , are inferior works of the same period. 
The sculptures on the side-portals are of the 12th century. 

The Interiob, constructed in 1307 , is borne by the columns of the 
earlier church. Beyond the massive substructure of the towers, which 
forms a kind of atrium, lies the nave with its aisles, covered with cylindrical 
vaulting and a dome (which last was constructed by Alessi in 1567), and 
borne by sixteen Corinthian columns of coloured marble and four buttresses, 
above which is another series of columns alternating with pillars, tin the 
r. by the second side-portal is the monument of a bishop of 1336 with 
reliefs and statues, the sarcophagus being supported by four lions. In the 
chapel to the r. of the choir a Crucifixion hy Fed. Baroccio, and statues 
by P. Francavilla. In the choir handsome stalls with inlaid-work by 
Franc. Zabello. In the chapel to the 1. of the choir a statue . n .nd six 
pictures by L. Cambiaso. In the 1. transept seven statues by Qugl. delta 
Porta. The second chapel to the 1. of the entrance, that oi *<S. Giovanni 
Battista, erected in 1451 — 96, contains a stone reliquary oi the 13th cent, 
in which the remains of John the Baptist, brought from Palestine during 
the Crusades, are said to be preserved. The six statues at the sides are 
by Matteo Civitali (d. 1501); the Madonna and John the Baptist by Andrea 
Sansovino (d. 15C3) ; the canopy and the other sculptures by Giacomo and 
Quglielmo delta Porta (d. 1532). — In the sacristy is preserved the Vaso 
Catino, the vessel out of which the Saviour and his disciples are said to 
have partaken of the paschal lamb, and in which Joseph of Arimathea is 
said to have caught some drops of the blood of the Crucified (a fine glass 
vessel, captured by the Genoese at Cesarea during the Crusades), and 
other prec ous relics. 

Farther up the Piazza Nuova is S. Ambrogio (PI. 12), a church 
of the Jesuits, overladen with marble, mosaics, gilding, and 
ceiling-paintings of the end of the 16th cent., and containing 
sumptuous chapels founded by noble families of Genoa. 

Durazzi Chapel (principal altar on the r., the third): Ouido Seni, 
Assumption. High-altar-piece, the Circumcision, by Rubens. The four 
black monolith columns are frooi Porto Venere near La Spezia. First 
chapel on the 1., Martyrdom of St. Andrew, by Semini, Elder. Carrega 
Chapel (principal chapel on the )., the second): litwens, St. Ignatius healing 
a man possessed of an evil spirit. 

In the same piazza is situated the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 22), or 
del Governo, formerly the palace of the doges, and now the town- 
hall, built entirely of white marble. In niches above are warlike 
emblems and statues of eight doges. Handsome flight of steps by 
Rocc.o Pennone (1550). The building was entirely modernised in 
1777 after a great lire. 

Route to <S. Maria di Carignano opposite the palace, see p. 87. 

Then turn to the 1. through the Via Sellai to the Piazza S. 
Domenico, or Carlo Felice. The Salita di S. Matteo, the second 
side-street to the 1. of this piazza, leads to the small church of 
S. Matteo (PI. 14), originally a Gothic structure (1278), which con- 
tains numerous reminiscences of the Doria family, the facade being 
covered with inscriptions to their memory. The interior was 
altered in 1530 by the Florentine (Jianantonio Montorsoli, who was 

90 Route U. GENOA. Academy. 

invited to Genoa by Andrea Doria. and who with his assistants 
executed the whole of the fine sculptures with which the church is 
embellished. Above the high-altar is Doria's sword. To the 1. of 
the church are handsome cloisters with double columns, dating 
from 1308, with ancient inscriptions relating to the Dorias and 
remains of two statues of Andrea Doria (by Montorsoli 1548) and 
one of Gianetto Doria (1577), which were mutilated during the He- 
volution in 1797. — A palazzo opposite, the lower half of which is 
covered with black and yellow marble, bears the inscription, 
'Senat. Cons. Andreae de Oria, patriae liberatori munus ■publicum? . 

To the r. in the Piazza Domenico is situated the Teatro Carlo 
Felice (p. 85"), adjoining which is the Accademia delle Belle Arti 
(PI. 1). The vestibule below contains mediaeval sculptures from 
the suppressed church of 8. Domenico. On the first floor is the 
library, well stocked with modern works (open daily), and on the 
second floor a picture-gallery (shown by the custodian). 

The copying-room leads to a large .saloon with 'ancient pictures, still 
unarranged, some of them only being numbered, chiefly by German and 
early Netherlands masters. The finest are: 69. Last Supper; 19. St. An- 
tony; ^20. Two saints; 68, 97. 99. Miracles of St. Philip. Then 28 (9). 
Manfredino da Pisloja (1292), Annunciation, Christ in the house of Martha ; 
*21. Umbrian School, Crucifixion; Ant. Scarini, Entombment: L. Cambiaso, 
Holy Family. In the centre modern statues. Next, a circular room and 
a saloon with large pictures hy Genoese painters (Piola, Deferari, Ferrari, 
Fiasella , etc.), and finally two rooms with sculptures, chiefly modern 
iMuseo Principe Odone), and several others containing casts. 

The Via Giulia leads from the academy towards the E. to the 
Porta degli Archi. On a terrace to the 1. of the gate stands 
S. Stefano (PL 1 1), a Gothic church, the oldest parts of which date 
from the end of the 12th century. Above the high altar the 
^Stoning of Stephen by Oiulio Romano, one of his best works, taken 
to Paris by Napoleon in 1811, but restored in 1815. 

The Via Carlo Felice leads from the Piazza Carlo Felice (S. Do- 
menico) to the Piazza delle Fontane Morose, on the 1. side of which, 
\o. 12, is the Palazzo Pallavicini (PI. 26). The picture-gallery 
formerly here was removed after the death of the proprietor to the 
Pal. Filippo Durazzo in the Via Balbi (p. 92). On the r. side of 
the piazza, No. 17, is the Pal. Spinola, adorned with five statues, 
and dating from the 15th century. 

The *Via Nuova is flanked with palaces on both sides through- 
out its whole length. Some of these, especially on the r. side, 
should be visited for the sake of seeing the remarkably handsome 
staircases they contain, which constitute one of the chief sights of 
Genoa. On the r. side are the Pal. Cambiaso, the Pal. Lercari (now 
the Casino), and the Pal. Spinola, all by Alessi. The vestibule, 
staircase, and court of the last are particularly fine. Then the 
Pal. Raggio and the 

Palazzo Doria Tursi (PI. 2M), now del Municipio, erected by 
Rocro Lurago in the 16th cent., with handsome staircase and 

Pal. Brignole. GENOA. 14. Route. 91 

court, ingeniously adapted to the rising ground on -which it 

The Vestibule is adorned with Ave frescoes from the Jife of the Doge 
Grimaldi. In the large Council Chamber on the upper floor are portraits 
of Columbus and Marco Polo in mosaic. In the adjacent room a Madonna 
between two saints, by Gerard David of Bruges (not Van Eyck), and a 
Crucifixion with SS. Mary and John by a good early Netherlands master 
tnot Diirer); two other pictures inferior. Two letters of Columbus; large 
bronze tablet of A. D. 117, recording the judgment of Roman arbiters in a 
dispute between Genoa and a neighbouring castle. A press to the 1. con- 
tains the violin of Pagani»i. 

On the side of the Via Nuova are the Pal. Cambiaso ; the '"Pal. 
Careija (Cataldi), erected by Giov. l?att. Castello about 1550; the 
Pal. (riorgio JOoria •; the Pal. Adorno, by Gal. Alessi(1500 — 1572), 
containing pictures by Palma Vecchio, Perino del Vaga, Guido 
Iti'iii, and Rubens; the Pal. Serra, also by Alessi. 

The *Palazzo Brignole-Sale (PI. 25), also termed Pal. Rosso 
from its red facade, handsomely fitted up, contains the largest 
'picture-gallery in Genoa, in eight rooms (fee 1 fr. ; catalogues for 
the use of visitors, but not to be implicitly relied on). 

I. Sala della Gioventu: *Guercino, Cleopatra; Rubens, Portrait of 
himself and wife. — II. Sala Grande : ceiling decorated with family 
armorial bearings; pictures by Genoese masters. — III. Sala della 
Pimmaveiia: Paris Bordone, Venetian woman; Moretto , Portrait. (1533); 

* Van Dyck, Marchese Giulio Brignole-Sale on horseback ; Tintoretto, Doge ; 
Van Dyck, Prince of Orange; * Van Dyek , Marchesa Paola Brignole-Sale; 
Van Dyck, Bearing of the Cross; *Paris Bordone, Portrait. — IV. Sala 

d'Estate : Luca Giordano, Chlorinda liberating Olyntho and Sophronia ; 
Paolo Veronese, Adoration of the shepherds (a sketch) ; Lucas of Leyden (?), 

* Portrait, and St. Jerome'; Caravaggio, Raising of Lazarus; *Gvido Reni, 
St. Sebastian; Lahfranco , Bearing of the Cross. — V. Sala d'Avjtenno: 
Bassano, Portrait ; *Bonifatio, Adoration of the Magi; Guido Reni, Madonna; 
Andr. del Sarto, Holy Family (repetition of the picture in the Pal. Pitti 
at Florence); Guercino, Madonna enthroned; Giov. Bellini (more probably 
Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone, brother of the more celebrated master), 
Portrait of Franciscus Philetus. — VI. Sala dell' Invekno : Paolo Veronese, 
■Indilh; *Van Dyck, The tribute-money; Rubens, Portrait of an old man; 
Leonardo da Vinci (probably Luini), John the Baptist ; Paris Bordone, Holy 
Family; Pellegr. Piola, Holy Family. — VII. Sala della Vita I'mana: 
+ Van Dyck, Portrait; * Van Dyck, The Marchesa Geronima Brignole-Sale 
with her daughter; Carlo Dolce, Ecce Homo. — VIII. Sala delle Akti 
I.iberali : nothing noteworthy. — Ante-Boom: two portraits of doges. 

Beyond the Piazza Brignole the Via Nuovissima is next reached. 
To the 1. at the end of it (No. 13) is the *Palazzo Balbi, by Gre- 
gorio Petondi (18th cent.), through which a line view is obtained 
of the lower lying Via Lomellini. 

Farther on, in the Piazza dell' Annunziata, is the Capuchin 
church of *S. Annunziata (PI. 10), the richest in Genoa, erected 
in 1587, with portal borne by marble columns, the unsightly brick 
facade being otherwise unfinished. It is a cruciform structure 
with aisles, and the vaulting is borne by twelve fluted and inlaid 
columns of red marble. The round vaulting and dome are richly 
gilded and painted. 

In the broad and handsome Via Balbi, which leads hence to 

92 Route 14. GENOA. Palazzo Balbi. 

the railway-station (No. 1), on the r. , is the Palazzo Filippo Du- 
razzo, or della Scala (PL. 27), with a handsome facade added in 
the 17th cent, by Tagliafico. The small picture-gallery here has 
been augmented by the collection from the Pal. Pallavicini (p. 90), 
but is not at present accessible. The permessi for the Villa Palla- 
vicini at Pegli are issued here (obtainable also from the landlord 
of the Hotel de la Mediterranee at Pegli; see p. 95). 

On the same side of the street is the *Palazzo dell' Universita 
(PL. 54), begun as a Jesuit college by Bart. Bianco in 1623, and 
erected into a university in 1812. The rich court and staircase 
are probably the finest structures of the kind at Genoa. The 
building contains a library, a natural history museum, a small 
botanical garden, and several bronzes by Giovanni da Bologna. 

The second palace on the 1. side of the Via Balbi (No. 4) is the 
*Palazzo Balbi (PI. 19), erected in the 17th cent, by Bart. Bianco 
and Ant. Conradi, with a beautiful glimpse of the orangery through 
the colonnades. The picture-gallery on the first floor is worthy of 
a visit (fee i fr.). 

I. Room. Van Dyck, Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback ; Bernardino 
Strozzi, surnamed Cappuccino, Joseph explaining the dream. — II. Room. 
Titian, St. Jerome; Rubens, Christ and St. John as children ; * Titian finfirc 
probably Giov. Ant. or Bernardino Licinio da Pordenone) , Madonna with 
St. Catharine, St. Dominicus, and the donors ; Gaud. Ferrari, Holy Family; 
Van Dyck, Madonna with the pomegranate; Michael Anyelo (r), Gellise- 
mane. — III. Room. Three portraits of the Balbi family by Van Dyck (tin 1 
head of Philip IV. in the equestrian piece is said to have been substituted 
by Velasquez for that of the Balbi, who had meanwhile been banished). — 
IV. Room. Caravaggio , Conversion of St. Paul; portraits by Tintoretto, 
Allori, Van Dyck, and Holbein (?); then, Lucas of Let/den (V ), Madonna 
and "Nativity. — V. Room. Four sketches by Perino del Vaga; small 
pictures by Schiavone; market-place, by one of the Bassanos. — VI. Gai.i,ki:y. 
Perino del Vaga, Holy Family ; Guido Reni, Assumption of Mary Magdalene ; 
* Van Dyck, Holy Family; Memling (.'), Christ, on the Cross; Fra Filippo 
Lippi (O, Communion of St. Jerome; Titian (?), Portrait of himself. 

Next, on the L. , the Pal. Durazzo , with a simple colonnade; 
then on the 1. the Palazzo Reale (PI. 21), formerly Marcello Du- 
razzo, opposite the church of S. Carlo, erected in the 17th cent., 
with handsome staircases and balconies (shown daily, except when 
the royal family is in residence). The upper floor contains a suite 
of sumptuousLy furnished apartments. The pictures and antiquities 
are of no great value, the best having been removed to Turin. 

Ante-Chamber : Battle-pieces by Burrasca. Room on the r. : Van Duck. 
Portrait of a lady; good portrait of the Lombard school, attributed to 
Leon, da Vinci; Perino del Vaga, Holy Family. To the r. a handsome 
gallery with rococo-painting and a few ancient and modern statues : on 
the r. Apollo and Apollino, on the 1. Mercury; at the end, Rape of Proser- 
pine by Schiaffino. On the 1. of the gallery are three small rooms; the 
second contains a Crucifixion by Van Dyck; the third, landscapes attri- 
buted to Poussin. The throne-room is adorned with two large pictures by 
Ltica Giordano. To the 1. of the ante-chamber, *Adulteress by Moretto. 

The terrace commands a fine view of the city and harbour. 

In the Piazza Acquaverde, which is next reached, rises the 
Statue of Columbus (PI. 47), who is said to have been bom at 

Acqua Sola. GENOA. 14. Route. 03 

Cogoleto (p. 95) iii 1447. It was erected in 1862, and stands on 
a pedestal adorned with ships' prows. At the feet of the statue, 
which rests on an anchor, kneels the figure of America. 

The monument, which consists entirely of white marble, is surround- 
ed by allegorical figures in a sitting posture, representing Religion, Geo- 
graphy, Strength, and Wisdom. Between these are reliefs of scene* from 
the history of Columbus , with the inscription of dedication. Opposite 
the monument is situated the Palace of Columbus, with the inscription, 
'■Cri&toforo Colombo Genovese scopre V America*. A niche on a hoxise (the 
5lli t<> the N. from the beginning of the harbour line of streets, p. 88) 
contains a small s#atue of Columbus, with the inscription, L Dissi, volli, 
credi, ecco un secondo sorger nuovo dalV onde ignote mondo*. 

To the W. of the railway-station is situated the long *Palazzo 
dei Principi Doria (PI. 24), erected for Andrea Doria, the 'padre 
delta patria' (A. 1560, at the age of 95), as the long Latin inscrip- 
tion in front of the edifice records (comp. p. 90). 

Ariosto says of this illustrious prince, 'Questo e quel Doria, cite fa dai 
jn'rati siciiro il vostro mar per tutti i lati'. The palace was presented to 
him in 1522, and the restoration conducted by Montorsoli. It was decor- 
ated with frescoes by Perino del Vaga, a pupil of Raphael, and renovated 
in 1845. Visitors are conducted through the great entrance-hall, a corridor 
hung with portraits of the Doria family, and a saloon with a large ceil- 
ing-painting representing Jupiter overthrowing the Titans. The latter 
also contains a portrait of the aged prince (who was admiral of the fleets 
of the Pope, of Emp. Charles V., and of Francis of France, as well as 
of that of Genoa), with his favourite cat. The elder branch of the Doria 
family, to whom the palace now belongs, generally resides at Rome. 

The garden of the palace , extending towards the harbour, 
contains an extensive Loggia with arcades. The gardens on the 
hill opposite, with a statue of Hercules ( l Il Gigante ) in a niche, 
also belong to the estate. 

A magnificent *view of Genoa and the harbour is obtained from 
the lofty belvedere of the Villa Negri, the beautiful garden of which 
(always open, gardener 1 fr.) rises beyond the Palazzo of the Mar- 
r.hese Negri (situated on the road, not far from the Pal. Doria). 

The most favourite 'promenade is the small park (Giardino 
Pubblico) of *Acqua Sola (PI. 41), adorned with a fountain, situ- 
ated on an eminence at the N. E. end of the town (approached 
most conveniently from the Piazza delle Fontane Morose by the 
Salita S. Catarina ascending opposite the post-office). The Caffe 
dell' Italia (p. 84) is a favourite resort here. During the military 
concerts on Sunday afternoons the grounds are crowded. Pleasant 
views to the E. and S., finest towards the sea. Adjoining the 
promenades of Acqua Sola on the N. is the Villa Negro (PL 46 ; 
reached direct by the Salita delle Batistine, to the r. of the Via 
Nuova), the property of the city, and open to the public, with a 
well-kept garden. Winding promenades ascend hence to a bastion 
at the back of the villa, about 150 ft. above Acqua Sola, com- 
manding a tine survey of the city, the harbour, and environs. 

The walk may be pleasantly extended thus : from Acqua Sola 
proceed to the S. by Mura S. Stefano (to the 1. below is the 
Manicomio, i. e. lunatic asylum) ; then by Mura Cappuccini, Mura 

94 Route 14. GENOA. Villa Pallavkini. 

Strega, etc., to S. Maria di Carignano (p. 87), or to the Molo 
Vecchio (p. 87). 

The *Campo Santo [Cimitero di Staglieno , opened at 
10 a. m.), situated on the slope of the valley of the Bisagno, 
l l /-i M. from the town, is reached from the Piazza Carlo Felice 
(p. 89) by the Via Giulia, Via S. Vincenzo, and Porta llomana 
(cab there and back 3'/2 fr-)- 1* was laid out with considerable 
taste in 1867 and contains several good monuments. One of the 
finest is that of March. Tagliacamo in the lower row on the 1. ; the 
rotunda borne by columns in the upper row should also be noticed. 
The large pipes which are seen crossing the valley in the vicinity 
belong to the water-works of the city. 

The most attractive excursion in the environs is to the *Villa 
Pallavicini (admission, see p. 92), ntPegli, 7 1 / 2 M. W. of Genoa, a 
station on the Genoa and Nice Railway (p. 95 ; reached in ^hr-i fares 
1 fr. 10, 88, and 55 c). The villa is immediately to the 1. on leaving 
the station. One of the gardeners (fee 1 — 2 fr. for 1 person, more 
for a party) of the Marchesa conducts visitors through the grounds 
and park, which extend to a considerable height on the slopes 
rising from the coast and display the richest luxuriance of 
southern vegetation (a walk of about 2 hrs.). Cedars, magnolias, 
oleanders, azaleas, camellias, etc. thrive here in profusion. Several 
points of view afford delightful prospects of Genoa, the sea, coast, 
and mountains. On the highest of these points stands a building 
in the mediaeval style with a tower which affords an extensive and 
magnificent panorama. Other objects of interest are the Mauso- 
leum ; the remains of an ancient Roman burial-place ; a stalactite 
grotto with a subterranean piece of water, over which visitors are 
ferried (boatman V2 f f 0> alia a striking glimpse under the bridge 
of the lighthouse of Genoa and the sea; kiosques in thePompeian, 
Turkish, and Chinese style, obelisk, fountains, etc. may also be 
inspected. The gardens also contain examples of the coffee, vanilla, 
cinnamon, pepper, sugar-cane, camphor, and other tropical plants, 
some of them remarkably tine. 

15, From Genoa to Nice by the Riviera di Ponente. 

Eailwat (117 M.) in 6>| 2 — 8'|< hrs.; faros 21 fr. 5, 14 fr. 90, 10 fr. G5 c. 
in gold. A slight saving is effected by booking to the frontier-station 
Ventimiglia only (fares 16 fr. 75, 11 fr. 75, 8 fr. 40 c. in paper) , where 
there is ample time to procure a new ticket. 

Ste imboat (in 8 — 10 hrs.) of the Italian Peirano Danovaro Co. on Tucsd., 
Thursd., and Sunil. at 8 p. m., returning from Nice on Mond., Wed., and 
Frid. at 9 a. m. ; fares, including dinner, 32>| 2 , 22'/ 2 , 12 fr. — Steamboat 
of the French Fraissinet Co. on Mond. and Frid. at 8 p. m. ; fares 27 1 )..., 
17'| 2 fr. 

The ^Carriage Road along the charming Riviera pi Ponente, the famous 
Route de la Corniche, will however still be preferred by many travellers, 
if not for the whole distance, at least for the most beautiful parts of the 

PEGLI. 15. Route. 95 

route, especially where the view is lost in passing through the numerous 
railway-tunnels , as between Savona and Loano , and between Sanremo 
and Nice. Carriages (dear) are best obtained through the hotel-keepers. 
The inns on this route are generally good, but expensive. This journey 
is very attractive. The road affords a delightful succession of varied 
landscapes, traversing bold and lofty promontories, wooded hills, and richly 
cultivated plains near the coast. At some places it passes precipitous 
and frowning dirt's , the bases of which are washed by the surf of the 
Mediterranean, while the summits are crowned with the venerable ruins 
of towers, erected in bygone ages for protection against pirates. At other 
places extensive plantations of olives, with their grotesque and gnarled 
stems , bright green, pine-forests, and luxuriant growths of figs, vines, ci- 
trons , oranges , oleanders , myrtles , and aloes meet the view , and even 
palms are occasionally seen (at S. Remo and Bordighera). Many of the 
towns are picturesquely situated on gently sloping heights (Porto Mauri- 
iio, S. Remo , Bordighera , Ventimiglia) ; others , commanded by ancient 
strongholds and castles , are perched like nests among the rocks (Rocca- 
bruna, Eza). Small churches and chapels peering from the sombre foliage 
of cypresses , 'and gigantic gray pinnacles of rock rising proudly above 
the smiling plains, frequently enhance the charms of the scenery. Fin- 
ally, the vast expanse of the sea, with its ever varying hues, constitutes 
one of the chief attractions. At one time it is bathed in a flood of sun- 
shine , at another its beautiful blue colour arrests the eye ; or while the 
shore immediately beneath the spectator is lashed hvith wild breakers, 
the snowy crests of the waves are gradually softened to view in the purple 

The railway skirts the coast, and runs parallel with the high 
road as far as Savona. The numerous promontories are penetrated 
by tunnels, that of Voltri, the first after starting, being the longest. 
Stations S. Pier d 1 Arena (Alb. del Commercio), Corniyliano (*H6tcl 
Beau Se'jour), Sestri Ponente, a ship-building place, then 

(6 1 /* M.) Stat. Pegli {Grand Hotel de la Mediterranee, formerly 
the Palazzo Lomelli, with garden, permessi for the Villa Pallavicini 
obtained here, see p. 92; Hotel Gargini; these two on the coast; 
*Hdtel Michel, opposite the station), a small ship-building town 
with 4000 inhab., is a sea-bathing place, visited chiefly by Italians. 
Villa Pallavicini, see p. 94. The gardens of the villas Rostan, 
Elena, and Borgia should" also be visited by those who make some 
stay here. 

Stations (2 M.) Prit, another small ship-building place, and 
(l 1 /4 M.) Voltri, with 11,000 inhab. , which carries on a consider- 
able traffic in 'confitures', situated at the mouth of the Ceruso in 
a fertile plain sprinkled with villas. 

Beyond Voltri four tunnels and numerous bridges. (4 1 /4 M.J 
Stat. Arenzano, with a number of villas in the midst of cypresses, 
oleanders, and aloes ; beautiful'! retrospect of the coast as far as 
Genoa. Three more tunnels. (2*4 M.) Stat. Cogoleto is the sup- 
posed birthplace of Columbus (p. 92). The house in which he is 
said to have been born, now a poor tavern, bears the inscription : 
Hospes, Hste gradum. Fuit hie lux prima Columbo ; 

Orbe viro majori heu nimis arcta domus! 
Unus erat mundus. '■Duo sunV, ait ille. Fuere. 

Eight tunnels are traversed, and one of the watch-towers which 
afterwards occur at regular intervals is passed. (4 1 /2 M.) Stat. 

96 Route 15. SAVONA. From Genoa 

Varazze , or Voragine , a town with 8000 inhab. , is a considerable 
ship-building place. The coast on both sides of it is rocky, and 
there are numerous cuttings and tunnels. 

Next stations (2'/ 2 M.) telle, (2 M.) Albissola at the mouth of 
the Sansobbia, and 

Savona (*Rail. Restaurant; *Albergo Svizzero , R. 2, D. 4, 
B. I'/q- A. 1 fi\, omnibus 3 / 4 fr. ; Italia, both in the Piazza of the 
theatre; Roma, near the station), a town with 24,851 inhab., the 
capital of the Montenotte department under Napoleon I., is charm- 
ingly situated amidst lemon and orange gardens. The harbour, 
commanded by a fort, presents a busy scene. The Cathedral of 
1604 contains several good pictures. The handsome theatre, erect- 
ed in 1853, is dedicated to the poet Chiabrera, a native of the 
place. Savona was the birthplace of the popes Sixtus IV. and 
Julius II. (della Rovere"). Pius VII. was detained as a prisoner 
here for some time. 

The train continues to skirt the sea. Beautiful scenery be- 
tween Savona and stat. Yado, especially on this side of the exten- 
sive Capo Bergeggi, where a fine *retrospect of the Riviera as far 
as Genoa is enjoyed. Then a tunnel and galleries, through the 
arches of which the sea and the small island of Bergeggi are seen. 
The construction of the line was attended with much difficulty 
here, and several long tunnels are traversed. Stations (7'/2 M.) 
Spotorno and ('2 M.) JXoli, a small town shaded by dense olive- 
groves, with the ruins of a castle. The train penetrates the pro- 
montory of Noli by means of eight tunnels. 

[The. high road on this part of the route is much more attractive 
than the railway. Beyond Noli it gradually ascends (*retrospect) 
the promontory of Noli , the extremity of which it penetrates 
by means of a tunnel ((lalleria di Noli), passes a second ruin- 
crowned promontory on the 1., leads inland across a hill to the 
village of Variuotti. which stretches along the slope to the r., almost 
concealed amidst olive-trees, and then traverses a second tunnel.] 

(5 M.) Stat. Finalmarina (Hotel de VeniseJ is the seaport and 
principal part of the town of Finale, which consists of three 
different villages. To the r. lies Borgo , the oldest part , with a 
castle and a cathedral with double columns of white marble, a 
dome, and rich gilding ; and farther to the E. is Finalpia. Next 
(3 3 /4 M.) stat. Pietraligure, with the ruins of a castle in the middle 
of the village. The train skirts lofty hills and passes through 
numerous tunnels. (2'/9 M.J Stat. Loano (EuropaJ ; to the r. of 
the line are two suppressed monasteries, of which Monte Carmelo, 
the higher, erected by the Dorias in 1609, commands a fine view. 
The large twelve-sided church of the village was also erected by 
the Dorias. Beyond (2M.) stat. ('eriale, with its ancient fortili- 
cations, the. mountains recede. The line now quits the coast and 
traverses olive groves, vineyards, and orchards to 

to Nice. ONEGLIA, 15. Route. 97 

(3 M.) Stat. Albenga (Albergo Reale), the Albigaunum of the 
Romans, an ancient town and episcopal residence. About !/ 4 M. 
to the E. of the town are extensive remains of the Ponte Lunyo, 
a Roman bridge. Several chateaux of the old noblesse with lofty 
towers ; cathedral with towers and elegant facade, all of brick. 
The station and the line farther on command a charming view of 
the town and the mountains beyond. To the 1. in the sea rises 
the rocky island of Gallinaria, crowned with a tower. 

The train cr»sses the Centa and skirts the promontory of S. 
Croce. Several tunnels, (A l /t M.) Stat. Alassio (Hotel de Londres, 
newly fitted up) , a seaport with 4000 inhab. , with orangeries 
containing palm-trees. (2M.) Stat. Laigueglia ; beautiful retrospect 
of the wild Capo della Croce. The train penetrates the prominent 
Capo delle Melt by means of a long tunnel and enters a valley 
thickly planted with olives. (2^2 M.J Stat. Piyna-Andora ; the 
village of Andora lies on the hill to the r. ; then three tunnels. 
(2y 2 M.) Stat. Cervo, picturesquely situated on the slope ; then 
(2 M.J stat. Diano Marina, in a fertile plain where olives and figs 
abound; to the r., inland, Diano Castello. Beyond the next tunnel 
the train enters a more extensive coast district, in which Oneglia 
and Porto Maurizio are situated. 

(3 M.J Stat. Oneglia (Rail. Restaurant; Albergo del Vapore), 
a beautifully situated town with 8000 inhab. and a shallow 
harbour. The prison near the station somewhat resembles a 

The train crosses the broad stony bed of the Impero, which the 
road crosses to the 1. by a neat suspension-bridge. (2 M.) Stat. 
Porto Maurizio (Hotel de France), a town with 7000 inhab. and a 
good harbour, most picturesquely situated in the midst of dense 
olive-groves, and frequented of late as a winter residence. This 
town is the seat of the" authorities of the district. The station 
commands a view of the harbour, but little or nothing is seen of 
the town. 

. Three tunnels, then (3 M.J stat. S. Lorenzo. The low, massive 
towers which now rise at intervals along the coast to the r. of the 
line, some of which have been converted into dwelling-houses 
(others were removed on the construction of the railway), were 
erected for the defence of the country against Saracen marauders 
in the 9th and 10th centuries. The line runs close to the shore 
as far as stat. Rivaligure. To the r. on the hill stands the fortified 
S. Stefano, beyond which the broad Val Taggia is entered. The 
train crosses the Taggia and stops at the station of that name (the 
village lies 3 M. up the valleyj. Beyond the next short tunnel a 
valley opens on the r. commanding a charming view of Bussana, 
romantically perched on a rock. The village opposite to it is 
Poggio, which first becomes visible. The train now passes through 
the Capo Verde by means of a tunnel and reaches 

B/EDiiKKH. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 7 

98 Route 15. SANREMO. From Genoa 

(11 74 M.) Stat. Sanremo. Hotels and Pensions on the W. side of 
the town: Grand Hotel de la Paix , near the station, new, in a fine 
open situation; ^ Grand Hotel dk Londrks; adjoining it. Hotel Bellevue, 
lately erected. In the Via Vittoria Emanuele, the principal street in the 
lower part of the town: * Hotel Roval , K. 'i'j-i, B. l'| 2 , D. 4, A. 1, pension 
7 — 10 fr. ; *Hotel Sanremo, pension 8 — 12 fr. ; Hotel Grande Bretagne 
(Italian style). To the E. of the town: + Hotel Victoria, farthest from 
the station , but with S. aspect and a pleasant garden extending down to 
the sea; nearer the town, *H6tel d'Angletekre , pension 8 — 12 fr. ; 
Hotel de Nice, new; Pension Anglaise, 7 — 10 fr. ; Pension Rose, beau- 
tifully situated, new. 

Apartments. Small suites of apartments are not easily procured, espe- 
cially if with a S. aspect (such as those at the hack of Vicario's offices): 
most of the others look to the S.S.W. (Vicario's dwelling-house and the 
Villa Drago in the Via Gioberti). Villas abound; rent for the winter 
1000 — 7000 fr. (list at Asquasciati, the banker's), including furniture and 
the other requisites for housekeeping (with regard to which however a 
distinct, bargain is necessary). A more moderate rent than that adver- 
tised is generally taken. Situation should be carefully considered where 
invalids are concerned, and a S. aspect is essential. 

Restaurant. Brianzi, Via Vitt. Emanuele , D. 3 fr., but less to sub- 
scribers. — Cafes. Vicai'io; ^Garibaldi, cup of coffee 25, beer 30 c. ; both 
in the Via Vitt. Emanuele. 

Reading Room at the Circolo Internazionale, where balls and concerts 
are also given ; subscription forthewinter 50, per quarter 30, per month 12fr. 

Physicians. English, Drs. Daubeny , Freeman, and Whitley; German, 
Dm. Goltz, Broking, and Biermann; Italian, Drs. Ajcardi, Ameglio, Onetti, 
and Panizzi. — English chemist, Squire, Hotel Royal; Italian, Panizzi (a 
good botanist), Via Palazzo. 

Post Office in the Palazzo Borea, Via Vitt. Emanuele. Telegraph 
Office, Corso Garibaldi 7, at the E. end of the town. 

Bankers. Asquasciati, Via Vitt. Emanuele 11; Rubino, Via Gioberti 4. 

Shops. Gandolfo, bookseller, in the Via Palazzo, the old main street 
of the town, where the other shops are often better and less expensive, 
although less showy than those in the Via Vitt. Emanuele, the new main 
street. Among the specialties of the place are inlaid wood (depot of Mile. 
Nicolas) and the perfumes manufactured by Ajcardi. 

Carriages. Per drive in the town, with one horse 80 c. , with two 
horses 1 fr. 40 c. ; per hour li| 2 or 2'| 2 fr. ; if luggage over 40 lbs. , each 
box 50 c. ; half-a-day 10, whole day 16 fr. — Donkey per day 5, half-day 
3 fr., and gratuity. — Boat per hour for 1 person 1 fr., for several 2 fr. 
and gratuity. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Sanremo, although apparently a small place, contains 11,000 
inhab. , densely crowded in the older parts of the town, which 
consist of a labyrinth of quaint and narrow lanes , flights of steps, 
archways, lofty and sombre houses, and mouldering walls. The 
arches by which the houses are connected high above the streets 
are intended to give them stability in case of earthquakes. The 
town, which was formerly fortified , stands on a hill between two 
short valleys , and the houses rising one above another receive 
their modicum of light and air from the back only. Castigliu- 
oli, a smaller quarter on the W. side, is similarly situated. The 
E. part of the town terminates in an eminence approached by broad 
roads shaded by cypresses, commanding charming views of the bay 
and mountains, and crowned with the white dome-covered church 
of the Madonna delta Costa, in front of which there is a large 

to Nice. SANREMO. 15. Route. 99 

hospital for lepers. On a more prominent point stands the Villa 
Carbone, with a low octagonal tower (fee l /% fr.), the panorama 
from which will enable the visitor to comprehend the peculiarities 
of the situation. The island of Corsica is visible in the distance 
to the S. Another walk may be taken to the W. pier of the small 
harbour, which is defended by the fort of St. Teela, erected by 
the Genoese, and now used as a prison. A survey from the upp^r 
platform of the Molo will convey an idea of the sheltered position 
of the town, whiclj renders the climate as genial as that of Mentone 
and has brought the place into notice as a winter residence for 
invalids. In front of the spectator rises a hill in an almost regular 
semicircle around the town, sloping upwards from the Capo Nero 
by La Colla to its culminating point in the Piano Carparo and 
Monte Bignone , which attain a height of nearly 4000 ft. , and 
descending thence to the Capo Verde , the summit of this barrier 
being nowhere more than 4 M. distant in a straight line. The 
N. winds are therefore entirely excluded from this favoured spot, 
especially as a double range of Alps rises behind the town a little 
farther back, while at the same time the violence of the E. and W. 
winds is much broken. In the rich vegetation of this nook the 
olive predominates, and the hills above are chiefly clothed with 
pines. Country-houses and churches peep from amidst the olive 
groves in every direction , the highest being at San Romolo at the 
footof the Bignone, to which the few visitors who remain throughout 
the summer resort in order to escape from the heat. Several fine 
palms rise in the principal street of the lower and modern part of 
the town, and others in the 'palm-quarter' of the old town, etc. 

Walks numerous and pleasant, but occasionally rough. Nearthe 
station is the Oiardino Pubblico, containing palms, eucalyptus, etc., 
and a small fountain. The most sheltered walk higher up in the 
basin is the Berigo Road. — A beautiful point of view easily 
reached is the *Madonna della Ouardia on the Capo Verde, returning 
by Poggio. — To S. Romolo 3 hrs. , an excursion for which a 
donkey may be hired. About 2 hrs. higher rises the Monte Bignone 
(4235 ft.) , which commands a beautiful panorama of the sea to 
the S. and the Alpes Maritimes to the N. , on the way back from 
which the Piano del Re, a celebrated point of view, may also be 
visited. — Good roads lead to Ceriana and to Taggia. — To La Colla 
by Ospedaletti (see below) 2 hrs. ; or direct , by a very ancient 
road, 3 M. 

A family here named Bresca is said to have obtained from Pope 
Pius V. in 1588 the privilege of annually sending a vessel to Rome laden 
with palms for the decoration of the churches there on Palm Sunday. 
This was a reward for a service rendered by a member of the family. 
When the pope was superintending the erection by Domenico Fontana of 
the great obelisk of the Circus of Nero in the Piazza of St. Peter at Rome, 
an operation accomplished by means of 40 windlasses worked by 800 men 
and 140 horses , a sudden and most critical stoppage took place. The 
sailor Bresca , notwithstanding the severe penalties with which persons 


100 Route 15. BORDIGHERA. From Genoa 

breaking the silence were threatened, shouted, 'Water on the ropes! ' 
His suggestion was acted upon, and Hie work successfully completed in 

The train passes through a tunnel under the Capo Nero, while 
the road winds over the promontory at a considerable height. Stat. 
Ospedaletti is also the station for the loftily situated [1 hr.) La 
Cotta, the town-hall of which contains a valuable picture-gallery. 
A view is now soon obtained of the palm-groves of 

(7 M.J Stat. Bordighera (*ffitel d'Angleterre, R. 2i/. 2) B. i'A, 
D. 4, A. !/2> pension 7 — 10 fr. ; *Cafe de la Terrasse, pension 5fr., 
unpretending), situated on a hill projecting into the sea, and con- 
sisting of an upper and a lower quarter. Beautiful *view from 
the top of the hill (from the terrace of the small Cafe , see above, 
to the 1. as the picturesque upper part of the town is entered), 
embracing the bay of Ventimiglia , Mentone, and Monaco as far as 
the Este'rels (p. 27) , with groves of palms in the foreground 
(Phoenix dactilifera , the fruit of which does not ripen sufficiently 
here to be edible). A considerable trade is carried on here in 
palm branches and young palm-trees. The palm-garden of Sign. 
Moreno is worthy of a visit. The climate is almost as mild as that 
of Mentone and Sanremo , but is more bracing, and invalids fre- 
quently come here for change of air, and even to spend the whole 
winter. Excursion to the neighbouring Dolceacqua with the 
ancestral chateau of the Dorias of Genoa, and to Pigna. 

Farther on , to the r. of the line , is the Protestant school of 
Vallecrosia , immediately beyond which a brook is crossed, and a 
glimpse of the Alpes Maritimes is obtained. Then (2 1 /2 M.) stat. 
Ventimiglia (*Rail. Restaurant ; Hotel de f Europe), where passen- 
gers luggage is examined at the French custom-house. The town, 
which is an Italian frontier - fortress, lies very picturesquely on a 
hill beyond the Roja, a stream whose broad stony channel the line 
crosses farther on. The train passes through a tunnel and approaches 
the sea. View limited. 

[On this part of the route the scenery is much finer on the road 
than on the railway. The road ascends gradually and is guarded 
by forts at the highest point. In descending it commands an ex- 
tensive view of the French coast, and passes through several vil- 
lages with picturesque and venerable groups of olive-trees, afford- 
ing several line retrospects. On a hill to the r. are the ruins of a 
Roman fort. Mortola , with its church, farther on, stands pictu- 
resquely on a rocky eminence. The road then skirts a gorge and 
ascends to the last height, where a view of Mentone is disclosed. 
Immediately beyond this point is the Italian dogana. On the hill 
to the r. lies Urimaldi. Charming country-houses with lemon and 
orange -gardens and luxuriant vegetation are now passed. The 
deep gorge crossed by the Pont St. Louis forms the boundary of 

to Nice. MENTONE.- 15. Route. .101 

(7 M.) Mentone , French Menton. Hotels and Pensions. In the 

E. Bay , towards the Italian frontier : Grande Bretagxe , pension 9 fr. 
and upwards ; *Grand Hotel de la Paix , expensive , pension 12 — 15 fr. ; 
*H6tel des Anglais, well fitted up, *Iles Britanniques , *Gkand 
Hotel, these three with gardens. All these houses are beautifully 
situated on the coast. — Farther back: *H6tel et Pension d'lTALiE 
and Bellevue (well spoken of), both near the Pont St. Louis (see 
above) ; Pension de l'Univers , with view of Mentone. — In the Town : 
*H6tel de Turin and Hotel d'Orient, both near the Cerele International ; 
*Hotel du Midi, *Hotel Victoria, and *H6tel Westminster, all facing 
the sea. — In the 'W. Bay : *H6tel de la Mediterranee , expensive ; 
*Londres; *Louvre; *Venise, farther from the sea, sheltered from the 
wind. Near the station : *Hotel Splendide and Hotel du Parc , both 
new. — About 3| 4 M. from the town : Hotel du Pavillon et Prince de 
Galles. Pensions: Amiricaine; des Etrangers et du Wuriemberg; Mme. 
Muriel; *Camous; Suidoise, and many others, pension generally 9 — 15 fr. 
per day , according to situation and requirements. 

In both bays there are also numerous charmingly situated and some- 
times handsomely furnished villas, a list of which may be obtained of the 
agent Amaranlhe, or at the Agence des Proprtttaires, Quai Bonaparte. The 
rents vary from 1000 to 7000 fr. and upwards for the season. Private 
apartments for the season, from 400 fr. upwards, are also to be had, where 
the visitor may have his own 'menage', and live less expensively than at 
a pension. In their choice of a situation invalids should consider whether 
it is desirable to be near, or at some distance from the sea. 

The Cerele Philharnionique contains a reading-room , and frequently 
gives balls and concerts ; subsription 60 fr. for the season , ladies 48 fr. ; 
per month 15 fr., ladies 12 fr. 

Restaurants. H6tel de Paris ; H6tel du Parc (see above) ; Cafi de la 
Vietoire; Cafi de Paris; Restaurant du Cerele; London Tavern. 

Physicians. Drs. Bennet, Marriott, and Siordet, English; Drs. Bottini 
and Farina, Italian ; Drs. Stiege, Genzmer and Diihrsen, German. — Chemists : 
Albertotti, Gras, who make up English and German prescriptions. 

Post Office, near the Hotel Victoria. — Telegraph Office: Avenue 
Victor Emanuel 19. 

Bankers: Palmaro; Bioves and Co. — Booksellers: Papy; Giordan. — 
Photographers : Astroga, An/ossi, both in the Avenue Victor Emanuel. 

Omnibuses through the town during the season (30 c.). 

Carriages. Drive in the' town, with one horse, l'J4 fr., with two 
horses 1 3 |< fr. ; for half-a-day one-horse 8 — 10, per day 12 — 15 fr., two-horse 
25 fr. — Donkeys 5 fr. per day, 2 1 |-2 fr. for half-a-day, and gratuity. 

English Church Service during the season. 

Mentone, a tmall town with 5600 inhab., formerly belonging 
to the principality of Monaco , then under the Sardinian supre- 
macy , was finally annexed to France in 1860. It is charmingly 
situated on the Bay of Mentone, which is divided into the Baie de 
VEst and the Baie de I'Ouest by a rocky promontory, and being- 
protected by a girdle of rocky mountains from the N. winds, is 
considered one of the most favourable spots for a winter-residence 
on the Riviera di Ponente (mean temperature about 3° Fahr. 
higher than at Nice; a cold wind, however, generally prevails 
towards noon, especially at the point where the valley opens to- 
wards the W. bay). The vegetation is luxuriant, consisting chiefly 
of orange and lemon groves interspersed with gnarled carob-trees 
(ceratoria siliqua), figs, olives, etc. The Promenade du Midi and 
the Jardin Public are favourite walks in the afternoon. The ruin- 

102 Route 15. MONACO. 

ed castle on the above mentioned rocky promontory , which has 
been converted into a burial-ground, affords a fine view, embracing 
S. Agnese on a lofty hill, erected for defence against the Saracens. 
Another picturesque point is the monastery of S. Annunziata , to 
which a tolerable path ascends (in J / 2 ^ r fr° m the Turin road (to 
the 1. immediately beyond the railway). Pleasant and sheltered 
walk to Capo Martino, which bounds the Bay of Mentone on the W. 

Attractive excursions (cump. map, p. 106) from Mentone to Monti and 
the Cascades, and thence to Castiglione and Sospello. — From Mentone liy (4 
31.) Castellaro to the summit of the Berceau (3 — 4 hra.) ; magnificent pro- 
spect embracing the mountains of the coast, the blue expanse of the Medi- 
terranean, and Corsica in the distance. — To 8. Agnese in 2 hrs., re- 
turning by (2 hrs.) Qorbio and Roccabruna to Mentone (in 4 — 5 hrs. more). 
From S. Agnese the 'Aiguille' may be ascended in 2 — 2>| 2 hrs., a higher 
point than the Berceau, also commanding a fine view. — To (Jamporosso 
situated 3'|2 M., and Dolce Acqiia 1 M. inland from Ventimiglia fp. 100). 

The Road from Mentone to Nice, 18 3 | t M. (by carr. in 3'|z hrs.), the so- 
called 'Route de la Cokniche', traverses the most beautiful part of the 
Riviera , and is far preferable to the railway (see below). It ascends 
through the most luxuriant vegetation , and commands a charming retro- 
spect of yientone and the coast as far as Bordighera. Then a view of 
Monaco (see below), to which a road descends to the 1. beyond the highest 
point of the road. To the r. of the road higher up Roccabruna is visible. 
Then Turbia with its huge Roman tower, now a mere shell, the remains 
of the Tropaea Augusti (whence the name 'Turbia"), erected to commem- 
orate the subjugation of the Ligurian tribes (A. D. 13). Here another 
very beautiful view is enjoyed. To the E. the wild mountains and the 
entire coast from Ventimiglia to Bordighera ; W. (view in this direction 
from a point a few steps above the tower) the Mediterranean, the French 
coast near Antibes , the island of St. Marguerite, the Montagnes de TEs- 
terel , and other distant coast- hills. The road attains its culminating 
point in a bleak mountain-district 3 J4 M. beyond Turbia. On the 1. is Kza 
(p. 103). a group of grey and venerable houses with a white campanile, 
perched on an isolated rock rising abruptly from the valley. Farther on, 
the wooded promontory of >SV. Hospice, (p. 108), Beanlieii (p. 108), Yilla- 
franca (p. 108) , beyond which a view is obtained of the beautiful valley 
of iVice (p. 105), with its villas, monasteries, villages, and green hills. 

The Railway from Mentone to Nice skirts the coast the whole 
way, and affords very inferior views to the magnificent and lofty 
carriage-road. It crosses the Borigli, penetrates Capo Martino by 
means of a tunnel, and stops at stat. Cabbe-Roquebrune. The 
village (Ital. Roccabruna'} lies on the hill to the i\, in the midst 
of orange and lemon groves, commanded by a ruined castle. Next 
stat. Monte Carlo (station for the Casino of Monaco, p. 103). 

(')'/;) M.) Monaco (Hotel de Paris, spacious, adjoining the 
Casino; Hotel Suisse and clu Louvre, both smaller; Angleterre anil 
<!es Bains , both near the station ; all these near the sea ; Prince 
Albert, in the town above; carr. from station totownll/ 2 , per 
hr. 3 fr.), picturesquely situated on a bold and prominent rock. 
the capital (1500 inhab.) of the diminutive independent principa- 
lity of that name, to which .Mentone and Roccabruna also belonged 
downto'lH48 , was mediatised by France in 18(50, the princes, who 
were anciently renowned for their naval exploits , retaining but 
few of their former privileges. The palace (shown daily. 1 !\ 

NICE. 16. Route. 103 

p. m.) contains a suite of sumptuously furnished apartments. 
Pleasant promenades extend round the rocky point. Visitors are 
attracted to Monaco by the mildness of the climate in winter, and 
by the sea-bathing in summer , but the chief inducement to many 
is the 'tapis vert' at the Casino , which stands on a promontory to 
the E. of the town, surrounded by beautiful grounds (cafe', music 
in the afternoon), and commanding a fine view (Casino station, 
see above). 

Beyond Monaco the train passes through three long and several 
shorter tunnels. Stat. Eza; the village, situated on an isolated 
rock on the r.,.high above the line, was once a stronghold of 
Saracen freebooters , who levied contributions on the surrounding 
district. Then Beaulieu (p. 108), and Villafranca (p. 108). The 
train now enters the valley of the Paglione by means of a tunnel 
nearly 1 M. in length , crosses the stream , passes through another 
tunnel, and reaches the station of (9>/2 M.) Nice on the r. bank 
of the river. 

16. Nice (Ital. Nizza) and its Environs. 

Comp. Map, p. 106. 

Hotels. In the Promenade des Anglais : *H6tel des Anglais , *du 
Luxembourg, de la Mediterranee , de Rome, all first class. By the 
.lardin Public: *Grani>e Bretagne, *Angleterre. On the Quai Masse'na 
(Quai des Palmiers) : * Hotel de France,. R. 3, L. 1, B. 1<| 2 , A. 1 t'r. 
Quai St. Jean Baptiste : * Hotel Chauvain , Hotel de la Paix , #Gkasd 
Hotel , all first class. In the Boulevard Carabacel : Hotel de Paris ; 
Europe et Amerique ; Perino ; *Hotel de Nice , well situated , good 
cuisine ; Hotel et Pension Carabacel. In the Boulevard Bouchage : 
* Hotel Windsor ; Hotel Steimel. In the Rue Pastorelli : Hotel 
et Pension Julien. Avenue Beaulieu : *H6tel et Pension Rais- 
san. Avenue de la Gare: *Iles Bkitanniques, first class; Hotel des 
Empereurs ; Hotel Helvetique ; Hotel des Deux Mondes ; Maison Do- 
ree. In the Boulevard Longchainp : *Hotel Paradis , of the first, clasp, 
new. Rue St. Etienne : Hotel du Louvre. Avenue Delphine : Hotel et 
Restaurant du Midi , near the station ; Beau-Site. Rue Grimaldi : 
Hotel Rotal. Place Massena : Hotel Meuble. Rue des Ponchettes on 
the coast, at the W. base of the castle-hill: *Hotei, et Pension Suisse, 
R. 3, L. and A. 1 , B. li| 2 , D. 4, pension 7—10 fr. In the Boulevard du 
Midi : Hotel Victoria. In the old town : *Hotel des Princes , Rue des 
Ponchettes; *H6tel de l'TJnivers, Place St. Dominique; *Hotel des 
Etrangers , Rue du Pontneuf, well spoken of, R. 3, I). 3, B. iij 3 fr. 

Pensions. In the Promenade des Anglais : Pension Rivoir , Pension 
Anglaise. In the Rue de France : P. de la Metropole. Rue Longchamp : 
*P. St. Etienne. Rue St. Etienne : *P. Milliet. Petite Rue St. Etienne : 
+ /'. Internationale. Avenue Delphine : P. Rot/ale. Boulevard Carabacel : 
P. Gencce. At Cimies : *P Anglaise, Villa Gavin, *P. Cimies. The usual 
charges at these houses are 7 — 12 fr. per day. 

Restaurants. In the Avenue de la Gare: ^Restaurant Francois; Res- 
taurant des Deur Mondes ; Maison Doree ; ^Restaurant Suisse , *Americain, 
de Paris, du Pavilion. In the Rue Massena : Tonelli , Scala , de la Rose. 
London House , Rue Croix de Marbre ; Trois Suisses, Rue Macarani ; Ville 
de Lyon, des Voyageurs , both in the Boulevard du Pontneuf. In the 
Corso : Restaurant du Cours, de France, du Commerce. — Cafes. *Cafe 
National (with restaurant) and *CV//<? Americain , both in the Promenade 
du Cours ; de la Victoire, Place Massena ; Grand Cafi, Quai St. Jean Bap- 

104 Route 16. NICE. Physician*. 

tiste ; Maison Boree and Deir.r Afondes (see above). Lyons and Strassburg 
beer in all. — Ices: the best at Rnmpelmeicr's, Place Elienne. — Pre- 
served fruits : Fea , Avenue de la Gare ; Fscoffiev, Place Massena ; Mutter, 
Place St. Dominique. 

Fiacres are stationed in the Place Charles Albert, Place Massena, 
Boulevard du Pont Vieux, etc. — One-horse : per drive 75 c. (i fr. 25 c. 
at night); for 1 hr. '2 fr. 10 c. ('2 fr. GO c. at night), each additional '| 2 
lir. 80 c. (1 fr. 30 c. at night). Carriages with two seats only at some- 
what lower rates. Two-horse: per drive i fr. (at night D^fr.); for 1 hr. 
2 IV. 60 c. (at night 3 fr. 10 c), each additional % hr. 1 fr. 10 c. (at 
night 2 fr.). From the station to the town: 1 — 2 pers. one-Inn ' e 1 fr. 25 c. 
(at night 1 fr. 751, 3 — 4 pers. 1 fr. 50 e. and 2 fr. ; two-horse carr. 2 pers. 
2 and '2'[ 2 , 4 pers. 2'j.i and 2 3 J4 fr. ; trunk 25 c, drive from one hotel to 
another 25 c. — To Villafranca and back, one-horse carr. with two seats 
4, with four seats 5, two-horse 6 fr. ; charges for a prolonged stay accord- 
ing to tariff. Xn fees. 

Omnibuses cross Hie town in several directions (25 c); from the station 
to the town 30 c. ; trunk 25, hat -box 10 c. ; |to Villafranca and Beaulieu 
every 2 brs., starting from the Pont Vieux, 1. bank of the Paillon. 

Horses may be hired of Xigio , Ruelle St. Michel; Moiilon , Rue Pas 
torelli, etc. ; 6 — 10 fr. for a ride of 3 — 4 hrs. In winter a horse may be 
hired by the month for 250 — 350 fr., in summer for less. 

Donkeys 3 — 4 fr. per day, and 1 fr. for the attendant ; half-day \. l l> — 2fr. 

Booksellers. Librairie Etrangere of Barber//, with circulating" library, 
.Tardin Public; Viseoutrs reading-room, well supplied with newspapers, 
Rue du Cours, with garden; Fleurdelys, Avenue de la Gare 5; Jovgla, 
Rue Gioffredo 1. 

Post Office , Rue St. Francois de Paule , 7 a. m. to G , in summer to 
7 p. m. ; Sund. 7—12, 4—6 only. — Telegraph Office, Rue du Pont Xeuf, 
adjoining the Prefecture. 

Physicians. Drs. Travis , Gitrney , Marcel , Crothers , Crossby , Blest, 
Ziircher, Lippert, Rehberg, etc.; Drs. Jantzen , and Proll , hoinoeopaihists. 
— Dentists: Hall, Place Massena 1; Weber, Rue Carabacel 8. — Chemists: 
Pharmacie Anglaise, Quai Massena ; Pharmacie Internationale, Quai St. Jean 
Baptiste, etc. 

Bankers. Laeroix, Rue du Cours; Avigdor aine et jtils , Quai St. Jean 
Bapf iste. 

Baths. Warm Baths: Bains Polythermes, Rue du Cours; Turn, Rue 
du Temple, both well fitted up. — Turkish and other baths at the llains 
de Macarani, Place Grimaldi; another in the Rue Chauvain 2. — Sea-baths 
opposite the Promenade des Anglais, 1 fr. 

Shops. The best are on the Quai St. .lean Baptiste and the Quai Mas- 
sena. — Photographers: Blanc, Promenade des Anglais; ferret, Rue 

Casino (Cercle International) , a new building on the Promenade des 
Anglais, embellished with the armorial hearings of different states, con- 
taining a reading-room, restaurant, concert and ball room , etc. 

Theatres. Thiatre National, Rue St. Francois de Paule, Italian opera; 
Theatre Franrah. Rue du Temple, operas, comedies, etc. 

Military Music several times weekly, in the Jardin Public, 2—4 o'clock. 

Steamboats (companies: Fraissinet, Place Bellevue 6, on the quay; 
Peirano , Danovaro .(■ Co., office in the Corso , to the r. of the (light of 
steps ascending to the terrace; Yulerij Freres et Fils, Quai Latnel 14): to 
Genoa (p. S4) daily in 9 — 10 hrs., 27 ','■.. or 17'|2 fr., cabin on the deck 
42>| 2 fr. ; to Xjieiia 50'| 2 , 34',-- & fr. ; to Leghorn 58'j 2 , 40'| 2 , 20 fr. ; to 
Civitavecchia S7>,' 2 , 57 'j 2 , 30 fr. ; to iXajdes L32>|./. 92i| 2 , 40 fr. — To Mar- 
seilles (p. 22) twice weekly in 12 hrs., 30. 12, 8 fr. — To Corsica (U. 54) 
in 12 hrs., 30, 20, 15 fr. 

House Agents, Samaritani, Latl'es , Dalgoutte , Tiff en , and Jougla , to 
whom a percentage is paid by the proprietors. A more advantageous 
bargain may therefore be made without their intervention. Houses 
and" apartments to let are indicated by tickets. A single visitor may pro- 

Climate. NICE. 26. Route. 105 

cure 1 — 2 furnished rooms for the winter in the town for 300 — 700 fr. ; 
suites of apartments are let for 2000—5000 fr. , villas for 5000—8000 fr. 
and upwards. 

The hirer should not take possession until a contract on stamped paper 
has been signed by both parties, containing stipulations with regard to 
damage done to furniture and linen, compensation for breakages, etc. 
This is the only way to avoid the disputes which are apt to arise on the 
termination of the contract. 

English Church in the Eue de France, service also at Carabacel. Scotch 
Church, Rue Massena 5. 

Climate. The bay of Nice is sheltered from the N., N.E., and X.W. 
winds by the lower terraces of the Alpes Maritimes (culminating in Mont 
Chaitve, Italian Monte Calvo, 2672 ft.), a natural barrier to which it owes 
its European reputation for mildness of climate. The mean winter tem- 
perature is 10 — 15" Fahr. higher than that of Paris, summer temperature 
5— '10° lower. Frost is rare. The Mtitral, or N.W. wind, the scourge of 
Provence, is seldom felt, being intercepted by the Montagnes du Var and 
de TEsterel. The E. wind, however, which generally prevails in spring, 
is trying to delicate persons. The most sheltered situations are the Bou- 
levard Carabacel and the Quartiers Brancolar and Cimies, in the last of 
which the air is generally pure and free trom dust. Sunset is a critical 
period. As the sun disappears, a sensation like that of a damp mantle 
being placed on the shoulders is often felt, but this moisture lasts 1 — 2 
hours only. — The rainy season usually begins early in October and lasts 
about a month. 

Nice, the capital (50,000 inliab.) of the French De'partement 
des Alpes Maritimes , was founded by the Phocian inhabitants of 
Marseilles in the 5th cent. B. C, and named Nikaea. Till 1388 
it belonged to the County of Provence , afterwards to the Dukes 
of Savoy ; in 1792 it was occupied by the French, in 1814 restored 
to Sardinia , and in 1860 Anally annexed to France together with 
Savoy. Nice was the birthplace of the French general Massena 
(in 1758) and of Giuseppe Garibaldi (in 1807). The dialect of the 
natives is a mixture of Provencal and Italian. 

In winter Nice is the rendezvous of invalids as well as persons 
in robust health from all parts of Europe, especially from England, 
Russia, and Germany, who assemble here to escape from the rigours 
of a northern winter. The annual number of visitors is still on 
the increase , and living becomes dearer in proportion. In summer 
the town is deserted. 

Nice is beautifully situated on the broad Bale des Anges, which 
opens towards the S., at the mouth of the Paglione , or Paillon 
(a small stream , frequently dried up). The broad and stony bed 
of the river, with handsome quays on each bank, bisects the town. 
On the 1. bank is the Old Town , with its narrow , dirty lanes, 
which however have been superseded by better streets near 
the shore (Boulevard du Midi, and Promenade du Cours). On 
the r. bank is the Strangers' Quarter, which already surpasses the 
old town in extent , and is intended to occupy the entire space 
bounded on the W. by the brook Magnan , and on the N. by the 
railway (the Quartier de la Croix de Marbre stretches along the 
coast to the W., the Boulevard Carabacel and the Quartiers Bran- 
colar and Cimies to the N.E. along the bank of the Paillon). 

106 Route 16. NICE. Jardin Public. 

Nice contains no churches or other buildings worthy of notice. 
A Marble Cross in the Rue de France, commemorating the meeting 
of Charles V. and Francis I. in 1538, which was effected through 
the intervention of Pope Paul III., has given its name (Croix dc 
Marbre) to this quarter of the town. The Square, a broad space 
formed by covering in the Paillon between the Pont Vieux and 
Pont Neuf , is embellished by a Statue of Massena (see above) in 
bronze, erected in 1867; in front Clio is represented on the pedes- 
tal writing his name on the page of history ; at the sides are re- 
liefs. The Town Library. (40, 000 vols., open daily 10 — 3, on 
Sundays 10— 12 o'clock), Rue St. Francois de Paule 2, contains 
a few Roman antiquities (milestones, etc.), and a natural his- 
tory cabinet. 

The Jardin Public (military music, see p. 104) at the embou- 
chure of the Paillon, and the *Promenade des Anglais adjoining it 
on the W., which was laid out by English residents in 1822 — 24, 
and greatly extended in 1862 , are the principal resorts of visit- 
ors. These grounds stretch along the coast for li/ 2 M., as far as 
the brook Magnan, and are bordered with ha 1 isome hotels and 
villas (at the beginning of the promenades is tl Casino, mention- 
ed p. 104). On the 1. bank of the Paillon , which is crossed here 
by the Pont Napoleon , they are continued by the Boulevard du 
Midi (p. 105). 

To the E. of the town rises the Castle Hill, 320 ft. in height 
(ascent from the N. side, 20min.), crowned by the ruins of a castle 
destroyed by the Duke of Berwick under Louis XIV. in 1706, now 
converted into beautiful grounds, where palms, oranges, cypresses, 
and aloes flourish in profusion. The platform on the summit, 
erected in honour of the emperor, commands an admirable view in 
every direction: S. the Mediterranean; W. the French coast, the 
promontory of Antibes , the two lies de Lerins , the mouth of the 
Var (which down to 1860 formed the boundary between Fraiice and 
Sardinia), below the spectator Nice itself; N. the valley of the 
Paglione, the monasteries of Cimella , or Cimies, and St. Pons, in 
the distance the castle of S. Andre', Mont Chauve, the Aspremont, 
and the Alps; E. the harbour, the mountains and Fort Montalban, 
and the promontory of Montboron which separates the roadsteads of 
Villafranca (p. 108) and Nice. The S. slope of the castle-hill, 
which descends precipitously towards the sea, is termed the liauba- 
Capeu ('hat-Tobber', owing to the prevalence of sudden gusts). — 
The Cemeteries , with the exception of the English, are on the N. 
side of the castle-hill. 

At the base of the castle-lull on the E., where a house opposite 
the dogaua was destroyed by a landslip in the winter of 1871, lies 
the small Harbour, termed Limpia from an excellent spring (lim- 
pida) which rises near the K. pier. It is accessible to small ves- 
sels only ; those of large tonnage cast anchor in the bay of Villa- 







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Environs of Nice. TORRETTA. 16. Route. 107 

franca (p. 108). The Place Bellevue adjoining the harbour is 
embellished with a Statue of King Charles Felix in marble, erected 
in 1830. On the farther side of the harbour is the Boulevard de 

The Environs of Nice are sprinkled with attractive villas and 
clothed with luxuriant vegetation, and afford a variety of beautiful 

The Franciscan monastery of Cimies, Ital. Cimella, is situated 
3 M. to the N. of Nice. The best, although not the shortest route 
to it is by the new road ascending to the E. from the Boulevard 
Carabacel (PI. E, 2), which on the top of the hill intersects the site 
of a Rom. Amphitheatre (210 ft. long, 175 ft. wide). About i / i M. 
to the r. from the cross-road immediately beyond the amphitheatre 
the traveller reaches the monastery (two pictures by Bre'a in the 
chapel), re-erected in 1543 after its destruction by the Turks. It 
stands on the site of the Roman town of CemeneUum , to which the 
above-mentioned amphitheatre and a quadrangular structure, com- 
monly termed a 'Temple of Apollo', belonged. Traces of baths and 
other buildings have also been discovered. 

The Villa Clary, to which the public are admitted, below Ci- 
mies , on the road to St. Andre' (see below), possesses the finest 
orange and lemon-trees at Nice and many rare plants. 

A good carriage-road ascends on the r. bank of the Paglione to 
the (40 min.) monastery of St. Pons, founded in 775 on the spot 
where St. Pontius, a Roman senator, suffered martyrdom in 261. 
It was destroyed by the Saracens in 890, and the present edifice 
erected in 999. The treaty by which the County of Nice was an- 
nexed to the Duchy of Savoy was concluded here in 1388. The 
chateau of St. Andre (restaurant, closed in summer), which is reached 
in !/ 2 nr - more, erected in the i 7th cent., is now unoccupied. About 
'/4 hr. farther up the valley is the grotto Les Cluses de St. Andre, 
or rather a natural bridge over a brook, crossed by the road. An 
avenue of cypresses leads from the chateau to the grotto C/4 hr.). 

The excursion may be extended still farther in this di- 
rection. Beyond the chateau of St. Andre" the road enters a 
desolate rocky gorge, almost entirely destitute of vegetation, 
lying between Mont Chauve (or Monte Cairo, p. 105) and Mont 
Maccaron. Beyond it, cultivated land is again reached. The 
road next reaches the antiquated village of Torretta (7 M. from 
Nice, carr. 10 fr.), with the picturesque ruin of that name (Fr. La 
Tourette~). The tower of the castle commands a very singular sur- 
vey of the sterile mountain scene, especially of Mont Chauve, the 
Aspremont, and the deserted village of Chateau Neuf (see below), 
perched on a barren ridge of rock ; to the S. Montalban and the sea. 

About l'/s M. farther is the dilapidated village of Chateau 
Neuf, founded on the ruins of old fortifications and probably used 
in the 15th and 16th cent, by the inhabitants of Nice as a refuge 

108 Route 16. VILLAFRANCA. 

from Turkish invaders. It has recently been abandoned by most 
of its inhabitants on account of the want of water. This is another 
tine point of view. 

To the K. of the harbour La Limpia rises the Montboron, a 
promontory 890 ft. in height, which separates Nice from Villafranca. 
The summit, to which a carriage-road has recently been constructed, 
commands an extensive prospect. The mountains of Corsica are 
visible towards the S. in clear weather. 

The Road to Villafranca (2 M. ; for its commencement in Nice 
see PI. G, 4), constructed by the French government, leads 
round the promontory of Montboron and passes a number of 
villas, the most conspicuous of which is the Villa Smith, a red 
building in the oriental style. Immediately beyond the extremity 
of the cape a view is obtained of the small seaport of *Villafranca, 
Fr. Villefranche (carr. from Nice, see p. 104; rowing-boat 10 fr.), 
very beautifully situated on the Bay of Villafranca, which is en- 
closed by olive-clad heights (to the 1. on the height rises Fort.Ylon- 
talban). A'illafranca, which was founded in 1295 by Charles II. of 
Anjou, as king of Sicily, is now a French naval station. In return- 
ing to Nice take the old road (iy 2 M.), which crosses the pro- 
montory and affords a flue view on the descent. Rail. stat. at 
Villafranca (see p. 103) close to the sea. 

If the road which ascends the hill to the 1. above Villafranca 
be followed for l l /. 2 M. farther, a road to the r. crossing the railway 
by a stone bridge will lead the traveller ( 3 / 4 M. farther) to Beaulieu 
(rail. stat. to the 1. of the bridge, see p. 103), an insignificant vil- 
lage situated in the midst of rich plantations of olives, figs, carob- 
trees, lemons, and oranges. Many of the olive-trees are remarkably 
large, one of them measuring 22 ft. in circumference. Beaulieu 
lies in a wide bay, bounded on the S. by the long peninsula of St. 
Jean. At the foot of the latter lies the village of S. Giovanni, or 
St. Jean (dear inn), l 3 / 4 M. from Beaulieu , a favourite resort of 
excursionists from Nice. Tunny fishing is successfully carried on 
here in February, March , and April. At the extremity of the 
peninsula , the Cape St. Hospice, are the ruins of an old Saracenic 
castle, destroyed in 1706 under Louis XIV- (see p. 106), and 
the ruined chapel of St. Hospice. Instead of proceeding to St. Jean 
by the above route, the traveller may be ferried across the bay to 
the creek of Pasbles (60 c.) , and thence cross the peninsula on 
foot to St. Jean. 

On the W. side of Nice pleasant walks may be taken in the 
valley of the Magnan (p. 105) in which a road ascends to (2 M.) 
the church of La Madeleine. The beautiful , sheltered banks of 
the Var, which falls into the Baie dus Anges (p. 105) 4% M. to 
the W. of Nice, are also worthy of a visit. 

Route de la Corniche by Turbia to Mentone, see p. 102. 

Monaco, see p. 102. 

17. From Nice to Turin by the Col di Tenda. 

Mkssagekies to Cuneo (87 M.) in 20 — 22 hrs. (delay is sometimes occa- 
sioned in winter by snow on the Col di Tenda, which is crossed in 
sledges); Railway from Cuneo to Turin (54'|2 M.) in 2'|2 hrs. (fares 9 fr. 
70, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 85 c). Through-ticket from Nice to Turin includ- 
ing second class in railway, 27 fr. 

This is a very attractive route, especially for those coming from Turin. 
The views during the descent from the Col di Tenda to the Mediterranean 
are strikingly beautiful. 

The road crossing the Col di Tenda (6145 ft.) was constructed by 
Charles Emmanuel in 4591 and improved by Victor Amadeus III. in 1780 
(as two inscriptions on the road record). It is inferior to the skilfully 
constructed modern Alpine roads , being in many places only 13 ft. in 
width, and generally unprotected by parapets or railings. The descent is 
therefore somewhat unpleasant, especially at the sharp turnings on the 
N. E. side of the mountain. During 3 — 4 months of the year the road is 
traversed by sledges only. A violent wind often prevails at the summit 
of the pass, especially in the afternoon, sometimes seriously retarding the 
progress of the mules which are used for the journey (generally six in 
number). — About half-way up is the opening of a tunnel, begun by the 
Duchess Anne of Savoy in order to avoid the highest part of the pass. 
Tha works were stopped at ths time of the French occupation in 1792 
and have never been resumed. 

The road leads from Nice, on the bank of the Paglione, through 
the villages of La Trinith-Vittoria and Drappo, beyond which it 
crosses and quits the river. 

12 M. Scarena, Fr. Escarlne. The road hence to Sospello tra- 
verses a sterile and unattractive district. The barren rocks which 
enclose the bleak valley are curiously stratified at places. The 
road ascends to the Col di Braus (4232 ft.). To the S., on a 
lofty rock to the r., is seen the castle of Chdtillon, or Castiylione 
(p. 102). At the foot of the pass on the E. lies 

14 M. Sospello, French Sospel (1174 ft.) (Hotel Carenco), situ- 
ated in the valley of the Bevera (affluent of the Roja, see below), 
in the midst of olive-plantations and surrounded by lofty moun- 
tains. A new road leads from Sospello to Mentone. The road 
now ascends to the Col di Brouis (2871 ft.). Near the summit of 
the pass a final view is obtained of the Mediterranean. District 
unattractive, mountains bleak and barren. Then a descent to 

12i/ 2 M. Giandola (1250 ft.) (Hotel des Etrangers ; Poste), 
grandly situated at the base of lofty slate-rocks. Breglio, a town 
with 2500inhab. and the ruined castle of Trivella, lies lower down 
on the r. 

The road now ascends the narrow valley of the Roja, which 
falls into the sea near Ventimiglia (p. 100). Saorgio, rising in ter- 
races on a lofty rock on the r., with the ruins of a castle in the 
Oriental style, destroyed by the French in 1792, commands the 
road. On the opposite side is a monastery of considerable extent. 
The valley contracts , so as barely to leave room for the river and 
the road between the perpendicular rocks. Several small villages 
are situated at the points where the valley expands. Beyond 
(5 M.) Fontana the road crosses the Italian frontier. The southern 

HO Route 17. CUNEO. From Nice 

character of the vegetation now disappears. Then Borgo S. Dal- 
■mazzo, with 3800 inhab., where an old abbey is fitted up as a hy- 
dropathic establishment . frequented in summer by some of the 
winter residents of Nice. 

7'/ 2 M. Tenda (Hotel Koyal ; Hotel Imperial") lies at the S. base 
of the Col di Tenda. A few fragments of the castle of the unfor- 
tunate Beatrice di Tenda (oomp. p. 153) are picturesquely situated 
on a rock here. 

The road traverses a dreary valley by the side of the Koja and 
ascends by 69 zigzags on the barren mountain, passing several re- 
fuges, to the summit of the Col di Tenda, or di Cornio (6145 ft.), 
where the Alpes Maritimes (W.) terminate and the Apennines (E.) 
begin. The view embraces the chain of the Alps from Mont Ise'ran 
to Monte Rosa ; the plains of Piedmont are concealed by interven- 
ing mountains. Monte Viso is not visible from the pass itself, but 
is seen from a point a little beyond it, near the 4th Refuge. The 
descent is very steep. The road follows the course of the Ver- 
managna to 

2o M. L intone (3668 ft. J (Hotel de la Poste), an Italian excise- 
station, and then becomes more level. The valley of the Ver- 
managna, which is now traversed, is at some places enclosed by 
wooded heights, at others by precipitous limestone cliffs. To the 
the 1. rises the magnificent pyramid of the Monte Viso (12,608 ft."). 

Kobillante, Roccarione, S. Dalmazzo, then 

11 M. Cuneo, or Coni (1499 ft.) (Albergo delta barra di ferro ; 
Hotel de Londres), a town with 22,882 inhab., at the confluence of 
the Stura and the Oesso, once strongly fortified. After the battle 
of Marengo (p. 151) the works were dismantled in accordance with 
a decree of the three consuls (at the same time as the citadels of 
Milan and Tortona and the fortifications of Ceva and Turin) and 
converted into pleasure-grounds. In the principal street are 
arcades with shops on either side. The Franciscan Church, like 
most churches of this order beyond the Alps, is in the Gothic style 
(12th cent.), which was regarded by the Italians as the architecture 
most expressive of the simplicity and austerity inculcated by the 
Franciscans. Cuneo is a great depot for wares on their route from 
Nice to N. Italy and .Switzerland. A considerable fair is held here 
in autumn. Pleasant walk to the Madonna deyli Angeli , at the 
confluence of the Gesso and the Stura. 

About, 7 M. S. E. of Cuneo, in the Val PHio, is the romantically situ- 
ated Certosa di Val Fesio , now used as a hydropathic establishment, also 
frequented as quarters for the summer by persons in search of retire- 
ment. — In the Val di Oessu, about 15 M. 8. W of Cuneo, are the Baths 
of Valdieri, the waters ol' which somewhat resemble those of Aix-les-Baina 
in Savoy (p. 29). 

The Railway to Turin intersects the fertile plain , bounded on 
the W. by the Alpes Maritimes and , farther distant, the Cottian 
Alps, and on the E. by the Apennines. Centallo, the first station, 

to Turin. CARMAGNOLA. 17. Route. Ill 

with 4900 inhab. , possesses remains of mediaeval walls and 
towers. Next stat. La Maddalena; then Fossano, an episcopal 
residence , on the 1. bank of the Stura , beautifully situated on an 
eminence, with ramparts and a mediseval castle. 

22 M. Stat. Savigliano (Corona) is a pleasant town on the 
Macro. , enclosed by old fortifications. The principal church 
contains pictures by Mulinari (1721—93), a native of Savigliano, 
surnamed Caraccino, as an imitator of Caracci. 

Railway to Saluzso (in 1/2 hr. ; fares 1 fr. 80, 1 fr. 25, 90 c), ca- 
pital of the province (formerly a marquisate) of that name, with 16,000 
inhab. The higher part of the town, with its precipitous streets, affords 
a fine prospect over the Piedmontese plain. Saluzzo was the birth-place 
of Silvio Pellico, to whom a monument was erected here in 1863. . 

5'/2 M. Stat. Cavalier Maggiore (Bue Rossi), formerly fortified. 

Railwat to Alessandria in 5 hrs. (fares 10 fr. 80, 7 fr. 55, 5 fr. 40 c). 
Stat. Madonna-Pilone; then Bra, a prosperous town with 13,000 inhab. 
(staple commodities cattle, corn, and wine). The church of Sta. Chiara 
was erected in 1742 by Vettone in the richest, style of that period. Next 
stations S. Vittoria, where the line reaches the Tanaro; Monticelli, Mussotto; 
the Tanaro is crossed, and Alba, with 9600 inhab., reached. The cathedral 
of S. Lorenzo dates from the 15th cent. Stations Neive, Custagnole, Coxti- 
gliole, S. Stefano-Belbo, on the river of that name, the valley of which the 
train traverses for a considerable distance ; Canelli , Calamandrana , and 
Nizza di Monferrato , whence a good road leads to Acqui (p. 151). Stat. 
Incisa, a considerable distance from the railway, is situated on the Belbo. 
Then Castelnuovo, Bruno, Bergamasco, Oviglio, Cantalupo, and Alessandria, 
see p. 151. 

3 M. Stat. Racconigi is a royal chateau, once a favourite 
residence of Charles Albert (d. 1849), who caused it to be restored 
and embellished with pleasant grounds. 

5y 2 M. Stat. Carmagnola, a town with 12,894 inhab., was 
the birthplace (1390) of the celebrated military commander 
Francesco Bussone, son of a swine-herd, and usually termed Count 
of Carmagnola, who reconquered a considerable part of Lombardy 
and the possessions of Gianga.leazzo for DukeFilippo MariaVisconti. 
He afterwards became an object of suspicion to the duke and fled 
to Venice, where he was elected generalissimo of the army, with 
which he conquered Brescia and Bergamo and won the battle of 
Macalo (1427). His fidelity being again suspected, he was recalled 
to Venice by the Council of Ten and received with great pomp. 
On the departure of the army, however, he was thrown into prison, 
put to the torture , and on 5th May , 1432, beheaded between the 
two columns in the Piazzetta (p. 207). Bussone's brief and 
chequered career is the subject of a tragedy by Manzoni. — 
(Railway from Carmagnola to the S. to Savona , p. 96 , to join the 
Genoa and Nice line, in course of construction.) 

5^2 M. Stat. Villastellone. 

A road leads hence W., crossing the Po , to the town of Garignano 
(7800 inhab.), on the high road from Turin to Nice, 4>| 2 M. distant. Several 
of the churches are interesting. S. Oiovanni Battista was erected by Count 
Alfieri. Sta. Maria delle Orazie contains the monument of Bianca Palseo- 
logus, daughter of William IV., Marquis of Montferrat, and wife of Duke 
Charles I., at whose court the 'Chevalier Bayard' was educated. Carignano, 

1 1 2 VEROELLI. 

under the title of a principality, was an appanage of Thomas Francis (d. 
1656J, fourth son of Charles Emmanuel I., and ancestor of the present 
royal family. Prince Eugene , uncle of the king , is entitled 'Prince of 
Carignano. 1 

At stat. Troffarello the line unites with that from Turin to 
Alessandria. Journey hence to 

Turin, see p. 68. 

18. From Turin to Milan by Novara. 

94 M. Railway in 3 3 | 4 — 5'| 2 hrs. (fares 16 fr. 95, 11 fr. 95, 8 fr. 55 c.l. 
The seats on the left afford occasional glimpses of the Alps. — Fiacres 
and omnibuses, see pp. 68, 114. 

The Dora Itiparia is crossed, then, between stations Sticcur- 
sale di Torino and Settimo , the Stura , and beyond it the Malon 
and Oreo, all tributaries of the Po, the 1. bank of which is skirted 
by the line. Stat. Brandizzo. 

Chivasso (Moro) lies near the influx of the Oreo into the Po. 
Branch-line hence to /urea, see p. 78. Beyond stat. Torrazza di 
Yerolan the Dora Ilaltea (p. 78), a torrent descending from Mont 
Blanc, is crossed. Stations Salugyia, Livorno, Bianze, and Tronzano. 

(37'/2 M. ) Stat. Santhih possesses a church , restored with taste 
in 1862, and containing a picture by (laud. Ferrari in ten sections. 

Railway to Biella, towards the N., in 1 hr., by Salussola and 
Biella (Albergo della Testa Origia; Italia), an industrial town and seat of 
a bishop, possesses sfreets with arcades and a fine cathedral in a spacious 
Piazza, where the episcopal palace and seminary are also situated. The 
palaces of the old town, rising picturesquely on the hill, are now tenanted 
by the lower classes. Celebrated pilgrimage-church of the Madonna 
d % Oropa, 8 M. farther up the valley (omnibus thither). On the way to it 
two admirably situated hydropathic establishments are passed. 

The line skirts the ancient high road. Stat. <?. Geriiumo. 

(12 M.) Vercelli ( Tre Be ; Leone d'Oro; Posta), an episcopal 
residence with 27,349 inhab. The church of S. Cristoforo contains 
pictures by G. Ferrari and B. Lanini. S. Cater ina also contains 
a work of Ferrari. The library of the cathedral contains a number 
of rare and ancient MSS. A statue of Cavour was erected in the 
market-place in 1864. 

Railway to Valenza, towards the S., in l'|4 — i 1 ]; hr. (fares 4 fr. 65, 
3 fr. 25, '1 fr. 35 c). Stations Asigliaito , I'erlengo, Balzola; near Casale 
the Po is crossed; lh»n Borgo S. Martina, Giarole, and Valenza (p. lot). 

The train crosses the Sesin (p. 150), which rises on Monte 
Kosa. To the 1. rise the Alps, among which the magnificent 
Monte Rosa group is most conspicuous. Stations Borgo Ver- 
celli, Ponzumi, and 

(13 3 / 4 M.) Novara (*Rail. Restaurant; Italia), a fortress and 
episcopal residence (29,516 inhab.), commanded by the stately 
tower of the church of S. Oaudenzio . which was erected by Pel- 
legrini about 1560 and contains several good pictures by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari. The tower , ascended by 300 steps, commands a very ex- 
tensive prospect, most picturesque in the direction of the Alps. The 

MAGENTA. 18. Route. 1 1 3 

Cathedral, a Romanesque structure with nave and double aisles, 
connected with the Baptistery by an atrium or entrance-court, is a 
picturesque pile. The market-place is surrounded by colonnades. 
The whole town, with its Italian architecture and numerous shops, 
is attractive and interesting. In the Corso Cavour, at the entrance 
to the town from the station, stands a Monument of Cavour, by 
Dini , erected in 1863; near the Porta Mortara another to Charles 
Albert. Novara was the scene of a victory gained by the Austrians 
under Hess over the Piedmontese in 1849, in consequence of which 
Charles Albert abdicated. 

The celebrated philosopher Petrus Lombardus (d. 1164 as 
Bishop of Paris), surnamed the 'Magister Sententiarum' and a 
pupil of Abelard, was born near Novara about 1120. 

Branch Line to Gozzano from Novara in l 1 ^ hr. (fares 4 fr., 2 fr. 80 c, 
2 fr.). Stations Caltignaga, Momo , Borgomanero (a thriving town with 
7800 inhab.), Goizano (near it Bolzano, an episcopal chateau with a church 
and seminary); diligence hence to Or! a and Omegna (see p. 149). 

At Novara the Turin and Milan line is crossed by that from 
Arona to Genoa (R. 25). Stat. Trecate. Near stat. S. Martina 
the line crosses the Ticino by a broad and handsome stone bridge 
of eleven arches, which the Austrians partially destroyed before the 
battle of Magenta, but not sufficiently to prevent the passage of 
the French. Traces of the inundation of the autumn of 1868 are 
still visible near the bridge. 

Farther on, the Naviglio Grande (p. 115), a canal connecting 
Milan with the Ticino and the Lago Maggiore, is crossed. On 
the r., before stat. Magenta is reached, is a monument erected to 
Napoleon III. in 1862, to commemorate the victory gained by the 
French and Sardinians over the Austrians on 4th June , 1859 in 
consequence of which the latter were compelled to evacuate the 
whole of Lombardy. The French General Mac-Mahon , who 
distinguished himself here ; was created marshal and Duke of 
Magenta shortly afterwards. A number of hillocks with crosses in 
a low-lying field opposite the station mark the graves of those who 
fell in the struggle. A small chapel has been erected on an 
eminence in the burial-ground, and adjoining it a charnel-house 
for the bones of the fallen. 

Next stations Vittuone and lihb (p. 147). The line intersects 
numerous fields of rice, which are kept under water duriiig two 
months in the year, and soon reaches (30% M. ) Milan (see below). 

19. Milan, Ital. Milano. 

Arrival. The railway-station , a handsome and well arranged struc- 
ture, is decorated with frescoes. Omnibuses from most of the hotels are 
in waiting (fare 1 — life fr.). Fiacre from the station to any part of the 
town 1 fr., each article of luggage 25 c. Omnibus to the cathedral 25 c. 
Porterage to the town for luggage under 100 lbs. 50 c. according to tariff. 

B*deker. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 8 

114 Route 19. MILAX. Theatres. 

Hotels. *H6tel de la Ville (PI. a), Corso Vittorio Emanuele, oppo- 
site the church of S. Carlo, E. 3, A. 1, B. life, D. 4ife fr. (in gold) , on 
the ground-floor the large Cafi Europa ; * Hotel Cavoue, in the Piazza 
Cavour, near the station, new and quiet, R. from 3 fr., D. 5fr. ; *Grand 
Hotel Royal (PL b), R. 2i| 2 , D. 4, B. life, L. 1, A. 1 fr. ; Hotel Reich- 
mann (PI. c), Corso di Porta Romana, R. 2ife, B. life, D. 4, A. 1, L. 1 fr. ; 
*Gran Bretagna (PL d), similar charges; + Hotel de Milan, Via del 
Giardino 29, R. 2 l fe, D. 4, L. and A. life fr. ; *Hotel de l'Eueope, Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele 9; *Roma, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 7, R. 2 fr., A. 75, 
L. 75 c, with restaurant, no table d'hote; *Pozzo, Corso Torino, near the 
Ambrosiana, R. 2, B. life, D. 3, L. and A. 1'fe fr. ; Francia, Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele 19; Albeego Manin, Via Manin 15. *S. Marco (Via del Peace), 
*Bella Venezia (Piazza S. Fedele). and * Angora (Via Agnelo and Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele) are second-class inns ; +Tkuis Soisses , Via Larga 16, R. 2, 
B. 1, L. and A. 1 fr. ; Pension Suisse, commercial; Falcone, well spoken 
of; Albergo Firenze, Via Principe Umberto, near the station; Borsa, 
A r ia Rebecchino 16; Acjuila, Via S. Margarita, moderate; Leone, Passe- 
rella, Bissone, Rebecchino, and Agnello (Corso Vitt. Emanuele 4), all 
in the Italian style, with restaurants. 

Restaurants (Trattorie, comp. Introd. V). *Cova, with garden, near 
the Scala, concerts on Sund. and Thursd. ; Borsa, near the Scala ; Acca- 
demia, near the latter; *Bifp, Gnocchi, in the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele 
(sec below); *Rebeccliino, near the Piazza del Duomo ; Rinascimento , with 
garden, by the Porta Venezia; Milano , Via del Giardino. Isola Botta, 
outside the town, by the Triumphal Arch (p. 121), a favourite resort on 
holidays. Dinner-hour 3 — 7 p. m. 

Cafes. In the Giardino Pubblico (p. 125); Europa; *Merlo (best ices), 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele; * Biffin *Gnocc/ii, Cova (see above); Martini near 
the Scala; delle Colomie, Corso Venezia 1; Capello , Via Capello 14, etc. 
Dejeuner a la fourchette may be procured at most of the cafes; also 
Vienna (35 c.) and Chiavenna beer (30 c). Ices (sorbetto) after 4 p. m. 
and granita (half-frozen) at an earlier hour are a specialty of the cafe's. 
— Beer. Birraria Viennese and Birraria Nazionale opposite the cathedral ; 
Birraria delta Scala, adjoining the Scala; * Mazzola, in the 1. outlet of 
the Galleria A r itt. Emanuele (approached from the cathedral), with a 

Baths , Corso Vittorio Emanuele 17 , clean and not expensive ; Via 
Pasquirolo 11, etc. — Swimming-Baths: *Bagno di Diana, outside the Porta 
Venezia; Bagno Nazionale, outside the Porta Ticinese. 

Cabs ('■Broughams). Per drive by day or night 1 fr. ; half-hour 1 fr. , 
per hour l'fe fr. ; each article of luggage 25 c. 

Omnibuses from the Piazza del Duomo to the different gates 10 c, to 
the railway-station 25 c. ; the most frequented are the '■Porta Ticinese' and 
the 4 Porta Garibaldi'' lines. These conveyances are often useful , as the 
pedestrian is apt to lose his way in the intricacies of the streets. 

Railway to Camerlata (Como, R. 20) , Arontt (p. 147), Novara (Turin, 
R. 18), Genova (bv Mortura, p. 151), Puvin (R. 26), Piacenza (Bologna, 
Ancona, R. 40), Venice (R. 27). 

Diligence ( Impresa Merzario , Via di S. Dalmazio 2, near the Scala) 
to Coire by the Splilgen once daily in 25 hrs. (RR. 20, 21, 5), by the 
Bernardino in 26'fe hrs. (RR. 23, 4, 6); to Lucerne by the St. Gotthard 
dailv in 27ife hrs. (RB. 20, 22, 4); to Sion by the Simplon daily in 29 hrs. 
(RR 25, 23, 3). 

Post Office (PL 53), near the cathedral, at the back of the Palazzo 
Real'/, Via Rastrelli 4919, open from 8 a. m. to 9 p. m. — Telegraph 
Office (PL 69), near the Borsa, Pia/.za dei Mercanti (PL 8). 

Theatres (comp. Introd. VI). ' Teatro delta Scala (PL 63); alia Canob- 
biana (PL 63), during the Carnival only, both with ballet; S. Radegonda 
(PL 66), operas, a second-class theatre; Carcano (PL 64); Teatro Reale 
(PL 65) generally operas. Performances at Ihe Scala Theatre during the 
autumn and Carnival only; interior worthy of inspection (1 fr.). Theatres 
for the lower classes Fossati and Oiniselli, in the Piazza d'Armi. 

History. MILAN. 19. Route. 115 

Bankers. Mylivs , Via Clerici 6 ; Vlrich, Via Bigli 21 ; Weill- Schott, 
Via Pietro Verri 7. 

Shops. The best are in the Corso and the Galleria Vitt. Emanuele. 
Booksellers : SaccM (formerly Artaria), Via S. Margherita ; Valentiner <fr 
Mues, same street. Silks : Manfredi & Zanardi , Via Rastrelli , near the 
post-office. Haberdasherv : Martinelli & Landi, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 28. 
Marbles : Bianchi, Via Rastrelli 12. 

English Church Service, Vicolo San Giovanni della Conca 12. 

Principal Attractions : Cathedral , ascend tower ; Galleria Vittorio 
Emanuele ; Brera (picture-gallery) ; Arco della Pace ; S. Maria della Grazie 
and Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper; S. Ambrogio , the oldest, and S. 
Alessandro , the most sumptuous of the churches ; Piazza de' Mercanti ; 
between 6 and 7 p. m. walk through Corso Vittorio Emanuele to and 
beyond the Porta Venezia. 

Milan (390 ft.), 'surnamed Ha grande, the Mediolanum of the 
Romans, which was rehuilt after its total destruction in 1162 by 
the Emp. Frederick Barbarossa, is the capital of Lombardy and one 
of the wealthiest manufacturing towns in Italy, silk being one of 
the staple commodities. Population , exclusive of the garrison 
and the suburbs, 212,500. The circumference of the city is upwards 
of 9 M. It is situated on the small river Olona, which however is 
navigable and is connected by means of the Naviglio Orande 
(p. 113) with the Ticino and Lago Maggiore, by the Naviglio di 
Pavia (p. 152) with the Ticino and the Po, and by the Naviglio della 
Martesana with the Adda (p. 136), the Lake of Como, and the Po. 

The favourable situation of Milan in the centre of Lombardy has al- 
ways secured for it a high degree of prosperity. Under the Romans it 
was one of the largest cities in Italy , but owing to its repeated destruc- 
tion hardly a trace of that period has been left. Its heroic struggles 
against the German emperors are well known. With the exception of S. 
Ambrogio and a few other churches , the city was totally destroyed in 
1162 by the emperor Frederick Barbarossa, but in 1167 rebuilt by the 
allied cities of Cremona, Brescia, Bergamo, and Mantua. It was subse- 
quently governed by the Visconti (1312 — 1447), then by the Sforza family 
(1447 — 1535). Under the supremacy of the latter it attained the zenith of its 
reputation as a patron of art, having been the residence of Bramante 
from 1476 to 1500 and of Leonardo da Vinci from 1494 to 1516. The most 
eminent of Leonardo's pupils who flourished here were Bernardino Luini, 
Cesare da Sesto, Giov. Ant. Beltraffio, Marco d'Oggionno, Andrea Salaino, 
and Gaudenzio Ferrari. Milan with the rest of Lombardy afterwards fell 
into the hands of the Spaniards, and in 1714 fell to Austria. In 1796 
it became the capital of the 'Cisalpine Republic', and then (down to 1815) 
that of the kingdom of Italy. The bloody insurrection of 17th May, 1848 
compelled the Austrians to evacuate the city , and after they regained 
possession of it their unpopularity gave rise to frequent disturbances. 
No town in Italy has undergone such marked improvement as Milan since 
the events of 1859. 

The old part of the town, a portion of which consists of narrow 
and irregular streets, is enclosed by canals, beyond which suburbs 
(borghi), named after the different gates, have sprung up. Of 
the latter, eleven in number, the principal are the Porta Venezia at 
the extremity of the handsome new Corso Venezia, the prolongation 
of which the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, the principal street of 
Milan, leads to the cathedral ; the Porta Sempione (p. 121), and 
between these the Porta Garibaldi , erected in 1828, so named 
and furnished with an appropriate inscription in 1859. 


116 Route 19. MILAN. Cathedral. 

The most celebrated of the eighty churches of Milan is 
the ** Cathedral (Cattedrale, PL 5), dedicated 'Mariae Nas- 
centV , as the inscription on the facade announces, and as the gild- 
ed statue on the tower over the dome also indicates. It is regard- 
ed by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world , and is, 
next to St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral at Seville, the largest 
church in Europe. The interior is 159 yds. in length, 61 yds. in 
breadth; nave 155 ft. in height, 17 yds. in breadth. The dome 
is 220 ft. in height, the tower 360 ft. above the pavement. The 
roof is adorned with 98 Gothic turrets, and the exterior with up- 
wards of 2000 statues in marble. The structure was begun by 
Enrico Onmodia (Heinrich Arler of Gmund) in 1386, one year after 
the cathedral of Prague had been completed by Peter Arler of 
Gmiind; the dome was begun in accordance with the design of 
Francesco dl Qiorgio in 1490; and the whole was finished in its 
principal parts at the close of the 15th century. In 1805 Napo- 
leon caused the works to be resumed, and the tower over the dome 
to be added , and at the present day additions and repairs are 
constantly in progress. 

The church is in the Gothic style and cruciform in shape, with 
double aisles, and a transept also flanked with aisles. It is sup- 
ported by 52 pillars, each 12 ft. in diameter, the summits of which 
are adorned with canopied niches with statues instead of capitals. 
The pavement consists entirely of mosaic in marble of different 
colours. The vaulting is skilfully painted in imitation of per- 
forated stone-work. 

Interior. By the principal inner portal are two huge monolith co- 
lumns of granite from the quarries of Baveno (see p. 35). The band of 
brass in the pavement close to the entrance indicates the line of the 
meridian. South Aisle : Sarcophagus of Bishop Heribertus Antimianus 
(d. 1045), with crucifix. Gothic monument of Bishop Marcus Corellus. 
South Transept (W. wall): Monument of the brothers Giacomo and Ga- 
briele de' Medici, erected by their brother Pope Pius IV. ^15641, the three 
bronze statues by Leone Leoni (Aretius). Tickets for the roof (25 c.) are 
obtained near this monument. The altar of the Offering of Mary (E. wall 
of S. transept) is adorned with fine Reliefs by Agostino Busti (Bantbaja); 
adjacent is the Statue of St. Bartholomew by Marcus a Grate (end of 16th 
cent..), anatomically remarkable, as the saint is represented flayed. 

The door of the S. Sacristy (r. in the choir) is remarkable for its 
richly sculptured Gothic decorations. (The + Treasury here may be in- 
spected, fee 1 fr. ; among other valuables it contains lifesize statues 
in silver of S. Ambrogio and S. Carlo Borrumeo, and the ring and 
staff of the latter). A little farther is the marble Monument of Cardinal 
Marino Carraccioli (d. 1538), by whom Emp. Charles V. was crowned at 
Aix-la-Chapelle in 1520. The stained glass in the three vast choir win- 
dows, comprising 350 representations of scriptural subjects, were executed 
by Alois and Giov. Bertini of Guastalla during the present century; most 
of them are copies from old pictures. Before the N. Sacristy is reached, 
the Statue of Pius IV. is seen above , in a sitting posture, by Angela Si- 
riliano. The door of this sacristy is also adorned with fine sculptures in 

By the E. wall of I lie N. Transept is an altar witli the Crucifixion 
in high reiief, by Ant. Preslinari. In the centre of this transept, in front 
of the altar, is :i valuable bronze -Candelabrum, in the form of a tree, 

Cathedral. MILAN. 19. Route. 117 

executed in the 13th cent., and decorated with jewels, presented by Giov. 
Batt. Trivulzio in 1562. 

North Aisle: Altar-piece, painted in 1500 by Fed. Baroccio , repre- 
senting S. Ambrogio releasing Emp. Theodosius from ecclesiastical penal- 
ties. Upon the adjoining altar of St. Joseph, the Nuptials of Mary, by F. 
Zuccheri. The following chapel contains the old wooden Crucifix which 
S. Carlo Borromeo , barefooted , bore in 1576 when engaged in his mis- 
sions of mercy during the plague. Under the next window is a Monument, 
with a relief of the Virgin in the centre, by Marchesi; r. and 1. the two 
SS. John by Monti. Not far from the N. side door is the Font , consist- 
ing of a sarcophagus of S. Dionysius, but appropriated to its present use 
by S. Carlo BorromeoT The canopy is by Pellegrini. 

In front of the choir, beneath the dome, is the subterranean Cappella 
S. Carlo Borromeo , sumptuously decorated with gold and precious stones 
(open in summer 5 — 10, in winter 7 — 10 a. m. ; at other times 1 fr. ; for 
showing the relics of the saint 5 fr.). 

The traveller should not omit to ascend to the * Roof and 
Tower of the Cathedral. The stair ascends from the corner of the 
r. transept (ticket 25 c. ; map of town and environs l 1 ^ fr-> more 
useful than the services of a commissonaire, l /. 2 fr.J. The visitor 
should mount at once to the highest gallery of the tower (by 194 
steps inside and 300 outside the edifice), and after having sur- 
veyed the prospect descend and examine the details of the archi- 
tecture of this vast marble structure. A watchman generally 
stationed at the top possesses a good telescope, through which the 
statues, especially the four by Canova, may be inspected. The 
cathedral is opened at 5 a. m. The earlier the ascent of the tower 
is undertaken , the greater is the probability of a fine view of 
the Alps. 

View. To the extreme 1. , S.W., Monte Viso, then Mont Cenis Ip. 
32) ; farther distant, between these two, the Superga (p. 77) near Turin ; 
Mont Blanc, Great St. Bernard; Monte Rosa, the most conspicuous of all; 
1. of the last the prominent Matterhorn ; then the Cima di Jazi, Strahl- 
horn, and Mischabel ; N.W. the Monte Leone by the Simplon (p. 34); the 
Bernese Alps; N. the summits of the St. Gotthard (p. 39) and Spliigen 
(p. 44), and E. in the distance-the peak of the Ortler (p. 50). S. the Cer- 
tosa of Pavia (p. 153) is visible, farther E. the towers and domes of Pavia 
itself, in the background the Apennines. 

To the S., opposite the cathedral, is situated the Palazzo Reale 
(PI. 48); on the N. side is the dog and bird market. Adjoining 
the Piazza del Duomo on the W. is the interesting Piazza de' 
Mercanti , the central point of the mediaeval city , and formerly 
provided with five gates. In the centre of the piazza is the build- 
ing which was formerly the Palazzo delta Ragione , erected in 
1228 — 33 by the podesta. (or mayor) Tresseno , to whom an eques- 
trian statue was erected on the S. side with the inscription, 'qui 
solium struxit, Catharos ut debuit ussit' (the Cathari were an heret- 
ical sect). The ground-floor is now the corn-exchange , above 
which is the Archivio Notarile. On the N. side of the piazza 
is the ancient Palazzo della Citta , erected in the 16th century, 
with the exchange on the ground floor ; on the S. side is the Loggia 
degli Ossii , erected in 1315, adjoining which is the telegraph 

118 Route 19. MILAN. Piazza delict Scala. 

The Piazza del Duomo forms the modern centre of business at 
Milan. It was formerly confined between narrow lanes, but has 
recently been greatly extended by their removal. Farther improve- 
ments are contemplated , with a view to impart a more uniform 
appearance to the Piazza and render it a more worthy adjunct of 
the cathedral. The principal work which has been undertaken 
and completed since the emancipation of Milan from the Austrian 
yoke is the :i: Galleria Vittorio Emanuele (PI. 40), connecting the 
Piazza del Duomo with the Scala. This is the most spacious and 
attractive structure of the kind in Europe. It was begun in March, 
1865, by the architect Mengoni, and inaugurated in Sept., 1867, 
and is said to have cost 8 million fr. (320,000 Z.). Length 320 
yds., breadth 16 yds., height 94 ft. The form is that of a Latin 
cross , with an octagon in the centre, over which rises a cupola 
180 ft. in height. The gallery contains handsome shops , and is 
lighted in the evening by 2000 gas-jets. The decorations are well- 
executed and bear testimony to the good taste of the Milanese. 

It. is adorned with 24 statues of celebrated Italians : at the entrance 
from the Piazza del Duoino , Arnold of Brescia and G. B. Vico ; in the 
octagon r. Cavour, Emmanuel Philibert, Vit.tore Pisano, Gian Galeazzo 
Visconti; Roma^nnsi , Pier Capponi , Macchiavelli , Marco Polo; Raphael, 
Galileo, Dante, Michael Angelo ; Volta, Lanzone, Giov. da Procida, Bec- 
caria ; at the r. lateral outlet Beno de' Gozzadini and Columbus, at the 
1. lateral outlet Ferruccio and Monti; at the entrance from the Scala, 
Savonarola and Vgo Foscolo. The frescoes of the upper part of the octa- 
gon represent the four quarters of the globe; on the entrance-arches are 
Science , Industry , Art , and Agriculture. 

The Piazza della Scala is embellished with the ^Monument of 
Leonardo da Vinci (1452 — 1519) by Magni, erected in 1872. The 
statue of the master in Carrara marble , over life-size, stands on a 
lofty pedestal, surrounded by Marco d'Oggionno , Cesare da Sesto, 
Salaino, and Beltraffio, four of his pupils, and adorned with copies 
of his principal works in relief. In the piazza , to the W. of the 
statue, is the Teatro della Scala (p. 114), to the E. is the large 
Palazzo del Marino , now Municipio (PI. 52), erected in 1555 from 
designs by Galeazzo Alessi, with a massive facade and interesting 
court. Beyond it is the Jesuit church of S. Fedele (PL 15) in the 
Piazza of that name, erected by IS. Carlo Borromeo in 1569 from 
designs by Pellegrini, containing a sumptuous high altar. The ad- 
joining Palazzo del Censo ed Archivio, formerly the Jesuit college, 
contains part of the government archives, chiefly documents relat- 
ing to thehistory of Milan. 

We next proceed from the Piazza della Scala to the N. by the 
Via S. Giuseppe and Via di Hrera to the Brera. In the Via del 
Monte di Pieta, the second side-street on the L, is the handsome 
new Cassa di Rispdrmio , or savings-bank, an imitation of the 
Palazzo Strozzi at Florence. 

The *Brera (PL 50), or Palazzo delle Scienze edArti, open daily 
in summer 9— 4, in winter 9 — 3, on Sundays 12 — 4 o'clock, for- 

Brera. MILAN. 19. Route. 119 

merly a Jesuits' College , contains the Picture Oallery and Library 
of the Academy (170,000 vols., about 1000 MSS.), and a collection 
of Casts from the antique. The court contains statues in marble 
of the political economist Count Pietro Verri, the architect Marchese 
Luigi Cagnola (d. 1833), Tommaso Orossi , the mathematicians 
Gabrio Piola and Fra Bonaventura Cavalieri (d. 1647), and of Carlo 
Ottavio Castiglione ; in the centre of the court is a bronze statue 
of Napoleon I., as a Roman emperor, with a long staff in his left 
hand and in his rigkt a statue ef Victory , by Canova, considered 
one of his finest works. By the staircase, to the 1., the statue of 
the celebrated jurist Beccaria (d. 1794), who in his treatise 'del 
delitti e delle pene' was the first to call in question the justice of 
capital punishment; to the r., that of the satirist Gius. Parini 
(d. 1799), professor of rhetoric at the college of the Brera. On 
the wall of a back-staircase to the library is the Marriage of Cana, 
a fresco by Calisto Piazza da Lodi. 

The *Picture Gallery (Pinacoiica) in thirteen rooms , contains 
upwards of 400 oil paintings , and admirable frescoes which 
have been carefully detached from old monastery-walls. Each 
picture bears the name of the painter. 

1st and 2nd Ante-Chambers : 1 — 70. Frescoes by Luini , Ferrari, Bra- 
mantino , and Marco da Oggionno ; the finest by Luini, some of them ap 
proaching the genre style (Nos. 11, 62) , scenes from the life of Mary (40, 
41, 51, *67), * Madonna with St. Anthony and St. Barbara (45), Angels 
(13, 43, 47, 52, 6G), and St. Catharine borne by angels (50); Oaudenzio 
Ferrari, Adoration of the Magi (24). — Boom I: 75. Titian, St. Jerome; 
79. Palma Vecchio (?), Crucifixion and four saints, a picture in three sec- 
tions; 81. Van Dyck , Madonna and St. Anthony of Padua; 91. Rubens, 
The sacrament; 96. Paris Bo, done, Baptism of Christ ; 115. Tintoretto, 
Pieta. — Room II.: (on the 1.) 120. Giacomo Francia, Madonna in the 
clouds and saints (1544) ; 124—126. Paolo Veronese, Adoration of the Magi ; 
142. Oirolamo Savoldo, Madonna and four saints; 144. Paolo Veronese, SS. 
Cornelius, Antonius Abbas, Cyprian, and a monk with a page. — Room 
III. : 149. Carlo Crivelli , Madpnna and four saints ; *155. Gentile Bellini, 
Preaching of St. Mark at Alexandria; 161. Bartolommeo Montagna, Ma- 
donna enthroned, angels playing on instruments , and four saints (1499) ; 
167. Timoteo delta Vite, Annunciation and two saints; *171. Andrea Man- 
tegna, Picture in twelve sections; 176. Giovanni Sanzio (father of Raphael), 
Annunciation ; 187. Antonio and Giovanni da Murano, Altar-piece in sixteen 
sections; 187. Paolo Veronese, Christ in the house of the Pharisee; 188. 
ifartino da Udine, St. Ursula and her virgin attendants (1507); 190. Garo- 
falo , The Maries at the Cross ; 195. Giotto, Madonna and child (from S. 
Maria degli Angeli at Bologna, p. 257). — Room IV. : 213. After Correggio, 
Madonna and Child, with two saints ; 223. Giovanni Bellini, Pieta ; 237. Vittore 
Carpaceio, St. Stephen and the scribes (1514) ; 240. Hobbema (?), Landscape ; 
245. Jan Breughel, Genre-picture. — Room V.: 261. Liberate da Verona, 
St. Sebastian. — Room VI. : 290. Cima da Conegliano, John the Baptist, 
St. Peter, and St. Paul ; 295, 296. Giov. Bellini (?), Madonnas ; 299. Fran- 
cesco Albani, Cupids dancing; 316. Garofalo, Madonna; 315. Giov. Bellini, 
Madonna (1516). — Room VII. : 318. 'II bersaglio de' dei' (shooting-match 
of the gods) , a sketch attributed to Raphael , but apparently marked as 
a work of Michael Angelo by Raphael's own hand; 822. Guercino, Abra- 
ham and Hagar; 325. Solario , Porlrait; *329. Velasquez, Monk asleep; 
332. Bern. Luini, Madonna; 331. Leonardo da Vinci, Study for the head of 
Christ in the Last Supper ; 333. Rembrandt , Portrait of a lady ; **337. 
Raphael's far-famed Sposalizio , or the Nuptials of the Virgin , an early 

120 Route 19. MILAN. Brera. 

work of the master, with a considerable resemblance to Perugino'a Spo- 
salizio which is now at Caen. — Room VIII. : 346. Francesco Francia, An- 
nunciation; 354. Civtftta (properly Bles) , Nativity, Adoralion, Flight into 
Egypt; 353. Andrea Man teg no, , Pieta, 'a tempera' on canvas; 358. Guido 
Rent , Peler and Paul. — Room IX.: 3G6. Bonifazio, Finding of Moses; 
371, 373, 374. Lorenzo Lotto, Portraits; 384. Sassoferrato , Madonna and 
Child; *3SS. Van Dyck , Portrait of a lady. — Room X. : 391. Gaspard 
Poussin, John the Baptist, in the forest ; 398. Pietro da Cortona, Madonna 
enthroned, with four saints; 432. Bonifazio, Christ at Eminaus ; 446. Sal- 
vator Rosa , Forest scene with the dead body of Peter the Hermit. — 
Room XI. (copying-room): 421. Marco d'Oggionno, Fall of Lucifer; 452. 
Gaud. Ferrari, Martyrdom of St. Catharine; 461. Cerano-Crespi, Presenta- 
tion in the Temple; 465. Cesare da Sesto, Holy Family; 479. Enea Sal- 
wwjyio, surnamed Talpino, Madonna and saints ; 494. Ambrogio Borgognone, 
Assumption and Coronation of Mary. To the left, farther on , are several 
rooms containing modern pictures , sketches of academicians , casta from 
the antique, Renaissance and modern sculptures. (An annual exhibition 
of art takes place in these rooms, generally in September.) — Room XIV. : 
564. Paolo Veronese (?), Sacrament. — Room XIX. : 1297. Canova, Vestal 
Virgin; *Thorvald$tn, Monument of Andrea Appiani, Three Graces, and 
Cupid. — Room XXIII. (the last) contains two copies of Leonardo da 
Vincfs Last Supper, that l al fresco" by Marco d" Oggionno being the best. 

— Returning hence to the ante-chamber, the visitor enters the Galleuia 
Oggioni to the r: 813. Luini, Holy Family; 2762. Crivelli, Coronation of 
Mary (1493); 797. Guido Iteni, St. Jerome. 

The Museo Archeologico on the ground-floor (admission daily 10—3, 
50 c. ; .Sundays 2 — 4, gratis; entrance in the small Piazza di Brera, or 
through a passage to the r. on the ground-floor) contains a small collection, 
imperfectly arranged, of antique, mediaeval, and Renaissance sculptures 
and ancient frescoes, chiefly found at Milan, or collected from churches 
now destroyed. First Room. Wall of the door (r.) : I. Tomb -relief 
(Greek workmanship); adjoining it a Renaissance putto between inscrip- 
tions and sculptures. Window-wall : Medneval sculpture from the tym- 
panum of a church ; Gothic bell of 1352. Next wall: Roman and medi- 
aeval architectural fragments, ancient ^head in terracotta. Fourlh wall: 
Portions of the monument of Gaston de Foix (who fell at the battle of 
Ravenna in 1512), from the monastery of S. Mart a, the most important 
being (E.) a recumbent figure of the hero by Agost. Busti, surnamed Bam- 
baja (1517). D. Monument of Lancino Carzio (d. 1513) from S. Marius, 
by the same master. F. Marble coping of a door from the Casa Medici, 
attributed to Michelozzi. In the corner, C. Monument of Bishop Bagareto 
by Bamhaja. — By the pillars to the r. , and between them: Ancient 
Roman sarcophagus; T. Roman cippus. Last pillar: ^fragment of a cip- 
pus , a youth leaning on a staff (Greek). By Ihe pillars on the 1., and 
between them: Head of Zeus (nose modern). H. Torso of Venus with the 
dolphin. B. Monument of Regina della S'.ala, wife of Bernabo Visconti. 
In the centre; A. Large monument of Bernabo Visconti (d. 1385), from 
S. Giovanni in Conea, erected dviring bis lifetime (1354), resting on twelve 
columns, and richly gilded; on the sarcophagus are reliefs, in front the 
four evangelists, at the back Ihe coronation of Mary; at the sides the 
Crucifixion and Entombment; above, the equestrian statue of the deceased. 

— Second Room. On the r. suits of armour and bronze implements from 
the graves of Gauls discovered near Sestri Calende in 1867; in the cabin- 
ets, relies from tombs excavated in the Nuovo Giardino Pubblico, terra- 
cottas , crystal, majolicas, etc.; also vases and Assyrian antiquities. On 
the walls are nine ancient, frescoes, one of them in the style of Giotto. 

A little to the W., in the Piazza del Carmine, is the Gothic 
church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 20) of the 15th cent., now 
modernised, containing a Madonna in fresco by Luini. 

At the N.W. angle of the city lies the spacious Piazza d'Armi, 
or esplanade, with the Castello , once the seat of the Visconti and 

Areo delta Pate. MILAN. 19. Route. 121 

the Sforzas, and now a barrack. The corner-towers and part of 
the walls connecting them on the S.W. side are the sole remains 
of the original building. The adjoining Arena, a kind of circus for 
races, etc., constructed under Napoleon I., can accommodate 30,000 
spectators (closed, fee 1/2 fr-)- 

Opposite the castle , on the N.W. side of the Piazza d'Armi, 
is the *Arco della Pace (PI. 1), or Arco di Sempione, a triumphal 
arch in the Roman style , begun in 1804 by Napoleon as a termi- 
nation to the Simploji route , and completed by the Emp. Francis 
in 1830, the dedication and decorations having been altered (ascend- 
ed by 107 steps). The inscriptions in honour of the Emp. Francis 
have been replaced by others commemorating the emancipation of 
Italy in 1859. This lofty gateway , with three passages , erected 
entirely of white marble by Cagnola (p. 119), is adorned with 
numerous reliefs and statues. 

On the platform is the goddess of Peace in a chariot with six horses, 
at the four corners Victories on horseback. Side towards the town: on 
the r. and 1. of the inscription, the river-gods of the Po and Ticino. On 
the 1. under the cornice, the entrance of Emp. Francis into Milan in 
1825, above it the battle of Kulm, below it the surrender of Dresden. 
On the r. the foundation of the Lombard and Venetian kingdom , above 
it the passage of the Rhine, below it the taking of Lyons, all by Pompeo 
Marchesi. Beneath the great arch the foundation of the 'Holy Alliance' 
in two reliefs. On the W. side the battle of Arcis-sur-Aube , E. the vic- 
tory of Lyons, by Marchesi. Side towards the country: river-gods of the 
Tagliamento and Adige , by Marchesi. Under the cornice on the 1. the 
Congress of Vienna , institution of the order of the Iron Crown , taking 
of Paris ; r. Peace of Paris, entry of the Allies into Paris, entry of General 
Neipperg into Milan 1814. 

Returning from the triumphal arch, either across the esplanade, 
or by the Strada di Circonvallazione , a kind of boulevard planted 
with trees , to the Porta Magenta (formerly Vercellina), we reach 
the Corso Magenta, in which is situated the church of 

*S. Maria delle Grazie (JP1. 22), an abbey-church of the 15th 
cent., of which the choir, transept, and dome were erected by 
Bramante in the early Renaissance style , partly in stone , and 
partly in brick , with curious enrichments in terracotta. 

The 4th chapel on the r. contains frescoes by Gavdenzio Ferrari (on 
the r. the Crucifixion, on the ]. Christ crowned with thorns, Christ 
scourged), executed in 1542, his last works, and an altar-piece (Descent 
from the Cross) by Caravaggio. In the 6th chapel frescoes by Fiamingo. 
To the r. on the organ above, a Madonna by Luini. In the sacristy two 
frescoes by Luini. St. John, altar-piece by Oggionno; good paintings on 
the cabinets. 

In the S.E. angle of the small piazza to the N. of this church 
is the entrance to the refectory of the suppressed monastery of 
Sta. Maria delle Grazie (now a cavalry-barrack) , containing the 
celebrated **Last Supper of Leonardo da Vinci (the 'custode del 
cenacolo' is generally in the refectory). The picture is unfortu- 
nately in bad preservation, chiefly from having been painted on the 
wall in oils. A fresco by Donato Montorfano (Crucifixion) of 
1495, opposite the Last Supper, is in much better condition. 

122 Route 19. MILAN. S. Ambrogio. 

In the Corso Magenta farther on, to the 1., is the Palazzo of 
the Duca Litta (PI. 55), whose picture-gallery was sold in 1866. 
On the r., opposite to it, is the small church of 

S. Maurizio (PI. 27), or Monastero Maggiore, erected by Gio- 
vanni Dolcebrone , a pupil of Bramante , containing *frescoes by 
Luini, the best of which are near the high altar. 

The Via S. Agnese leads hence to the S. E. to the Piazza S. 
Ambrogio, in which is situated the church of 

*S. Ambrogio (PI. 7), founded by St. Ambrose in the 4th cent, 
on the ruins of a temple of Bacchus , and dating in its present Ro- 
manesque form, with its peculiar galleries, from the 12th century. 
In front of the church is a fine atrium of the 9th cent., surrounded 
by arcades with ancient tombstones, inscriptions , and half-obliter- 
ated frescoes of the 12th cent., and earlier. The gates of this 
church are said to be those which St. Ambrose closed against the 
Emp. Theodosius after the cruel massacre of Thessalonica ; there is 
a portrait of the saint on the 1. side of the principal entrance. The 
Lombard kings and German emperors formerly caused themselves 
to be crowned here with the iron crown , which since the time of 
Frederick Barbarossa has been preserved at Monza (p. 126). Mass 
is celebrated here on Sundays between 10 and 11 o'clock, accom- 
panied by the old 'Ambrosian' music. 

Interior. On the r. and 1. of the side entrance on the r. : frescoes 
by Oaudenzio Ferrari , representing the Bearing of the Cross , the three 
Maries, and the Descent from the Cross. 2nd Chapel on the r. (Cappella 
delle Dame): a kneeling *statue of St. Marcellina, by Pacetti. 5th Chapel 
on the r. : Legend of St. George , ^frescoes by Bernardino Lanini. In the 
entrance to the sacristy is the Cappella S. Satiro with mosaics of the 5th 
century. 6th Chapel : Macionna with St. John and Jerome , by Luim. 
Beneath the pulpit is an early Christian sarcophagus of the 6th cent., 
said to be that of Stilicho. The canopy over the high altar, which is 
adorned with reliefs of the 8th cent., formerly painted, is borne by four 
columns of porphyry. The high altar still retains its original decoration 
intact, consisting of reliefs on silver and gold ground (in front), enriched 
with enamel and gems, executed in the Carlovingian period by Volfoinus, 
a German (covered, shown only on payment of 3 fr.). In front of the 
high altar is the tombstone of Emp. Lewis II. (d. 875). The choir 
contains an ancient episcopal throne. By the high altar is an *Ecce 
Homo, in fresco by Luini, under glass. In the Tribuna *mosaics of the 
9th cent., earlier than those of St. Mark's at Venice: Christ in the centre, 
at the sides the history of St. Ambrose. — At the entrance to the crypt 
Christ among the scribes, a fresco by Borgognone. The modernised crypt 
contains the tombs ofSS. Ambrose, Protasius, and Gervasius. The brazen 
serpent on a column in the nave is said to be that raised by Moses in 
the wilderness. 

*S. Lorenzo (PI. 18; entrance in the Corsodi Porta Ticinese, in 
the colonnade mentioned below) is the most ancient church in 
Milan. Although it is uncertain whether the handsome interior 
once formed the principal hall of the thermae or of a palace of 
Maximian (4th cent.), or belonged to a very ancient Christian place 
of worship, like S. Vitale at Ravenna (p. 263), and although it 
was subsequently altered at least three times (the last time by 

8. Maria diS. Celso. MILAN. 19. Route. 123 

Martino Bassi), it is still an object of great interest to architects. 
It is octagonal in form and covered with a dome. On the four 
principal sides are large semicircular apses in two storeys , each 
borne by four columns alternately octagonal and round, and the 
whole structure is simple and dignified. At the back of the high 
altar is the Cappella S. Jppolito containing the tomb of Maria Vis- 
oonti. To the r. of the church is the Chapel of St. Aquilinus, 
containing mosaics of the 6th and 7th cent, representing Christ 
and the apostles, and the revelation to the shepherds , and an an- 
cient Christian sarcophagus supposed to be that of the founder, the 
Gothic king Ataulph (d. 416). The entrance to the chapel is adorn- 
ed with an antique marble coping. The extensive * Colonnade 
(PI. 57J of 16 Corinthian columns, now standing detached in the 
same street, also belonged to the same ancient structure. 

By the Porta Ticinese , farther S., rises the ancient church of 
S. Eustorgio (PI. 14), founded in the 4th cent., re-erected in the 
Gothic style by Tosano Lombardo in the 13th cent., and restored in 
the bad taste of the 17th cent, by Richini. The 'bones of the Magi', 
to whom the church is dedicated , were formerly deposited here, 
but were removed to Cologne after the conquest of Milan by Frede- 
rick Barbarossa in 1162. At the back of the choir is a chapel in the 
best Renaissance style by Michelozzo (after 1462), containing the 
tomb of St. Peter the Martyr by 0. Balducci of Siena. 

S. Maria di S. Celso (PL 21), near the Porta Lodovica , pos- 
sesses a handsome atrium attributed to Bramante and a facade of 
which the upper part was constructed by Oaleazzo Alessi. On the 
r. and 1. of the portal are Adam and Eve by Stoldo Lorenzi. In 
the interior is a picture by Paris Bordone, St. Jerome adoring the 
Child (2nd altar on the r.) ; Oaudenzio Ferrari , Baptism of Christ 
(behind the high altar) ; Borgognone, Madonna adoring the Child, 
surrounded by John the Baptist , St. Rochus , and the donors of 
the picture (1st chapel 1.); above it, Sassoferrato, Madonna. The 
2nd chapel on the 1. contains a sarcophagus with the relics of St. 
Celsus. Adjacent to this church is S. Celso, a Romanesque edi- 
fice, partially removed in 1826. 

The'Corso S. Celso leads back from this point to the interior 
of the city. To the r. in the Piazza S. Eufernia is the church of 
that name (PI. 13), dating from the 5th cent. , but entirely 
modernised in the 17th, with an Ionic colonnade. Farther towards 
the N. is situated 

S. Alessandro (PI. 6), erected in 1602 , the most sumptuously 
decorated church in Milan , but destitute of works of art. High 
altar adorned with precious stones. 

We return by the Yia Lupetta and the Via di Torino to the 
Piazza del Duomo. To the r. in the new Via Carlo Alberto is the 
small church of S. Satiro (PI. 31), founded in 829, and re-erected 
by Bramante and his pupil Suardi in the 15th cent. ; the octagonal 

124 Route 19. MILAN. Bibl. Ambrosiana. 

*Sacristy contains a handsome frieze halfway up the wall , with a 
gallery above it, and niches by Bramante below. 

The celebrated *Biblioteca Ambrosiana (PI. 3), open 10 — 3 
o'clock (fee 1 fr. ; picture-gallery, or Pinacoteca, open to the public 
on Wed., 10 — 2'/ 2 , out a fee expected, entrance from the 
reading-room to the r. in the court) , contains 60,000 vols, and 
15,000 MSS. and palimpsests, or codices rescripti , some of them 
very valuable. The library was founded in 1609 by the archbishop 
Cardinal Fred. Borromeo , to whom a statue was erected in front 
of the building in 1865. 

Codice Atlantico, i. e. original drawings and MSS. of Leonardo da 
Vinci; Virgil with marginal notes by Petrarch; a number of miniatures ; 
letters of S. Carlo Borromeo, Tasso, Galileo, Liguori , etc. Then, Christ 
crowned with thorns, al fresco, Bernardino Luini; Cupid in marble, R. 
Schadow ; several reliefs and bust of Byron by Thorvaldsen ; mosaics, coins, 
old woodcuts , and drawings by celebrated masters. — First Floor. First 
door on the left : Cabinet of bronzes, containing busts of Canova and Thor- 
valdsen, by the masters themselves, and pictures of no great value : 16. 
Rafael Mengs, Pope Clement XIII.; without number, Marco Basaiti, The 
risen Christ ; 60. Carlo Dolce , John the Baptist ; Adoration of the Magi, 
attributed to Lucad'Olanda (Lucas of Leyden); models of Trajan's column 
and the obelisks at Eome. — Second door to the left : entrance to the 
Pinacoteca: 1st Room, nothing noteworthy. 2nd Room: without number, 
Annibale Caracci , a colossal Mary from the Assunta uf Correggio; 80. 
Ambrogio Borgognone, Madonna enthroned and saints; without number, a. 
small picture groundlessly attributed to Raphael; 82. Fit. Mazzola, Annun- 
ciation; without number, Dosso Dossi , Washing of the feet; 96. Lower 
Rhenish Master , Madonna. The door to the left leads to the 3rd room of 
the drawings: immediately to the 1., + pen-and-ink sketches by A. Diirer 
(Sarnson and the Philistines, 1510; Coronation of Mary). By the window- 
A. Mantegna , Triumph of Caesar. In the 5th frame, sketches by Leon- 
ardo da Vinci , the finest the *female head at the top to the left. Op- 
posite wall : drawings by and after Michael Angela (a frame with draw- 
ings for the Sistine Chapel). 4th wall , above : part of Raphael's cartoon 
of the Battle of Constantine, unfortunately half obliterated. 4th Room: 
Copy of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper by Andrea Banchi; 137. Ber- 
nardino Luini, portrait-head; without number, * Raphael, Carloon of the 
'School of Athens' ; 170. Titian, Adoration of the Shepherds (the other 
Titians are propably copies); 165. Holy Family with the young Tobias, 
attributed to Giorgione, but probably by Girolamo Romanino ; between the 
windows, drawings by Raphael; *1o2. Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Isa- 
bella of Arragon; 153. Portrait of her husband Galeazzo Sforza, also attri- 
buted to Leonardo; Andrea Salaino, John the Baptist. The 5th Room (to 
the r. of the 2nd) contains nothing worthy of mention! — In the court 
are Human inscriptions; stained glass by Giov. Bertini (p. 116); adjoining 
the porter's lodge, the Mocking of Christ, a fresco by Bern. Luini. 

To the S. in the Piazza del Duomo, opposite the cathedral, is the 
Palazzo Reale (formerly Ducale, PI. 48), containing handsomely 
decorated apartments in the baroque style. Adjacent is the spacious 
Archiepiscopal Palace [Arcivescovado, PI. 49), with a handsome 
court with double rows of columns, by Pellegrini (1565). The Piazza 
Fontana, which adjoins the Piazza del Duomo on the E. is embel- 
lished with a fountain in red granite. Beyond it, in front of the 
Palazzo di Oiustizia, is the statue of Beccaria, the celebrated jurist 
(d. 1794). 

Giardini Pubblici. MILAN. 19. Route. 125 

The Via Brolo leads hence to the S. to the Piazza S. Stefano, 
with the simple Renaissance church of that name (PI. 34). The 
Via dell' Ospitale leads to the E. to the Corso di Porta Romana. 

The *Ospedale Maggiore (PI. 46), a vast and remarkably fine 
Gothic brick structure , begun in 1457 by Antonio Filareti of 
Florence, contains no fewer than nine courts. The extensive prin- 
cipal court, surrounded by arcades, is by Richini ; the court to the 
r. of it is ascribed to Bramante. The edifice is entirely covered 
externally with terracotta, in a style frequently observed in other 
Milanese buildings. 

On the N. E. side of the cathedral begins the broad Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele, the principal business street in Milan, contain- 
ing the best shops. On the 1. side is situated the church of 

S. Carlo Borromeo (PI. 12), a rotunda in the style of the 
Pantheon at Rome, 156 ft. in height, consecrated in 1847. It con- 
tains two groups in marble by Marchesi , and modern stained glass 
by Jose Bertini (the finest on the r. of the entrance : S. Carlo 
Borromeo visiting persons sick of the plage). 

The adjacent Gatteria de Cristoforis , now occupied with shops, 
was designed by Pizzala and erected in 1830—32. 

To the r. , farther on, at the corner of the Via Monforte , is the 
small church of S. Babila (PL 10), which is supposed to occupy the 
site of an ancient temple of the sun. In the Via Monforte is situated 
the Palazzo di Prefettura (PI. 54), with a modern facade, to the S. of 
which, in the Via del Conservatorio, is the church of S. Maria delta 
Passione (PI. 24) of the 15th cent., with a spacious dome by Crist. 
Solari, surnamed II Gobbo (1530), and paintings by B. Luini, 
Gaud. Ferrari, etc. The Conservatoire of Music occupies the old 
monastery buildings. 

The Corso Vittorio Emanuele is prolonged to the Porta Venezia 
by the Corso di Porta Venezia^. On the r. , beyond the canal, is the 
Archiepiscopal Seminary (PL 61) with a fine court by Gius. Meda 
(16th cent.), with double colonnades, the lower Doric, the upper 
Ionic. Then, on the 1. (Nos. 59—61), the Pal. Ciani (PL 54), 
completed in 1861, with rich ornamentation in terracotta. Opposite 
is the Pal. Saporiti (PL 56), another modern building, with Ionic 
columns, reliefs by Marchesi, etc. 

The *Giardini Pubblici , between the Porta Venezia and the 
Porta Nuova, pleasant grounds which have been recently much 
extended, containing fine avenues and several sheets of water, 
are the favourite promenade of the Milanese, especially on Sunday 
afternoons. The broad chestnut avenue on the N. side, extending 
between these two gates, and planted on the old ramparts (bastione), 
is a fashionable drive towards sunset. A broad flight of steps 
ascends to the older part of the gardens, opened in 1785, in the 
centre of which is a square building containing a large and hand- 
some saloon used for concerts and balls. The New Giardino Pubblico 

126 Route W. MONZA. 

between the Via Palestro , Via Manin , and the above mentioned 
bastions, opened in 1861, contains a small zoological garden, and 
is adorned with a statue of the Milanese poet Carlo Porta and an 
Italia by Puttinati. In the Piazza Cavour, outside the S.W. en- 
trance, rises a bronze statue of Cavour on a lofty pedestal of granite. 
Clio is represented in front registering his name in her tablets. 
The Villa Reale , a plain modern building in the Via Palestro, is 
the property of the crown-prince of Italy. 

In the Via Manin, to the W., is the Museo Civico (PI. 43) (ad- 
mission on Tues., Wed., and Sat. 11 — 3 o'clock, l/ 2 fr- ! ou Thurs. 
gratis), containing natural history collections : on the 1st floor 
palaeontology and ethnography (also a phrenological collection of 
skulls) ; on the 2nd floor zoology, comprising one of the finest collec- 
tions of reptiles in Europe, founded by the director Jan (d. 1866). 
At the entrance are busts of Jan and Cristoforis, former directors. 

The extensive new *Cemetery (Cimitero Monumentale), outside 
the Porta Garibaldi, already contains several handsome monuments. 

20. From Milan to Como. The Brianza. 

Railway from Milan to (28 M.) Camerlata in 1 1 J2 hr. ; fares 5 fr. 45, 4 fr., 
2 fr. 85 c. ; omnibus thence in 20 (in the reverse direction 35) min. to Como 
and the steamboats, 50 c. Through-tickets to Como, Tremezzina, Cade- 
nabbia, Bellaggio, Menaggio, and Colico are issued at the railway-station 
at Milan. 

The railway traverses a fertile plain , luxuriantly clothed with 
vineyards , mulberry-plantations , and fields of maize , and inter- 
sected by innumerable canals and cuttings for purposes of irri- 
gation. First stat. Sesto. 

(8 M.) Monza (*Palazzo Reale ; Angelo ; Falcone, *Albergo del 
Castello) is a town with 15,587 inhab. Leaving the station and 
following the Corso d'ltalia to the r., we reach the Cathedral, 
the chief object of interest. It was erected in the 14th cent, in 
the Lombard Gothic style on the site of a church founded in 595 
by the Lombard queen Theodolinda , and contains double aisles 
and transept, flanked with chapels on both sides. 

Interior. In the N. aisle the sarcophagus of Queen Theodolinda; in 
the B. transept reliefs of the 13th cent., supposed to represent the coro- 
nation of Emp. Otho III., or that of Henry III. — In a casket forming 
the centre of a richly decorated cross over the altar , r. of the choir , is 
preserved the celebrated Iron Crown, with which 34 Lombard kings were 
crowned. This venerable relic was last employed at the coronation of 
the Emp. Charles V., of Napoleon in 1805, and of Emp. Ferdinand I. in 
1838. It consists of a broad hoop of gold adorned with precious stones, 
round the interior of which is a thin strip of iron , said to have been 
made from a nail of the true Cross brought by the empress Helena from 
Palestine. In 1859 it was carried off by the Austrians, but after the peace 
of 1866 was restored to its former repository. — The Treasury contains 
several objects of historical interest: a hen with seven chickens in gold, 
representing Lombardy and its seven provinces , executed by order of 
Queen Theodolinda; the queen's crown, fan, and comb; two silver loaves, 
presented by Napoleon I. after his coronation ; the cross which was placed 

CANZO. 20. Route. 127 

on the breast of the Lombard kings at the moment of their coronation ; 
goblet of Berengarius ; diptychs (ivory tablets with reliefs), etc. ; then, in 
a cabinet outside the treasury , the mummy of one of the Visconti , who 
died in 1413. The treasury is shown for a fee of 1 fr. for 1 — 2 pers. ; it 
also contains a model of the iron crown. 

The Broletto, or town -hall, of the 13th cent., with round 
arched windows and tower, is believed to be part of a palace of 
the Emp. Frederick I. and the Lombard kings. The royal Summer 
Palace near Monza is a large building with an extensive and 
beautiful park , traversed by the Lambro. The church of the 
Madonna di Tirarto contains frescoes by Luini , Gaudenzio Ferrari, 
and Cesare da Sesto. 

From Monza to Lecco omnibus twice daily. (14 M.) Carsaniga; the 
beautiful hills of the Brianza to the 1. (see below) are studded with country- 
residences of the wealthy Milanese. A bridge constructed in the 14th 
cent, (see p. 136) crosses the Adda at its efflux from the Lake of Lecco. 
(14 M.) Lecco, see p. 136. 

The hilly tract which comes in view farther on, to the r. of the 
railway , is the fertile Brianza (see below) , with its numerous 
country-residences. The train passes through several tunnels and 
reaches stat. Desio, then Seregno, a town with 5000 inhab. 

To Bellaggio through the Brianza , a route strongly recommended 
to pedestrians , especially if they have seen the Lake of Como from the 
steamboat only. Seregno is a convenient starting-point, from which 
it is advisable to drive to Canzo (see below) , a distance of 16 M., and 
proceed thence on foot. At the station of Seregno carriages are generally 
in waiting to convey passengers to Canzo , fare 5 — 7 fr., but exorbitant 
demands are frequently made. An omnibus (3 fr.) runs in the morning 
daily, except Sundays, from Canzo to Seregno, returning in the evening ; 
travellers by this conveyance must therefore pass the night at Canzo, 
and will thus be enabled to start early next morning. The route from 
Canzo to Bellaggio is by a carriage-road, but the country being very 
hilly , walking is pleasanter than driving and almost as expeditious. 

The road from Seregno to Canzo intersects the W. side of the Brianza, 
an undulating, gra.ssy, partially wooded, and extremely fertile tract, 12 M. 
in length, 6,M. in breadth, extending between the Lambro and the Adda, 
and stretching N.E. to the vicinity of Lecco (p. 136). At Inverigo, about 
one-third of the way, rises»the ^Rotunda , a handsome and conspicuous 
country-seat with small park and admirably kept garden, the property 
of the Marchese Cagnola, situated on an eminence in the midst of vines, 
mulberry, and other fruit-trees, and commanding an extensive prospect. 

Where this road crosses that from Lecco to Como, near Erba (p. 129), 
several small lakes are situated , W. the Lago d^Alserio , E. the Logo di 
Pusiano. The road now enters a more mountainous district , and the sce- 
nery becomes more attractive. Caslino, possessing considerable silk-fac- 
tories (filatoje) , rises picturesquely on the slope of the hill. The road 
follows the course of the small river Lambro. 

Canzo (*Croce di Malta, the first house on the 1. ; a pleasant liqueur, 
called Vespetro , is manufactured at Canzo) , almost contiguous to Asso, 
l E f« M. beyond. At the entrance of Asso is a large silk-manufactory (Casa 

The road now gradually ascends for a considerable distance in the 
picturesque valley of the Lambro, the ValV Assina , the slopes of which 
are well wooded ; it passes through several villages , (2'|4 M.) Lasnigo, 
(2 l j4 M.) Barni, and Magreglio, where the ascent becomes more rapid ; first 
view of both arms of the Lake of Como from the eminence near the 
(1»| 4 M.) Chapel. 

Delightful # survey of the entire W. arm to Lecco and far beyond, 
from the rear of the first church of (i'J4 M.) Civenna , with its graceful 

128 Route 20. COMO. 

From Milan 

tower. The road now runs for 2'|i M. along the shady brow of the moun- 
tain which extends into the lake at Bellaggio ; beyond the chapel the 
following striking views are obtained: the W. arm of the lake (of Como), 
the Tremezzina with the Villa Carlotfa and Cadenabbia (p. 132) , the E. 
arm (Lake of Lecco) , a large portion of the road of the E. shore, the 
entire lake from the promontory of Bellaggio to Domaso (p. 135), and the 
rising ground with the Serbelloni park (p. 133). 

The road winds downwards for about 3 M., passing the Villa Oiulia 
(p. 134) on the r., and '^M. before Bellaggio is reached, the churchyard 
of that place , containing the monument of the painter Carlo Bellosio 
several of whose pictures are to be seen at Bellaggio. From Civenna to 
the hotels at Bellaggio on the lake (p. 132) 2 hrs. walk. 

A longer route, which will reward the pedestrian, is by the Monte 
S. Primo (5586 ft.). Ascent from Canzo with guide in 4 — 5 hrs. , descent 
to Bellaggio 2 1 |zhrs. Magnificent panorama from the summit, comprising 
the Brianza as far as Milan, the Lago Maggiore, Lago di Varese, the Lake 
of Como to the N. as far as the Alps from Monte Rosa to the Splugen. 

Farther on , beyond stat. Seregno , the long , indented Monte 
Resegone rises on the r. Stations Camnago , Cucciago. Above 
Camerlata [Caffi delta Stazione ed Albergo ; a good trattoria, oppo- 
site the post-office , near the station) rises the lofty old tower of 
the Castello Baradello , which was occasionally occupied by Fre- 
derick Barbarossa. The harbour of Como is 2 M. from the station 
at Camerlata ; omnibus thither in 20 min. (50 c). 

Diligence from Camerlata to Varese (p. 136) on the arrival of the 
trains from Milan ; on the arrival of the first train, also to Laveno (p. 144) 
on the Lago Maggiore, in 5 hrs. From the Corona (see below) omnibus (2 fr. 
10 c.) to Capolago (p. 138) in connection with the steamboat to Lugano. 
In the morning and evening, Swiss diligence (from the station at Camerlata) 
to Lugano (p. 138) in 3'|2 hrs., Bellinzona (p. 40) in T'/a hrs., Lucerne (over 
the St. Gotthard, R. 4) in 25'J2hrs., Coire (over the Bernardino, R. 6) in 
24'J2 hrs. (in the morning only) ; see p. 114. 

Como (705 ft. J (*Hotel Volta, formerly Angelo; Italia, R. from 2, 
L. »| 4 , B. l'|2, D. 4, A. 1 fr., both at the harbour; Corona, outside the Porta 
Milanese; Como; Cafi Cavour, near the quay; * Trattoria di Frasconi Confa- 
lonieri, at the end of the street leading straight from the harbour; Baths in 
the lake by the Giardino Pubblico, to the 1., outside the pier), with 20,614 
inhab., the birthplace of the elder Pliny and of the celebrated 
electrician and philosopher Volta (d. 1826; his Statue by P. Marchesi 
is on the "W. side of the town near the quay), lies at the S. end 
of the S. W. arm of the Lake of Como, and is enclosed by an amphi- 
theatre of mountains. 

The * Cathedral, begun in the Lombard Gothic style in 1396, 
and altered in the Renaissance style by Tommaso Rodari (choir, 
transept, outside of nave ) in 1513 — 21 , is built entirely of marble, 
and is one of the best in N. Italy. Over the portal reliefs (adora- 
tion of the Magi) and statuettes (Mary with S. Abbondio, St. Pro- 
tus, etc. ). At the sides of the principal entrance are statues of 
the elder and the younger Pliny, erected in 1498. 

Interior. The gaudy vaulting , restored in 1838 at an expense of 
600,000 fr. , destroys the effect of the fine proportions , which resemble 
those of the Certosa near Pavia (p. 153). The windows of the portal 
contain good modern stained glass, representing the history of S. Abbon- 
dio. To the r. on entering is the monument of Cardinal Tolomeo Oallio, 
a benefactor of the town , erected in 1861. Farther on , over the altar 

to Como. ERBA. 20. Route. 129 

of S. Abbondio on the r., the Adoration of the Magi, by Bern. Luini, and 
the Flight into Egypt , by Gaud. Ferrari. Over the altar of St. Jerome 
a Madonna by B. Luini. In the N. transept the Altare del Crocefisso of 
1498, with a fine statue of St. Sebastian. In the choir the Apostles , by 
Pompeo Marchesi. The sacristy contains pictures by Guido Reni , Paolo 
Veronese, etc. In the 1. aisle the altar of the Mater Dolorosa with an 
Entombment by Tommaso Rodari (1498). At the altar di S. Giuseppe : 
G. Fe/'rari, Nuptials of the Virgin, in style resembling Raphael ; B. Luini, 
Nativity ; St. Joseph , a statue by P. Marchesi , and a basrelief below, 
the last work of this master ; at the entrance the busts of Pope Inno- 
cent XI. (Odescalchi) and Carlo Ravelli, bishop of Como. 

Adjoining is the Town Hall (Broletto) , completed 
in 1215, constructed of alternate layers of different-coloured stones. 
Behind the cathedral is the handsome Theatre, erected in 1813. 
The old church of S. Fedele, of the 10th cent., is in a remote part 
of the town. The Porta del Torre , a massive five-storeyed struc- 
ture, is also worthy of note. Extensive silk manufactories. 

On the promenade outside the town is the church Del Cro- 
cefisso , richly decorated with marble and gold, of the 17th cent.; 
beyond it, to the 1., on the slope of the mountain about 1 M. from 
the town, is the fine old Basilica S. Abbondio of the 11th cent. ; 
iron foundries in the vicinity. 

Walk on the E. bank of the lake. Two roads lead from Como along 
the slopes on the E. bank. The lower passes several hamlets and villas. 
The upper (after 40 min.) affords a view of magnificent snow-mountains 
towards the W., and leads by Gapo-Vico, Sopra-Villa, and Cazzanore (all 
in the parish of Blevio), leaving the Villa Pliniana (p. 131) far below, to 
(3 M.) Riva di Palanzo (osteria on the lake), whence the traveller may 
cross to the steamboat-station Carate on the opposite bank. Or the walk 
may be shortened by descending at (2'|2 hrs.) l'orno (steamboat-station). 

Fbom Como to Eeba and Lecco, diligence daily in 3 hrs. (steamer 
see p. 130). The road quits Como by the Porta Milanese and ascends the 
hills to the E. The view of the lake is concealed by the beautifully 
wooded Monte S. Maurizio; to the S. a survey is obtained of the district 
towards Milan and the Brianza (see p. 127). The church of Camnago , a 
village situated N. of the road , contains the tomb of Volta (see above). 
Farther on, S. of the road is the sharp ridge of Montorfano near a small 
lake. Near Cassano is a turious leaning campanile. Beyond Albesio a 
view is disclosed of the plain of Erba (Pian d'Erba) and the lakes of 
Alserio , Pusiano , and Annone, above which the Corni di Canzo (4512 ft.) 
and the Resegone di Lecco (6161 ft.) rise on the E. 

Near (lO 1 ^ M.) Erba (1017 ft.) (Inn), a small town in the luxuriantly 
fertile 'Pian d'Erba' district, are several handsome villas ; the Villa Amalia 
on the W. side commands a charming view of the Brianza. Near Incino, 
with its lofty Lombard campanile , once stood the Forum Licini of the 
Romans, mentioned by Pliny together with Como and Bergamo. 

Before the road crosses the Lambro, which is here conducted by an 
artificial channel to the Lago di Pusiano, the road to stat. Seregno (p. 128) 
diverges to the r. , that to Bellaggio to the 1. (see p. 128). Penzano on 
the N. bank of the Lago di Pusiano is next reached, then Pusiano itself. 
Beautiful glimpse to the N. of the ValV Assina (p. 127) and of the Corni 
di Canzo, and of the Brianza to the S. Near Civate is the double Lago 
a" 1 Annone (E. rises the Resegone di Lecco) , connected by the Ritorlo 
which the road follows , with the Lake of Lecco. The latter is reached 
at Malgraie, on the W. bank, with numerous silk-factories. Opposite to 
it lies Lecco (p. 136). 

B.iiDKKEn. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 


21. Lake of Como. 

Flan of Excursion. The most beautiful point on the Lake of Como is 
Bellaggio (p. 132), which is admirably situated for a stay of several days 
and for short excursions. — The Lakes of Como and Lugano (p. 138) and 
the Lago Maggiore (p. 142) may be visited from Milan most expeditiously 
as follows : train at 10. 50 a. m. in 2 hrs. to Como (Cathedral) ; proceed 
by steamboat at 1. 15 p. m. in l 1 )? hr. to Cadenabbia or Bellaggio, and spend 
the night there. In the evening and next morning visit Villa Carlotta, 
SerbelJoni , and Melzi ; by steamboat in '|4 hr., or by rowing-boat, to 
Menaggio ; thence by omnibus at 11 a. m. (fare 2 l |2 fr.) in 2 hrs. to Por- 
lezza , in time for the steamboat which starts for Lugano at 1. 15 p. m. 
(Sund. and Tuesd. excepted), arriving in 1 hr. (2 fr. or lfr.), early enough 
to leave time for the ascent of Monte S. Salvatore. From Lugano dili- 
gence to Luino at 9 a. m. in 2 3 j4 hrs., steamboat from Luino in l l j2 hr. to 
the Borromean Islands , thence in 1 hr. to Arona. 

Steamboat 5 times daily from Como to Colico in 3'-f2 hrs. •, from Colico 
to Lecco (railway to Bergamo) once daily (at 4'|2 a. m., returning at 2 p. 
m.) (fares from Como to Colico 4 fr. or 2 fr. 10 c, from Como to Caden- 
abbia or Bellaggio 2 fr. 55 or 1 i'r. 40 c). Two societies; the new 'Piro- 
scafi-Salon* are more elegantly fitted up, while the post-steamers of the 
Socield Lariana are more convenient for procuring diligence-tickets (through 
tickets available for the latter only). Stations: Cernobbio, Moltrasio, 
Torno, Carate, Palanzo e Pognana, Torriggia, iVesso, Argegno, fiala, Campo, 
Lezzeno, Lenno , Tremezzo, Cadenabbia (pier) , Bellaggio (pier) , Menaggio 
(pier) , Varenna , Bellano, Rezzonico, Dervio, Cremia, Bongo, Gravedona, 
Domaso, Colico; tickets (gratis) for the ferry-boats attached to the steam- 
boat-tickets. Between Cadenabbia, or Menaggio, and Bellaggio, the steam- 
boat is the cheapest conveyance , especially for single travellers. Those 
who embark at intermediate stations between Como and Colico must pro- 
cure a ticket at the pier ; otherwise they are liable to be charged for the 
whole distance from Como or Colico. 

Rowing-boats (barca). First hour l'|2 fr. for each rower, each addi- 
tional hour 1 fr. each rower. From Bellaggio to Cadenabbia and back (or 
vice-versa) 3, with 2 rowers 4 fr. ; Bellaggio-Meniiggio and back 4 fr. •, Bel- 
laggio- Varenna and back 4 fr. ; Bellaggio, Villa Melzi, Villa Carlotta, 
and back with two rowers 8 fr. — One rower suffices , unless the tra- 
veller is pressed for time; a second may be dismissed with the words 'basta 
uno ! 1 When travellers are not numerous , the boatmen readily reduce 
their demands. In making a bargain the following question may be put : 
Qttanto volete per una corsa d'nn ova (di due ore)? Siamo due (Ire, qnallro) 
persone. E troppo , vi darb un franco (due franc/n, etc). In addition to 
the fare , it is usual to give a 'buonamano' of 1 )z fr. or 1 fr. according to 
the length of the excursion. 

The Lake of Como (699 ft.), Italian Lago di Como or 11 Lario, 
the Lacus Larius of the ltomans , is extolled by Virgil (Georg. II. 
159), and is in the estimation of many the most beautiful lake in 
N. Italy. Length from Como to the N. extremity 30 M., from the 
Punta di Bellaggio (p. 134) to Lecco 12 2 / s M.; greatest width be- 
tween Menaggio and Varenna 'l^U M. ; greatest depth 1929 ft. 

Numerous gay villas of the Milanese aristocracy, surrounded by luxuri- 
ant gardens and vineyards, are scattered along the banks of the lake. In 
the forests above, the brilliant green of the chestnut and walnut contrasts 
strongly wilh the greyish tints of the olive, which to the unaccustomed 
eye bears a strong resemblance to the willow. The mountains rise to a 
height of 7000 ft. The scenery of the lake, as seen from the deck of the 
steamboat, though on a far grander scale, faintly resembles that of the 
Rhine, the banks on both sides being perfectly distinguishable by the 
traveller. At Bellaggio (p. 132) the lake divides into two branches, 
termed respectively the Lakes of Como and Lecco. The Adda enters at 
the upper extremity and makes its egress near Lecco. The W. arm , or 

t> armst adi . EdTVVafrner. 



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English miles. 


21. Route. 131 

Lake of Como, has no outlet. — The inhabitants of the banks of the lake 
are of an industrial character, being principally occupied in the production 
and manufacture of silk. — The Lams Larius derives a classic interest 
from its connection with the two Plinies , natives of Como , the elder 
of whom prosecuted his philosophical researches in the surrounding dis- 
trict. — The lake abounds in fish, and trout of 20 lbs. weight are occasion- 
ally captured. The 'Agoni' are small, but palatable. 

The prospect from the quay at Como is limited , but as soon as 
the steamer has passed the first promontory on the E. the beauty 
of the lake is disclosed to the view. 

Lake o 

Western Bank. 

Villa Raimondi, formerly Odes- 
calchi, the largest on the lake, is 
situated at Borgo Vico, theN.W. 
suburb of Como. Villa rt'Este 
(now *H6tel Reine d' Angleterre), 
was for a considerable time the 
residence of Queen Caroline (d. 
1821), the unfortunate consort 
of George IV. — Villa Pizzo. 

Villa Passalacqua , with its 
numerous windows, resembles a 

Near Moltrasio is a picturesque 
waterfall. Then Carate, withthe 
Monte Bisbino (4390 ft.) in the 
background. — Villa Colobiano, 
a green and red building. The 
lofty pyramid, with the inscrip- 
tion 'Joseph Frank' and a me- 
dallion, was erected to the me- 
mory of a professor of Pavia of 
that name (d. 1851), grandson 
of the celebrated physician Peter 
FTank of Vienna, at a cost of 
25,000 fr. bequeathed by the de- 
ceased for this purpose. — Laglio, 
with Villa Oaggi, now Antongina. 

Villa Galbiati , completed in 
1855, gaily painted ; then Tor- 
riggia. Brienno is embosomed 
in laurels. 

f Como. 

Eastern Bank. 
Villa Napoli , a castellated 
edifice ; Villa Taglioni , with a 
Swiss cottage, formerly the pro- 
perty of the famous danseuse, 
now belonging to her son-in-law 
Prince Trubetzkoi; Villa Pasta 
was the residence of the cele- 
brated singer (d. 1865); Villa 
Taverna, formerly Faroni. 

Torno is surrounded by villas. 

Villa Pliniana at the end of 
the bay , at the entrance of a 
narrow gorge , a gloomy square 
edifice, erected in 1570 by Count 
Anguissola, one of the four con- 
spirators who assassinated Duke 
Farnese at Piacenza , now the 
property of the princess Belgio- 
joso, whose name figured so con- 
spicuously in the disturbances 
of 1848. It derives its name of 
Pliniana from a neighbouring 
spring which daily changes its 
level , a peculiarity mentioned 
by Pliny. Extracts from his 
works (Epist. IV. 30, Hist. Nat. 
II. 206) are inscribed on the 
walls of the court. 

Quarsano and Careno. 

Nesso, at the foot of the Piano 
del Tivano (3742 ft,), Nesso So- 
pra, and Nesso Sotto; near the 

132 Route 21. 



Western Bank. 

Argegno, at the mouth of the 
Intel ri Valley. 

Sata, with the small island of 
S. Giovanni, or Coniacina , fre- 
quently mentioned in the annals 
of mediaeval warfare, once forti- 
fied, and now occupied by a small 

Campo lies in a bay formed by 
the promontory of Lavedo, which 
here projects far into the lake. 
On its extremity glitters the Villa 
Balbianello, with its colonnade, 
the property of Count Arcomati. 

Tremezzo (Albergo Bazzoni) is 
almost contiguous to Cadenabbia ; 
between the two places stands 
the Villa Carlotta. This district, 
termed the Tremezzina, is not in- 
aptly called the garden of Lom- 

Cadenabbia {ch de navi, 'ship- 
houses') C*Bellevi'k, R. 3, D. 4'| a , B. 
1>| 2 , L. and A. 1 fr. ; Ville de Milan, 
formerly Pension Majolica , pension 
0— Sir. ; +Belle Ii.e ; C'affi Lurei- 
zari), halfway between Como 
and Colico. In a garden sloping 
down to the lake, in the midst 
of lemon and citron trees, stands 
the celebrated *Villa Carlotta, 
or Sommarira, from the Count of 
that name to whom it formerly 
belonged. In 1843 it came into 
the possession of Princess Albert 
of Prussia, from whose daughter 
Charlotte (A. 1855) it derives its 
present appellation. The wid- 
ower of the latter, Duke George 
of Saxe-Meiningen, is the pre- 
sent proprietor. Visitors ring at 
the entrance to the garden and 
ascend the broad flight of steps, 

Eastern Bank. 
latter in a rocky gorge is a water- 
fall of considerable height, fre- 
quently dry in summer. 

Near Lezzeno is one of the 
deepest parts of the lake. 

Villa Besenna. 

S. Giovanni, with the Villa 

Villa Poldi, bearing the family 
name of the Gonzagas , contains 
the mausoleum of the last of the 
race, in the form of a round Ro- 
manesque temple. Fine view. 

Villa Melzi, see below. 

Bellaggio (708 ft.) [+urande 
Bretaone, with the dependance 
Hotel-Pension Villa Seebelloni; 
Grand Hotel Bellaggio (formerly 
Villa Frizzoni) ; *Genazzini, R. 2 l / a , 
D. 4'jj fr., pension 7 — lOfr. and up- 
wards according to bargain •, Hotel 
et Pension Suisse; Hotel Florence, 
moderate , pension 5 fr. ; boats , see 
p. 130), at the W. base of the 
promontory which separates the 
two arms of the lake, perhaps 
the most delightful point on 
any of the lakes of Upper 
Italy. To the 1., close to the 
steamboat-pier , is situated the 
Villa Frizzoni (now a hotel, see 
above). — About l j-> M. to 
the S. of the village is the *Villa 
Melzi , erected by Albertotli for 
Count Melzi d'Erile , who was 
vice-president of the Italian Re- 
public under Napoleon in 18U'2. 

of Como. 


27. Route. 133 

Western Bank. 
where they are received by the 
iutendant (1 fr. , more for a 

Interior. The Marble Hall con- 
tains a frieze decorated with cele- 
brated **reliefs by Thorvaldsen, re- 
presenting the Triumph of Alexan- 
der (for which a sum of nearly 
375,000 fr. was once paid by Count 
Sommariva) ; also -several statues 
by Canova (Cupid and Psyche, Magda- 
lene, Palamedes, Venus); Paris by 
Fontana ; bust of Count Sommariva ; 
Mars and Venus, by Acquisti; Cupid 
giving water to pigeons, by Bien- 
aimi, etc. — The Billiard Boom 
contains casts, and a small frieze 
in marble on the chimney-piece 
representing a Bacchanalian pro- 
cession , said to be an early work 
of Thorvaldsen. — In the Garden 
Saloon several modern pictures (Ha- 
gar , Romeo and Juliet ; Sordon, 
Athalie; Vicar, Virgil), and a marble 
relief of Napoleon as consul, by 

The Garden (attendant '^ fr.), 
although less richly stocked than 
those of Melzi and Serbelloni, may 
also be visited; pleasant view to- 
wards Bellaggio. 

Behind the 'Milan' hotel rises 
a rock, II Sasso S. Martino, on 
which stands a small church, 
Madonna di S. Martino, com- 
manding a beautiful view; ascent 
1 l /% nr - » P^h destroyed -by tor- 
rents at places. — The Monte 
Crocione, a more lofty mountain 
to the W., commands a striking 
view of the Monte Rosa chain, 
the Bernese Alps and Mont Blanc, 
the lakes and the plain of Lom- 
bardy (a fatiguing ascent of 6 — 7 
hrs. ; guide 5 fr. ; in order to 
avoid the heat the traveller shoul d 
start at 2 or 3 a. m.). 

Eastern Bank. 
and afterwards Duke of Lodi. It 
now belongs to his grandson the 
Duca di Melzi, and is not less 
attractive than the Villa Car- 
lotta (attendant 1 fr., moTe for 
a party). 

Interior. In the vestibule, co- 
pies of ancient busts in marble by 
Canova; bust of the present pro- 
prietor by Vela ; statue of the son 
of the duca, by Pestina ; David, 
by Fraccaroli; Innocence, by Pan- 
diani, etc. — The walls of the 
following rooms are embellished 
with appropriate frescoes. In the 
2nd Room a bust of Michael An- 
gelo by Canova. 3rd R. : Bust of 
Michael Angelo by himself; Ma- 
donna by Bern. Luini. 4th R. : Co- 
molli, Eugene Beauharnais, vice- 
roy of Italy; Appiani, Napoleon I. 
as president of the Italian Republic. 
5th R. Ceiling frescoes by Boui, 
representing Parnassus ; statuettes 
by Marchesi ; chimney piece by Thor- 
valdsen with medallion-portraits of 
celebrated Italians. 5th R. (Flower- 
Room) : Canova, Bacchante. 

The *Garden (attendant >| 2 fr.) 
exhibits all the luxuriance and fra- 
grance of southern vegetation (magni- 
ficent magnolias, camellias, cedars, 
Chinese pines, gigantic aloes, etc.). 
— The Chapel contains monuments 
in marble to the two former pro- 
prietors , and to the mother of the 
present duke, by Nessi. — In an- 
other part of the garden , Dante 
and Beatrice , by Comolli ; colossal 
busts of Madame Laetitia , mother 
of Napoleon I., and the empress 
Josephine, by Canova. 

Higher up stands the *Villa 
Serbelloni (Hotel and Pension, 
see above), the park of which 
commands an exquisite view, 
probably the finest on the lake 
(admission '/i fr.). Charming 
glimpses of Varenna, Villa Bal- 
bianello, Carlotta, etc. — The 
belvedere of the Villa Belmonte, 
the property of an Englishman, 
commands another fine view (ad- 
mission 1/2 fr.). — A little to 
the S., in the direction of the 

134 Route 21. 



Western Bank. ; Eastern Bank. 

Lake of Lecco, is the Villa Giu- 
lia, the property of CountBlome. 

— Kxcursion to Monte 8. Prima, 
see p. 128. 

Here , at the Puntu di Bellmigio , the two arms of the lake, 
termed the Lago di Como and the Lugo di Lecco (p. 135 ), unite. 

Menaggio (*Vittoria, beauti- 
fully situated, new ; Corona) pos- 
sesses an extensive silk manu- 
factory, to which visitors are ad- 
mitted. On the lake , S. of the 
village, the handsome Villa My- 
lius. A road leads hence to Por- 
lezza on the Lake of Lugano 
(9 M. ; omnibus daily at 11 a. m., 
see p. 130). On an eminence 
( [ /o hr.), near the church of 
Loveno (*Inn), stands the Villa 
Vigoni (*view) , formerly the 
property of Herr Mylius of 
Frankfort , a liberal patron of 
the fine arts (d. 1845), and the 
benefactor of the whole neigh- 
bourhood, as the monuments to 
his memory testify. The villa 
contains some admirable works 
in marble (Eve, Jesus in the 
temple, the Finding of Moses, 
Ruth) by modern Italian sculp- 
tors, reliefs by Thorvaldsen (Ne- 
mesis, in the temple, erected by 
Herr Mylius to his son's memory) 
and Marchesi; in the garden- 
saloon a *gronp by Aryenti, the 
proprietress with her children. 

The steamer next passes a 
wild , yellowish-brown cliff , // 
Sasso Ranch ( 'the orange-rock'), 
which is traversed by a dange- 
rous footpath. This route was 
undertaken in 1799 by the Rus- 
sians under General Bellegarde, 
on which occasion many lives 
were lo-t. 

Varenna (*Albergo Reale) is 
charmingly situated. Tn the vici- 
nity, especially towards the N., 
some remarkable galleries have 
been hewn in the rock for the 
passage of the road. Most of 
the marble quarried in the neigh- 
bourhood is cut and polished in 
the town. 

About 3/ 4 M. to the S. of Va- 
renna the Fiume Latte ("milk 
brook', from its colour) is preci- 
pitated in several leaps from a 
height of 1000 ft. , forming an 
imposing cascade in spring. 

The Torre di Vezio, a ruin on 
the hill above, commands a noble 

Gittana is the station for the 
hydropathic establishment of Re- 
goledo (pension 6 ft., baths, etc. 
2 fr.), situated 500 ft. above the 
lake ; donkey from Gittana to 
Regoledo 1 fr.. horse or litter 
2 fr. 

of Como. 


21. Route. 135 

Western Bank. 

S. Abbondio is the next village. 

Rezzonico ( Raetionicum) , with 
the picturesque ruins of a for- 
tress of the 13th cent. 

Eastern Bank. 

Bellano lies at the base of 
Monte Grigna (7254 ft. J, at the 
mouth of the Pioverna, the val- 
ley of which extends to the 
neighbourhood of Lecco , and 
contains flourishing iron-works. 

Dervio, at the mouth of the 
Varrone, is situated at the base 
of the abrupt Monte Legnone 
(8566 ft.) and its spur Monte 
Legnoncino (4951 ft.). Corenno 
and Dorio are the following vil- 

Cremia with handsome church ; 
then Pianello. 

On rocks rising precipitously 
above Musso are situated the 
ruins of the Castle of Musso, the 
count of which after the battle 
of Pavia (1525) established an 
independent principality , em- 
bracing the entire Lake of Como. 
Then Dongo, with a monastery. 
Above it, on the height to the 
r., lies Oarzeno, whence a some- 
what neglected path crosses the 
Passo Jorio to Bellinzona. 

Oravedona (Albergo del Sasso), 
the most populous village on the 
lake , is picturesquely situated 
at the entrance of a gorge. The 
handsome villa with four towers 
at the upper end was built by 
the Milanese Cardinal Gallio. 
The church , dating from the 
13th cent. , contains two Christian 
inscriptions of the 5th cent. 

Domaso ( Inn ) , charmingly 
situated, possesses several hand- 
some villas, particularly iheVilla 
Calderara and Villa Lasquez. 

From Colico to Chiavenna Swiss diligence (also an omnibus, 2'(2fr.) 
twice daily in 3 hrs. ; thence daily (twice in summer) over the Spliigen 
to Coire (R. 5) in 13' | 2 hrs. 

From Colico to Sondrio in the Valtellina diligence twice daily in 5 
hrs., also an omnibus (coinp. p. 47). 

Colico [Isola Bella ; Angela ; 
both in the Italian style ; *Re- 
staurant on the lake adjoining 
the former), comp. p. 45. The 
Monte Legnone, mentioned above, 
may be ascended hence without 
difficulty in 7 — 8 hrs. 

Lake of Lecco. 

From Bellaggio to Lecco and back steamboat daily (at lO 1 ^ a. m., 
returning at 8 l |2 a. m.), see p. 130. 

The S. E. arm of the Lake of Como is worthy of a visit, although 
inferior in attraction to the other parts. Lecco is charmingly situated. 
The precipitous and formerly almost inaccessible E. bank of the lake is 
traversed by a road constructed in 1832 and carried along the rocks at 
places with the aid of embankments, tunnels, and galleries. Three of the 

136 Route :>1. LECCO. 

latter near Ohio are together 1000 yds. in length. It affords admirable 
views of the lake. 

The steamboat roimds the Punta di Bellaggio ; on the height 
above is situated the garden of the Villa Serbelloni , and adjoining 
it the Villa G'iulin and the village of Visgnola. Then Limonta, 
and opp. to it (1.) Lierna and Sornico, (r.) Onno, (1.) Olcio , then 
Mandello on a flat promontory. On the opposite bank (r.) lies the 
small town of Pare , separated from Malgrate by the promontory of 
S. Dionigio. Malgrate itself lies at the entrance of the Val Ma- 
drera, through which a road to Como leads by Erba (p. 129). The 
lake gradually contracts into the river Adda, by which it is drained, 
and is crossed by the Ponte Orande , a stone bridge of ten arches, 
constructed in 1335 by Azzone Yisconti, and furnished with fortified 
towers at the extremities. Fine view of the town from the bridge. 

Lecco [Albergo d' Italia; *Croce di Malta; Leone d'Oro ; .Co- 
rona ; all very Italian), an industrial town with 8000 inhab. and 
silk, cotton, and iron manufactories, situated at the S. end of the 
E. arm of the Lake of Como , is admirably described in Manzoni's 
'I Promessi Sposi'. Pleasant walks to the hill of Castello and the 
pilgrimage-church on the Monte Baro (view of the Brianza). 

A little below Lecco the Adda again expands into the Logo di Garlate, 
and further down, into the small Logo di Olgirate. A navigable canal 
connects Trezzo with Milan. — From Lecco to Milan railway by Bergamo 
in 3 hrs., see p. 157. 

22. From the Lake of Como to the Lake of Lugano 
and the Lago Maggiore. 

1. From Como to Laveno direct. 

30 M. The road traverses a beautiful district of Lombardy, command- 
ing views of several lakes, nf Monte Rosa and the Simplon chain, and of 
other high mountains. One-horse carr. from Como to. Laveno 20, two- 
horse 30 fr. ; a drive of about 6 hrs. Diligences and omnibus, see p. 128. 

The road ascends through the long S. suburb of 8. Barto- 
lotnmeo, skirts the base of an eminence surmounted by the ruins 
of the Castello Baradello (p. 128), and leads to Camerlata (p. 128), 
station of the railway for Milan. It then turns E. to Rebbio, 
Luc.ino, and Lurate Abbate, traversing a luxuriantly fertile district 
containing: numerous villas of the Milanese aristocracy. At Olgiate 
the road attains its culminating point (900 ft. above the Lake of 
Como), whence a view of the Alps is obtained; through the deep 
opening to the N., which indicates the situation of the Lake of 
Lugano, the chapel on the Monte S. Salvatore (p. 140) near Lu- 
gano is visible. The road next passes the villages of Solbiate and 
Binago, descends rapidly by Malnate, and crosses the Lanza, near 
its influx into the Olona, which after a farther course of 30 M. 
washes the walls of Milan. 

Varese ( Angelo ; *Stella ; "'Corona; Leone d'Oro, starting point 
of the diligences), a wealthy town halfway between Como and 

MENDRISIO. 22. Route. 137 

Laveno , is often visited in summer by the wealthy Milanese , who 
possess villas in the environs. S. Vittore, the principal church, 
contains a St. George by Crespi and a Magdalene by Morazzone. 
A diligence runs daily from Varese to Marchirolo, Ponte Tresa 
(p. 141), and Porto (Morcote, p. 142), fare l'/o fr. ; also to Luino 

(p. 144), li/ 2 ft- 

Fkom Vakese to Milan (37'|'j M.) by railway in 2'|4 hrs. (fares 7 fr. 
30, 5 fr. 35, 3 fr. 80 c). Stations Gazzada, Albizzate, Oallarate; from the 
latter to Milan, see p. 147. 

The road to L»veno leads by Masnago (1 hr. to the N. is the 
Madonna del Monte, p. 142) and Cosciago, and ascends to Luinate, 
whence a beautiful view S. W. is obtained of the Lake of Varese 
and the small adjacent Lake of Biandrone, also of the farther 
distant lakes of Monate and Comabbio. The next village is Bar- 
rasso, then Comerio (about 950 ft. above the lake), with a number 
of pleasant villas, whence the road, passing near the N.W. 
extremity of the Lago di Varese , gradually descends to Gavirate. 
In the vicinity of the latter are quarries of the 'marmo majolica', 
a species of marble used for decorative purposes. For a short 
distance the road commands a view of Monte Rosa. Cocquio and 
Uemonio are situated r. of the road. Farther on, the Boesio, 
which flows through the Vol Cuvio, is crossed, and, beyond Cittiglio, 
its r. bank skirted. The road then leads past the S. base of the 
Sasso del Ferro to 

Laveno (p. 144), where the steamboats do not always touch, 
comp. p. 142. Small boat to the Borromean Islands and Pallanza 
with 3 rowers 10 — 12 fr. ; to Isola Bella 1 i/ 2 hr. , thence to Isola 
Madre in 20 min., to Pallanza in 20 min. more. 

2. From Como to Luino by Lugano. 

To Lugano 10 M., to Luiao 12 M. more. Swiss diligence from Cainer- 
lata to Lugano twice daily in 3'|2 hrs., from Lugano to Luino once daily 
in 2 3 |< hrs. — Omnibus from Como to Capolago see p. 128. Steamer from 
Capolago to Lugano see p. 138. On re entering the Italian dominions (at 
Fornasette, p. 141) from the Canton of Ticino the formalities of the 
custom-house must be undergone. 

The road leads through Borgo Vico, the W. suburb of Como, 
and ascends the Monte Olimpino, commanding charming retrospects 
of the lake, Como, the Villa Raimondi (p. 131), etc., above which 
the Corni di Canzo rise on the 1. and the rocky eminence crowned 
with the Castello Baradello on the right. Ponte Chiasso is the Italian 
frontier custom-house for travellers from Switzerland. Chiasso 
(900 ft.) (Angelo, or Posta) is the first Swiss village ; then (1 1 /. 2 M.) 
Balerno and (IV2 M -) 

Mendrisio (1191 ft.) (*H6tel Mendrisio, R. 2i/ 2 , B. li/ 2 , L. and 
A. 1 fr. ; Angelo), a small town with 2337 inhab., in a luxuriantly 
fertile district, with large wine-cellars and a handsome hospital. 

*Monte Generoso (5561 ft.) (Monte Gionnero , or Monte Calvaggione), 
the Rigi of Italian Switzerland , is frequently ascended from Mendrisio 

1 38 Route 22. LAKE OF LUGANO. From Coma 

(where horses and guides may be hired, the latter unnecessary) in 4 lirs. 
The bridle-path, passing the wine-cellars of the village of Salorino, ascends 
in zigzags (pedestrians may go through Salorino and follow the te'egraph- 
wires) to a dale, at the upper extremity of which (l'J4 hr., halfway to 
the hotel) there is a spring in the rock, and a hut where refreshments 
are sold. The path then leads through a grove of chestnuts, and farther 
on through a beech-wood to the (l 1 ^ hr.) *Hdtel du Giniroso (R. 2'| 2 , A. 
•Jz, L. i|j, D. 4 fr. ; post and telegraph offices), the property of Dr. Pasta 
of Mendrisio, a comfortable house and well adapted for a prolonged stay. 
'It hr. farther, beyond the ridge, are the chalets of Cassina where a fine 
breed of cattle are reared. From the hotel to the hut on the summit a steep 
ascent of VJ2 hr., past several peaks of the flencroso. The *view embraces 
the lakes of Lugano, Como, Varese, and the Lago Maggiore, the populous 
plains ofLombardy, and to the N. the entire Alpine chain from the Monte 
Viso to the Bernina. At the foot of the mountain, figs and grapes thrive 
luxuriantly; higher up are dense forests of chestnuts and beeches, and 
beyond these, broom and scanty herbage. The mountain abounds in rare 
plants. — The Monte Generoso may also be ascended from Maroggia (see 
below); pleasant bridle-path by Rovio (where horses and guides may be 
hired) to the top in 4 hrs.; or from Balerna (see above) by Muggio (to 
which there is a carriage-road) and Scudelatte to the summit in 4 — 4>| 2 hrs. 

At Capolago (Inn on the lake) the road reaches the '"Lake of 
Lugano, or Lago Ceresio (892 ft.), the scenery of which is little 
inferior to that of its more celebrated neighbours Como and Mag- 
giore. In the vicinity of Lugano the banks are picturesquely 
studded with villas and chapels, and planted with the vine, fig, 
olive, and walnut. The W. side of the S. arm also presents 
several delightful points of view. On the N. bank, Gandria with its 
terraced gardens (on lofty arcades) and vineyards is charmingly situ- 
ated at the base of Monte Bre. Beyond this point the lake assumes 
a wilder character. The rocks are so abrupt in some places that 
scarcely sufficient space is left for the footpath at their base. At the 
N. extremity of this bay Porlezza (p. 142), a harbour and seat of the 
Italian custom-house, is situated. Small boat to Lugano 10 — 12 fr. 

Beyond Capolago the road , commanding a succession of beau- 
tiful views, leads on the E. bank of the lake by Melano and Ma- 
roggia to Bissone , where it crosses the lake by means of an un- 
sightly stone dyke, Y2 M. in length , 26 ft. in width, completed in 
1846 at a cost of 700,000 fr. Each end of this structure is 
provided with an arch. The road then passes Melide , on a pro- 
montory opposite Bissone, and skirts the lake, passing the E. base 
of Monte S. Saloatore (p. 140). The white dolomite, of which the 
mountains chiefly consist here, changes near Melide to dark 
porphyry, and as S. Martino is approached, there is a gradual 
transition to shell-limestone. Lugano does not come in view until 
the road turns round the X. base of Monte S. Salvatore , where 
the striking beauty of the situation at once becomes apparent. 

Lugano. Hotels. *Hotel du Paec, in the suppressed monastery of S. 
Maria degli Angioli, on the S. side of the town, with a pleasant garden 
and a de"pendance called the Belvedere du Paec on the lake (comp. 
also the Villa Vasalli, p. 140), R. 2'| 2 — 5, L. »| 4 , B. l»/ 2 , D. 4% 
A. 1 fr. ; pension in summer 6 — 9 fr. , in winter 5'| 2 — 6 fr. ; *H6tel 
Washij.gton , in the old government buildings, R. 2 1 | 2 , D. 4 fr. ; *Grand 

to Luino. LUGANO. 22. Route. 139 

Hotel Suisse; Hotel de la Couronne, tolerable, but without view • 
*Bellevue, new, R. 2, B. 2, D. 4, L. and A. 1 3 |« fr. — Post and Tele- 
graph, Office at the Gov. Buildings (see below). 

Restaurants. Concordia and Americana, both on the lake; Cufi p e . 
riiii, Jacchini, and del Teairo in the Piazza della Rifornia, at the back of 
the Hotel Washington. 

Lake Baths of the Societa Salvaloie adjoining the Hotel Bellevue, and 
Bagni Oalleggianti by the Hotel du Pare (for swimmers, 1 fr. with towels). 

Diligence to Luino (p. 144) once daily in 2'|2 hrs., coupe 1 3 fr. 60, in- 
te>ieur 2 fr. 90 c. ; steamboat-tickets for Lago Maggiore are also issued at 
the office (two-horse carr. 20, one-horse 12 fr., incl. fee); to Lucerne by 
the St. Gotthard twice daily; to Coire by the Bernardino once daily; to 
Camerlata twice daily. 

Steamboat to Capolago 1 fr. or 60 c. ; to Porlezza 2 ] |2 or 1 fr. 

Boats to Porlezza (p. 142) with one rower 7 fr., two 12 fr., three 
W\v fr. ; to Capolago 6, 10, or 12 fr., incl. fee. 

.Carriages. To Luino with one horse 10, two horse 20 fr., Bellinzona 
16 or 30, Magadino 16 or 30, Coino 15 or 25, Camerlata 16 or 30, Varese 16 
or 30, Baveno 22 or 40, Fliielen with two horses 140 fr. (driver's fee extra). 

English Church Service at the Hotel du Pare. 

Lugano (932 ft.), the capital of the canton of Ticino, with 
6024 inhab., is charmingly situated on the lake of the same name 
and enjoys quite an Italian climate (the aloe blooming here in the 
open air). It is a very pleasant place for a lengthened stay ; the 
environs possess all the charms of Italian mountain scenery ; nu- 
merous villages and country-seats are scattered along the margin 
of the lake , and the lower hills are covered with vineyards and 
gardens, contrasting beautifully with the dark foliage of the chest- 
nuts and walnuts in the background. To the S., immediately ab- 
ove the town , rises Monte S. Salvatore , wooded to its summit (p. 
140) ; among the mountains towards the N. the double peak ol 
Monte Camoghe (p. 45) is conspicuous. 

The interior of the town with its arcades, workshops in the 
open air , and granite-paved streets, is also thoroughly Italian in 
character. On market-day (Tuesday) a variety of picturesque 
Italian costumes may be observed here. 

The once numerous monasteries of Lugano were suppressed be- 
tween 1848 and 1853, with the exception of two. The most impor- 
tant was that of iS. Maria degli Angioli , now the Hotel du Pare. 
The adjacent church contains three Frescoes by Luini, the *Cruci- 
tlxion, one of his finest works, the Last Supper (on the 1. wall) in 
three sections , formerly preserved at the Lyceum, and a Madonna 
(1st chapel on the r.). — S. Lorenzo, the principal church, on an 
eminence (fine view from the terrace), probably erected by Tom- 
maso Rodari at the end of the 15th cent. , has a tastefully 
adorned marble facade. 

Adjoining the Theatre is the Hotel Washington , formerly the 
government buildings , with a cool and pleasant colonnade court. 
The hall contains a monument to the architect Canonico di Tesse- 
rete, and a marble bust of Gen. Dufour. 

A small temple at the Villa Tanzina , where suites of apart- 
ments may be hired, 1/4 M. S. of the H6tel du Pare, contains a 

„ Route oo. MONTE 8. SALVATORE. From Como 

f ^r aS jington , 'magnum saeculorum decus' . The proprietor 

•^ ml'* 1 * w ^° amasse d a fortune in America. — The Villa Va- 

xi fj, cAarmingly situated mar the Hotel du Pare, of which it is 

s g1f a dependance , has a beautiful and very extensive garden, 

containing fine cedars , magnolias, camellias, etc. ■ — Superb view 

/rom the tower in the garden of the Villa Enderlin, to which access 

is permitted by the proprietor. 

The beautiful *Park of M. Cinni (d. 1867J extending along 
the N T . bay of the lake (travellers admitted, gardener 1 fr.), 
contains a marble Monument erected by the late proprietor to the 
memory of his parents and executed by Vine. Vela in 1850. 

On the broad quay opposite the Hotel du Pare is a Fountain 
with a Statue of William Tell, IS ft. in height, in white sandstone, 
designed by Vine. Vela, and erected by M. Ciani. 

Delightful excursion to *Monte S. Salvatore (29S2 ft..), ascent 2 hrs., 
descent l'J2 hr., guide (4 fr.) superfluous, as the path cannot be mistaken ; 
horse 9 fr., mule 8 fr., incl. fee. About 10 min from the Hotel du Pare, 
between a detached house and the wall of a garden , a good paved path 
diverges to the r. from the road to Como ; 2 min. farther, where the path 
divides, not to the r., but straight on to the houses; between these the 
road ascends, past the handsome and <"onspicuous (25 min.) Villa Marchino, 
to (5 min.) the village of Paizallo , from which Monte Rosa is visible 
through a mountain-gorge. Here the path diverges to the 1. from the 
broad road, through the gateway of the fourth house and ascends to the 
1. by a stony but easy ascent in l'Jj hr. lo the Pilgrimage Chapel on the 
summit (refreshments at a house near the top, dear). The *view embraces 
all the arms of the Lake of Lugano, the mountains and their wooded 
slopes, especially those above Lugano, sprinkled with numerous villas. 
To the E. above Porlezza is Monte Legnone (p. 135), to the 1. of which, 
in the extreme distance, are the snow-peaks of the Bernina; N. above 
Lugano the double peak of Monte Camoghe (p. 41), 1. of this the distant 
mountains of St. Gotthard; W. the chain of Monte Rosa, with the Matter- 
born and other Alps of the Valais to the r. This view is seen to 
best advantage in the morning , when Monte Rosa gleams in the 
sunshine. The construction of a carriage-road and of a hotel on the 
summit is projected. In descending, the route through i'arona (1966 ft.) 
and Melide (somewhat longer) may be chosen. 

A drive round the Monte S. Salvatore (4'|2 hrs.) is strongly com- 
mended. Proceed by ( ] |2 hr.) Pambio , where a monument by Vela has 
heen erected near the church of S. Pietro to Capt. Carloni , who fell at 
Snraim Campagna in 1848, to (1 hr.) Figino , where the road approaches 
the W. arm of the lake. Then skirt the lake, round the Monte Arbostora, 
to ( 3 j4 hr.) Morcote, charmingly situated and commanded by a ruined castle 
(view from the top), and to (1 hr.) Melide. Thence to Lugano, see p. 138. 
— The churchyard of A'. Abbondio, 2 JI. to the W. of Pambio (see above), 
contains a fine monument of the Torriani family by Vela. 

The ascent (2'| 2 hrs.) of *Monte Bre (3100 ft.), to the X. E. of Lugano, 
is another easy excursion, scarcely less interesting than that of Mte. S. 
Salvatore. A road runs inland towards several mills at the foot of the 
mountain. Thence a broad and well-constructed path winds upwards to 
the r. to the small village of Desago , passing a few groups of houses. 
Another route to Desago from the town runs along the lake to the foot 
of the mountain, and then ascends from hamlet to hamlet, through gardens 
etc. Above Desago the path divides; both routes are broad, and well- 
constructed, leading round the mountain to the village of Bre on its 
farther side (Inn, bread and wine only). The route to the r., above the 
lake, is of surpassing beauty, while that to the 1. commands a fine inland 
view. Near the church of Bre a narrow forest-path ascends to the summit 

to Luino. OSTENO. 22. Route. 141 

of the mountain. This path also divides ; the branch to the r. traverses 
the highest crest of the hill, that to the 1. leads to a spur of the moun- 
tain in the direction of Lugano. The summit may be attained by either 
The view of the several arms of the Lake of Lugano , especially } n t jje 
direction of Porlezza, and the surrounding mountains, is remarkably f lne 
Lugano itself is not visible from the summit, but from the above-mentioned 
spur a good view of it may be obtained. All these paths are easily traced. 
From Lugano to Bre about W\i hr. ; from Bre to the summit by the longest 
way about 1 hr. 

Monte Caprino, opposite Lugano, on the E. bank of the lake, is much 
frequented on holidays by the townspeople, who possess wine-cellars (can- 
tine) in the numerous, cool grottoes by which the side of the mountain is 
honeycombed. These receptacles are guarded by numerous huts, which 
from a distance present the appearance of a village. Good wine of icy 
coolness may be obtained here ('Asti 1 recommended). These cellars should 
be visited on account of their thoroughly Italian characteristics. 

The interesting *Grotto of Osteno may easily be visited from Lugano 
by the steamboat bound for Porlezza (or by small boat). The grotto is 
7 min. from the landing-place : walk through the village, and outside the 
gate turn to the r. immediately before the stone bridge, and then cross 
the brook. The mouth of the gorge, in which there are two small water- 
falls, is near a projecting rock. Visitors embark in ;a small boat and 
enter the grotto, the bottom of which is 'entirely occupied by the brook. 
The narrow ravine through which the boat now threads its way is curiously 
hollowed out by the action of the water. Far above , the roof is formed 
by overhanging bushes, between which an occasional glimpse of blue sky 
is obtained. The gorge, which is terminated by a waterfall, resembles that 
of Pfaffers, and is equally imposing, although shorter. 

Beyond Lugano the road gradually winds upwards to the "W., 
turns S. past the small Lake of Muzzano , crosses the Agno , and 
leads through the village of that name (967 ft.), and a short 
distance farther reaches the W. arm of the Lake of Lugano. Near 
Magliaso , with an ancient castle of the Beroldingen family, the 
lake is quitted, but another of its bays is touched near Ponte Tresa 
(so called from a bridge across the Tresa, here connecting the 
Swiss and Lombard banks). This bay is so completely enclosed 
by mountains, that it appears to form a distinct lake ; it is con- 
nected with the Lake of Lugano by a narrow channel only. The 
Tresa, which here emerges from the lake, falls into the Lago Mag- 
giore 3 /4 M. S. W. of Luino. The road follows its course as far as 
the Italian frontier at Fornasette, where luggage is examined ; it 
then descends and soon affords a view of the Lago Maggiore. 

Luino, see p. 144. 

3. From Cadenabbia (p. 132) or Menaggio (p. 134) by Porlezza 
and Lugano to Laveno (or Luino, comp. No. 2). 

Omnibus and steamer see p. 130. One-horse carr. from Menaggio to 
Porlezza in 2 hrs., 6 fr. ; boat thence to Lugano in 3 hrs., 7—12 fr., from 
Lugano to Porto in 3 hrs., 5—6 fr. ; or take a boat direct from Porlezza 
to Porto, a Lombard harbour at the S. W. bay of the Lake of Lugano; 
one-horse carr. from Porto to Laveno in 4 hrs., 12 — 15 fr. 

The journey from Cadenabbia or Menaggio to Porlezza (9 M.) is 
recommended to pedestrians, as the road leads through a succession 
of imposing and attractive mountain-scenes. The Villa Vigoni (p. 
134) lies r. of the road , to the N. The retrospect from the height 


^2 B° uU 

$tf. from Menaggio, is lovely. The road then descends 
near Cr0 a jjLago del Piano and the village of Tavordo. Porlezza ( /?wi 
to the e jute) (p. 139) is nearly 2 M. farther. Attempts at extortion 
on ^quently made here by the fraternity who prey upon travellers. 
* r fhe scenery of the E. arm of the Lake of Lugano is of a severe 
tfiaracter. Soon after Porlczza is quitted, the Monte S. Salvatore 
(p. 140) becomes conspicuous to the S.W. The lake becomes more 
attractive as Lugano is approached. Oandria, Lugano (where travel- 
lers to Luino descend), stone dyke near Melide, see p. 138. Morcote 
lies on a tongue of land which forms the >S. base of Monte S. Salvatore. 

Porto (see above) is the seat of the Italian custom-house. The 
road, which at first ascends rapidly, commands picturesque 
retrospects. Beyond Induno (*Iim), 6 M. from Porto, the road to 
Varese is quitted, and that r. to S. Ambrogio followed. 

The village lies ;3 M. N. of Varese (p. 136) and l'| 2 M. S. E. of the 
base of the *Madonna del Monte, a celebrated resort of pilgrims. Fourteen 
chapels or stations of various forms, adorned with frescoes and groups in 
stucco, have been erected along the broad path , by which the monastery 
and church on the mountain (2841 ft.) are attained in 1 hr. The view 
hence is not less celebrated than the peculiar sanctity of the spot. The 
small lakes ofComabbio, Biandrone, and Monate, that of Varese, two arms 
of the Lago Maggiore, part of the Lake of Como, and the expansive 
and fruitful plain as far as Milan are visible. A far more comprehensive 
view, including the glacier-world also, is obtained (best by morning-light) 
from the Tre Croci (3966 ft.), 1 hr. N. W. of the Madonna. Several 
cabarets adjoin the monastery. Donkeys and guides (unnecessary) are to 
be found at the foot of the mountain. 

The road then leads from S. Ambrogio to Masnago , where it 
joins that leading from Varese to Laveno, see p. 137. 

23. Lago Maggiore. Borromean Islands. From 
Arona to Milan. 

Steamboats ply on the lake 3 times daily during the summer: from 
Magadino to Arona in 5' fa hrs., from Luino to Isola Bella in 2'J 4 hrs., from 
Isola Bella to Arona in i 1 ^ hr. ; fares from Magadino to Arona 4 fr. 80 and 
2 fr. 65 c, from Luino to Isola Bella 1 fr. 85 and 1 fr. lo c, from Isola 
Bella to Arona 1 fr. 80 and 90 c, landing and embarking included. The 
steamboats are the best and cheapest conveyance to Isola Bella, especially 
for a single traveller (from Pallanza 60, from Stresa 40 c.) ; and as they 
touch at the island 4 — 5 times daily , frequent opportunities are afforded 
for the excursion. Stations (those at which the steamers do not touch 
regularly are printed in Italics; those with piers are in capitals; the steam- 
boat communicates with the others by rowing-boat; for particulars see 
the L Horaire pour la Navigation a vapeur du Lac Majeur\ which may be 
obtainWaTthe principal inns orTthe banks) : Magadino, LocarSo, Ascona, 
Brissago, Cannobbio, Maccagno , 'dXWiitlii Cannero , Oggebbio, Ghiffa, Porto 
Vallravaglia , Laveno, Intka , Pallanza, Sana, Feriolo^ Bavexo, Isola 
Bella, Stkesa, Belgirate, Lesa, Meina, Angera, Akona. 

Boats. Travellers coming from the Simplon usually take a boat at 
Baveno (pp. 35, 145) to visit the Borromean Islands. The charge for an 
excursion not exceeding 2 hrs. is fixed for each rower at 2 l | 2 fr. ; for 1 — 3 
pers. 2 rowers, for 4 — 6 pers. 3, more than 6 pers. 4 rowers, so that the 
half-hour's passage to Isola Bella is somewhat expensive. Half-way be- 
tween Stresa and Baveno, opposite the island, there is a ferry, where 1—2 

LOCARNO. 23. Routs. 143 

fr. is exacted for a passage of scarcely 10 min. ; the other boatmen demand 
5 fr. The passage from Stresa for 1 — 2 pers. costs 2 fr., for 3 or more with 
2 rowers 4 fr., according to tariff. For the return from the island to the 
mainland, to Baveno, Stresa, etc., the boatmen demand 5 fr., but they re- 
duce their terms as the time for the departure of the steamboat approaches 
(see above). From Isola Bella to Isola Madre and back, incl. stay, 9 fr. 
with two rowers. 

Diligence from Arona twice daily in 6 hrs. to Domo tfOssola (p. 35), in 
correspondence with the diligence over the Simplon (R. 3). — From Luino 
Swiss diligence daily in 2 3 |< hrs. to Lugano, see p. 137. — From Magadino 
(in 1 3 |4 hr.) and Locarno (in 2>|4 hrs.) a Swiss diligence twice daily to 
Bellinzona (p. 40), thence in summer twice daily over the St. Gotthard to 
Lucerne in 18 hrs. (R. S) and over the Bernardino to Coire in 17 hrs. (R. 6). 

Lago Maggiore (646 ft., greatest depth 2800 ft.), the Lacus 
Verbanus of the Romans, is 37 M. in length and averages i 1 /^ M. 
in width. The canton of Ticino possesses only the N. bank for a 
distance of 9 M. ; this portion of the lake is also called the Lake of 
Locarno. The W. bank beyond the brook Valmara , and the E. 
bank from Zenna belong to Italy. Its principal tributaries are on 
the N. the Ticino (Tessin), on the W. the Tosa, on the E. the 
Tresa , flowing from the Lake of Lugano. The river issuing from 
the S. end of the lake retains the name of Ticino. The N. banks 
are bounded by lofty mountains , for the most part wooded, whilst 
the E. shore towards the lower end slopes gradually away to the 
level of the plains of Lombardy. The W. bank affords a succession 
of charming landscapes. The water is of a green colour in its N. 
arm, and deep blue towards the S. 

The Steamboat leaves Magadino , the most N. harbour of the 
lake (immediately to the S. of which lies Vira, picturesquely jut- 
ting into the lake), and steers across the lake to 

Locarno (682 ft.) (*Corona, on the lake ; *Albergo Svizzero, 
R. 1 v li fr. , in the town, higher up ; Caffe dell' Vnione, on the lake), 
with 2667 inhab., one of the three capitals of the Canton of Ticino, 
situated on the W. bank of Lago Maggiore , at the mouth of the 
Maggia, the deposits of which have formed a considerable delta. 
Politically Locarno is Swiss , but the character of the scenery and 
population is thoroughly Italian. The Collegiate Church contains 
a few good pictures. The handsome Government Buildings are 
situated in a large 'piazza' and public garden. The pilgrimage- 
church of *Madonna del Sasso (1168 ft.), on a wooded eminence 
above the town, commands a remarkably fine view. 

The busy market held at Locarno every alternate Thursday af- 
fords the visitor an opportunity of observing a variety of costumes 
of the peasantry of the neighbourhood. Great national festival on 
8th Sept. , the Nativity of the Virgin. 

The boat now skirts the W. bank , passes Ascona with its 
castle and seminary, Ronco, and Brissago (*Albergo Antico), a 
delightful spot, with picturesque white houses conspicuous from 
a great distance, and an avenue of cypresses leading to the church. 
The slopes above the village are covered with fig-trees , olives 

144 Route 23. LAVENO. Lago Maggiore. 

and pomegranates ; even the myrtle flourishes in the open air. 
Then S. Agata and Cannobbio (*Albergo del Bissone), one of the 
oldest and most prosperous villages on the lake , situated on a 
plateau at the entrance of the Val Cannobbino , and overshadowed 
by richly-wooded mountains. The high altar-piece of the church 
DellaPieta, the dome of which is ascribed to Bramante, is a Cruci- 
fixion by Gaud. Ferrari. Pleasant walk of 1 /2' lr - inland to the hydro- 
pathic establishment of La Salute, the property of Dr. Fossati-BarbS 
(pension 6 fr. , omnibus at the pier), and thence to the (20min.) 
Orrido, a wild rocky scene with a bridge and ( in spring) a waterfall. 

The boat now steers for the E. bank, touches at Maccagno, 
and stops at Luino (*Hoteldu Siinplpn; Vittoria; Posta), with the 
Palazzo CriveUi surrounded by"pines, the station for Lugano (p. 138), 
and a favourite summer resort on account of the beauty of its 
environs. About l /->^\. to the S., at the mouth of the Margorabbia, 
lies Gerrnignaga, with the large silk-spinning ( filanda) and silk- 
winding (filatoja) factories of Cesare Bozotti and Co. of Milan. 
On the \V. bank rise two grotesque-looking castles (Castelli di 
Cannero), half in ruins, the property of Count Borromeo. In the 
15th cent, they harboured the live brothers Mazzarda, notorious 
brigands, the terror of the district. Cannero is beautifully situated 
in the midst of vineyards and olive-groves , which extend far up 
the slopes of the mountain. The W. bank is clothed with the 
richest vegetation, and studded with innumerable white houses 
and a succession of picturesque villages. 

The small villages of Oggebbio and Ghiffa on the W. bank, and 
Porto Valtravaglia , on the E. In a wooded bay beyond the last 
lies Calde, with the ancient tower of the Castello di Calde on an 
eminence. Then Laveno (*Posta; Moro; Stella), a village of some 
importance , beautifully situated in a bay at the mouth of the 
Hoesio , formerly a strongly fortified harbour for the Austrian gun- 
boats (omnibus to Varese and Como see p. 137). Behind Laveno 
rises II Sasso del Ferro (5918 ft.), the most beautiful mountain 
071 the lake, commanding a magnificent view of the lake , the plain 
as far as Milan, and the Monte Rosa chain. The five-peaked 
summit of Monte Rosa is also visible from this part of the 

At the boat approaches Intra , a rotunda with a statue , belong- 
ing to the Villa Prina, becomes visible. The valley, which here 
opens to the W., suddenly discloses a strikingly picturesque view 
of the N. neighbours of Monte Rosa: first the Strahlhom , then 
the Mischabel and Simplon. They are lost to view as the steamboat 
turns the point between Intra and Pallanza , but soon re-appear 
and remain visible until Isola Bella is reached. From the island 
itself they are hidden by the mountains of the valley of the Tosa. 

Intra ( Vitello d'Oro ; Leone d'Oro), a flourishing town with manu- 
factories , chiefly belonging to Swiss proprietory , is situated on an 

Logo Maggiore. BORROMEAN ISLANDS. 23. Route. 145 

alluvial soil, between the mouths of two mountain-streams, the 
8. Qiovanni and S. Bernardino. Omnibus daily between Intra, 
Pallanza, Gravellona, Omegna, and Orta ; comp. R. 24. 

On the promontory of S. Bemigio , which here juts into the 
lake , stands a church on the site of an ancient Roman temple of 
Venus. This is the widest part of the lake. The little Isola 
S. Giovanni, one of the Borromean group , with its chapel , house, 
and gardens, is the property of Count Borromeo. 

Pallanza (*Gra^d Hotel Pallanza, a large house, beautifully situat- 
ed, E. 3, B. li| 2 , D. 4'| 2 ,"A. and L. l l f 2 fr.; omnibus on the quay. — 
Posta; Italia. — Boat with one rower to the Isola Madre.l 1 ^, with two 
3 fr., to Isola Bella 2i| 2 or 4'| 2 ; to both islands 3'| 2 or 6, to Stresa 2>| 2 
or 4, to Laveno 2'| 2 or 4'| 2 , to Luino 6 or 10 fr., etc. — Diligence to Domo 
d'Ossola in 5 hrs., on the arrival of the steamboat from Magadino. 
Omnibus to Orta, see p. 149), the seat of the authorities of the pro- 
vince, is a thriving little town (4000 inhab.), delightfully situated 
opposite the Borromean Islands. Some of the gardens here ('Rovelli, 
Cerutti, etc.) deserve a visit. 

The lake here forms an extensive bay, A'/o M. long and 2 L /4M. 
wide, running in a N. W. direction , at the N. extremity of which 
is the influx of the impetuous Tosa (Tone). On its N.E. bank 
lies Suna, on the S.W. Feriolo (Leone d'Oro), where the Simplon 
route (p. 35) quits the lake ; the steamboat does not always touch 
at these two stations. Then Baveno (*Bellevue ; Beaurivage; 
Sempione) , a small town with 1300 inhab., the usual starting- 
point of travellers from the Simplon for a visit to the 

*Borromean Islands. The steamers touch at the most S. of 
these, the Isola Bella , which with the Isola Madre is the property 
of the Borromeo family. Between these lies the Isola dei Pescatori, 
•or Superiore, the property of the fishermen who inhabit it; to the 
N. is the Isola S. Qiovanni mentioned above. Count Vitalio Bor- 
romeo (d. 1690) erected ,a chateau on "Isola Bella (*H6tel du 
Dauphin, R. from 2, B. 1% D. 4, L. and A. ly 4 fr.), and con- 
verted the barren rock into beautiful gardens, rising on ten terraces 
100 ft. above the lake, and stocked with lemon-trees, cedars, mag- 
nolias, cypresses, orange-trees, laurels, magnificent oleanders, anil 
other luxuriant products of the south. The view is very beautiful 
(evening light most favourable). Shell-grottoes, fountains (dry), 
mosaics, and statues meet the eye in profusion , but in some- 
what questionable taste. The Chateau, which is quite dispropor- 
tionate to the small extent of the island, is richly decorated, and 
contains a Collection of Pictures more numerous than valuable. 
The N. wing is in ruins. The view through the arches of the 
long galleries under the chateau is very striking. A domestic 
hurries visitors through the apartments (fee '/ 2 — 1 fr- &r each 
pers.), and consigns them to a gardener, who shows the garden 
with equal dispatch for a similar fee. 

Baedeker. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 10 

146 Route -23. ARONA. 

The *Isola Madre on its 8. side resembles the Isola Bella 
and is laid out in seven terraces with lemon and orange-trellises; 
on the upper terrace is an uninhabited 'Palazzo'. On the N. side, 
there are ('harming walks in the English style, with most luxuriant 
vegetation, which render it a far pleasanter resort than the Isola 
Bella (fee I fr. ). — The Isola dei Pescatori is entirely occu- 
pied by a small fishing-village, the single open space being just 
sufficient for drying the nets. 

The scenery around the Borrornean Islands rivals (hat of the Lake of 
f'omo in grandeur, and perhaps surpasses it in softness of character. Monte 
Rosa is not visible; the snnw-iiiountains to the N. AV. are the glaciers and 
peaks of the Simplon; of the nearer mountains the most conspicuous are 
the white granite-rocks near Bavcno (p. 35). The traveller coming from 
the S. cannot fail to be struck with the loveliness of these banks, studded 
with innumerable habitations, and clothed with southern vegetation (chest- 
nuts, mulberries, vines, figs, olives): the extensive lake with its deep blue 
waters and beautiful girdle of snowy mountains combining the stern 
grandeur of the High Alps with the charms of a southern clime. Rousseau 
at one time intended to make the Borromean Islands the scene of his 
'"Nouveile lleloise', but considered them too artificial for his romance, in 
which human nature is pourtrayed with such a masterly hand. 

The steamboat now steers 8. to 

Stresa (+Hotkl hes Iles Bokkom£es, with diligence office, '|j M. 
from the landing-place, R. from 2>J 2 , B. l'/a, A. 3 |.|, D. 4 fr., pension in 
summer 7'|'j — 9 ! |'2 fr., in winter 5 — 6 fr., boat without rower 11J 2 fr. for 
the first, I fr. for each subsequent hour. — *H6tei. de Milan, R. 2, 
D. 3, L. and A. 1, pension 6 — 7 fr. ; ^Hotel i>u Simpi.on; Albergo 
Rkale, Italian inn. Oiu-horse cart', to Dumo rfOssola 15 — 20 fr., tno- 
horse 30 — 35 fr. \ to Arona with one horse 6 fr.; carriages for the 
Simplon route to Sion may also be procured. 'No supplementary carriages 
provided when Hie diligence is full), situated Oil the coast, opposite 
the Isola Bella. The handsome Rt.sminian Monastery halfway up 
the mountain is now a college. Beautiful cypresses in the Church- 
yard. — Ascent of Monte Motterone, see p. 148. 

As the boat pursues its course along the "VV. bank, the con- 
struction of the high-road, in many places supported by piers of 
masonry, attracts attention owing to the difficulties which had to be 
overcome. The banks gradually become flatter, and Monte Rosa 
makes its appearance in the "\V The boat touches at Belgirate 
(Hotel Borromeo), Lesa . and Mtina (Albergo Zanetta) on the "VV., 
anil at Angera on the E. bank (once a day only), and finally stops 
at the Arona station. The handsome chateau above Angera be- 
longs to Count Borromeo. 

Arona (738 ft.) (*Jtalia. ox Pasta, diligence-office; * Albergo 
lleale. both on the quay ; Cafe adjoining the Albergo Reale ; Cafe 
tlii Lac . near the quay), an ancient town on the AV bank, with 
31f>3 inhab., extends upwards on the slope of the hill. In the prin- 
cipal church of S. Maria, the chapel of the Borromean family, r. 
of the high altar, contains the *Holy Family as an altarpiece , by 
(iamleiii-io Mnci. a master rarely met with; it is surrounded by 
five sniall<r pictures, the upper representing God the Father, at 
the sides eight saints and the donatrix. 

GALLARATE. 23. Route. 147 

On a height overlooking the entire district , v ji hr. N. of the 
station and pier, is a colossal * Statue of S. Carlo, 70 ft. in 
height, resting on a pedestal 42 ft. high, erected in 1697 in honour 
of the celebrated Cardinal , Count Carlo Borromeo, Archbishop of 
Milan (born here in 1538, died 1584, canonised 1610). 

The head, hands, and feet of the statue are of bronze, the robe of 
wrought copper. Notwithstanding its enormous dimensions, the statue is 
not devoid of artistic merit. The various parts are held together by iron 
clamps, and by stout masonry in the interior. By means of ladders, kept 
in readiness in the neighbourhood (fee), the lower part of the robe can 
be attained on the WT side , and the interior entered. The venturesome 
climber may now ascend by means of iron bars to the head of the statue, 
which will hold three persons. A window is introduced at the back of the 
statue. The suffocating heat and the number of bats which infest the 
interior render the ascent far from an enjoyable undertaking. 

The adjacent church contains a few relics of S. Carlo. The 
extensive building in the vicinity is an Ecclesiastical Seminary. 

Railway from Arona by Novara to Genoa and Turin see R. 18. 

From Arona to Milan. 

42 M. Railway in 2i| 4 — 2i| 2 hrs. ; fares 8 fr. 5, 5 fr. 85, 4 fr. 15 c. 

The line follows the S. bank of the lake, crosses the Ticino 
(Tessin), the boundary between Piedmont and Lombardy (till 1859 
the boundary between Sardinia and Austria), and reaches Sesto- 
C'alende (Posta) at the S. E. extremity of the Lago Maggiore, at 
the efflux of the Ticino. Stat. Vergiate, then Somma, where 
P. Corn. Scipio was defeated by Hannibal, B. C. 218. The dis- 
trict continues arid and sandy as far as stat. Gallarate (the junction 
of the Varese line, p. 137), a town with 5200 inhab. at the S. E. 
base of a range of hills which form the limit of the vast and fruitful 
plain, planted with maize, mulberries, and vines, extending hence 
to Milan. 

Next stat. Busto Arsizio, the church of which, designed by 
Bramante, contains frescoes by Gaudenzio Ferrari. Then stat. 
Legnano, where Frederick Barbarossa was defeatedby the Milanese 
in 1175; the principal church contains a line altar-piece, one of 
the best works of Luini. Stat. Parabiago. Stat. Rhb (p. 113) 
possesses a church (Madonna dei Miracoli) by Pellegrini, which 
however remained unfinished till near the middle of the present 
century. Last stat. Musocco. 

Milan, see R. 19. Omnibuses and fiacres, see p. 114. 

24. From Stresa to Varallo. 

Monte Motterone. Lake of Orta. Val di Sesia. 

Three days suffice for a visit to this district , which , though seldom 
visited, is one of the most beautiful of the S. Alps. Travellers from Ihe 
Simplon (R. 3) should, after visiting the Borromean Islands, begin this 
excursion at Stresa (p. 146) and terminate it at Arona; or Gravellona 
(p. 35J may be taken as the starting-point, and Stresa the termination, in 
which case the portion between Orta and Varallo must be traversed twice. 


148 Route 24. ORTA. From Stresa 

From Stresa or Isola Bella to Orta 7, from Orta to Varallo 5 hrs. walking ; 
from Varallo to Arona or Novara about b' hrs. drive. — A guide (to the 
summit of the pass 4, to the top of Motterone 5, to Orta 10 fr., and gra- 
tuity) should he taken as far as the culminating point of the pass , or 
to the chalets, especially if the traveller intends to ascend to the summit 
of the mountain (recommended in fine weather , 2 hrs. additional). A 
supply of provisions is necessary for the excursion, little except milk 
being procurable. Donkey fr. to the summit of the pass. 

The long Monte Motterone separates the Lago Maggiore 
from the Lake of Orta. The footpath which crosses it from 
Stresa to Orta (road in course of construction) begins opposite 
Isola Bella, at the landing-place of the boats, and ascends rapidly 
by the r. bank of the brook as far as the (_>■/., hr.) village , beyond 
which it pursues a N. direction through the chestnut-wood on 
the slope of the mountain (!/■> hr. ), commanding a beautiful view 
of the Lago Maggiore. On (1/2 hr.) emerging from the wood, the 
path ascends to the W., traversing moor and pasture; in '/ 2 hr. 
it passes three rocks, crosses the brook, and (8/4 hr.) reaches a 
small group of houses (Ristorante all 1 Alpe Volpe), 10 min. below 
the culminating point of the pass. The summit of the mountain 
may be attained hence in I hr. 

The extensive prospect commanded by the summit of *Monte Motterone 
(4891 ft.) or Margozzolo , which may be termed the Rigi of the S. Alps, 
embraces the entire amphitheatre of mountains from Monte Rosa to the 
(trtler in the Tyrol. To the r. of Monte Rosa appear the snow-mountains 
of Mont' Moro, Pizzo di Bottarello, Simplon, Monte Leone, Gries, and St. 
Got! hard; farther B. the conical Stella above Chiavenna, and the long, 
imposing ice-range of the Bernina, which separates the Val Bregaglia 
(p. 15) from the Valtellina (p. 52). At the spectator's feet lie six different 
lakes, the Lake of Orta, Lago Maggiore, Lago di Monate, Lago di Comabbio, 
Lago di Biandrone, and Lago di Varese ; farther to the r. stretch the 
extensive plains of Lomhardy and Piedmont, in the centre of which rises 
the lofty cathedral of Milan. The Tirino and the Sesia meander like silver 
threads through the plains, and by a singular optical delusion frequently 
appear to traverse a lofty table-land. The simultaneous view of the Isola 
-Wadre in Lago Maggiore and the Isola S. Giulio in the Lake of Orta has 
a remarkably picturesque effect. The mountain itself consists of a number 
of barren summits, studded with occasional chalets , shaded by trees. At 
its base it is encircled by chestnut-trees, and the foliage and luxuriant 
vegetation of the landscape far and wide impart a peculiar charm to the 

At the chalets, 10 min. from the finger-post mentioned above, 
milk may be procured ; ( ' / 4 hr. ) the solitary church of Madonna di 
Lucriago, (^hr. ) Chegino, { '/^hr. ) Armeno, and (40 min.) Miasino 
are successively passed, atid (}/» hr. ) the high-road is reached 
( 3 ' 4 .\1. from Orta) near the pension Ronchetti Posta. A little 
beyond the latter a path diverges from the road to the r., 
ascending in 10 min. to the Monte (see below), which may 
now be most conveniently visited in passing. 

Orta (' 12*20 ft.) (*Leone d'Oro ; Hotel S. Giulio; both on the 
quay ; one-horse carr. to Uravellona 8 fr.), a small town with 
narrow streets , paved with marble slabs , is most picturesquely 
situated on a promontory extending into the lake, at the base 

to Varallo. COL DI COLMA. 24. Route. 149 

of a precipitous cliff. At the S. entrance of the town is the 
handsome villa of the Marquis Natta of Novara. 

Omnibus and Diligence from Orta daily to Omegna (Posta), at the N. 
end of the Lago di Orta, and by Gravellona (p. 35) to Pallanza (p. 145); 
also from Orta by Buccione , a village at the S. end of the Lago di Orta, 
commanded by the old Castello di Buccione, to Gozzano, the terminus of 
the Novara-Gozzano railway. 

Above Orta rises the Sacro Monte (ascent between the two hotels), a 
beautifully wooded eminence, laid out as a park, on which 20 chapels were 
erected in the 16th cent, in honour of S. Francis of Assisi, each containing 
a scene from the life of the saint. The life-size figures are composed of 
terracotta, highly coloured, with a background al fresco; as a whole, 
though destitute of artistic worth, the representations are spirited and 
effective. The best groups are in the 13th, 16th, and 20th chapels , the 
last representing: the canonization of the saint and the assembly of 
cardinals. The *Tower on the summit of the hill commands an admirable 
panorama; the snowy peak of Monte Rosa rises to the W. above the lower 
intervening mountains. The 'Eremita del Monte'' expects a fee of 1 fr., 
fur showing the above-mentioned three chapels. 

In the Lake of Orta (9 M. in length, iy 2 M. in width), op- 
posite to Orta , rises the rocky island of S. Giulio , covered with 
trees and groups of houses (boat there and back 1 fr.). The Church, 
founded by St. Julius, who came front Greece in 379 to convert 
the inhabitants of this district to Christianity, has been frequently 
restored ; it contains several good reliefs , some ancient frescoes, 
a handsome pulpit in the Romanesque style, and in the sacristy a 
Madonna by Gaudenzio Ferrari. 

On the W. bank of the lake , opposite the island , the white 
houses of the village of Fella peep from the midst of vineyards and 
groves of chestnut and walnut-trees. Passage from Orta to Pella 
2 fr. with two rowers. 

A path towards the S. winds upwards from Pella, through a grove of 
chestnut and fruit trees, in 20 min. to the Madonna del Sasso, the pictu- 
resque church of the village of Boletlo. An open space by the church, on 
the brink of a precipice several hundred feet above the lake , commands 
a fine prospect. 

At Pella mules may be procured for the journey over the Colma 
to Varallo (5 hrs., guide unnecessary). A steep path ascends the 
hill to the W., traversing luxuriant gardens (vines, figs, pumpkins, 
and fruit-trees) ; in 12 min. the ascent to the r. must be avoided. 
In 1 hr. (from Pella) Arola is reached , at a small chapel beyond 
which the ascent to the r. must again be avoided ; the path pursues 
a straight direction and soon descends. The Pellino , a mountain- 
torrent , descending from the Colma, forms (5 min.) a picturesque 
waterfall. Beautiful retrospective views of the lake. The path 
now ascends through a shady wood, between disintegrated blocks 
of granite which crumble beneath the touch, to the Col di Colma 
(21/2 hrs. from Pella), a ridge connecting Monte Pizzigone with 
Monte Oinistrella. The prospect of the Alps is beautiful, embrac- 
ing Monte Rosa, the lakes of Orta and Varese , and the plain of 
Lombardy. The whole route is attractive. In descending on the 
W. side (to the r.) the traveller overlooks the fruitful Val Sesia, 

150 Route 24. VARALLO. 

with its numerous 'villages. The path, again traversing groves of 
chestnut and walnut-trees, carpeted with turf and wild-flowers, 
now leads through the Val Dugyla to (1 hr.) Civiasco and (1 hr.) 

Varallo (1515 ft. ) (*Italia; *Posta ; Falcone Nero) , the prin- 
cipal village (3200 inhab.) in the valley of the /Sesia, a stream 
which is frequently dry in summer. The old town and the Sacro 
Monte are very picturesque when seen through the arches of the 
bridge. In the town a monument has been erected to Victor 

The Sacro Monte (1981 ft.), the object of numerous pilgrimages, 
rises in the immediate vicinity of the town. It is attained in 'j* hr. by 
a path shaded by beautiful trees, but the enjoyment is somewhat marred 
by the importunities of beggars. The summit, surmounted by a chapel 
and crucifix, commands a magnificent view. Besides the church there 
are in all 46 Chapels or Oratories on the summit and slopes of the Sacro 
Monte, many of them buried among the trees, containing scenes from the 
life of the Saviour, in terracotta, with life-size figures arranged in groups. 
Each chapel is devoted to a different subject -, the 1st, for example, 
the Fall, the 2nd the Annunciation, and so on to the 46th, which 
contains the Entombment of the Virgin. .Some of the frescoes by Pele- 
griiw Tibaldi and Gavdenzio Ferrari are worthy of inspection. This 
'Nuova Qerusalemme nel Sacro Monte di Varallo' was founded by Ber- 
nardino Caloto , a Milanese nobleman, with the sanction of Pope Inno- 
cent VIII. As a resort of pilgrims, it did not come into vogue until after 
the visits of Cardinal Borromeo (p. 1471 in 1578 and 1584, from which 
period most of the chapels date. 

Varallo is admirably adapted as head-quarters for excursions 
to the neighbouring valleys , which are very attractive and easily 
accessible (comp. Baedekers Switzerlimd). 

A carriage-road (omnibus twice daily ) descends the picturesque 
valley of the Sesia to (6 M7) Borgo Sesia, {l l j-i M.) Romagnano 
(Posta); then quitting the Val Sesia, by Sizzano, Fara, and Briona 
to Novara (p. 110). 

25. From Arona to Genoa. 

Ill M. Railvvat in 5— 6 hrs. ; fares 19 fr. 65, 13 fr. 75, 9 fr. 95 c. ; 
no luggage free except small articles carried in the hand. Good refresh- 
ment-rooms at Novara and Alessandria. If Arona has been quitted late in 
the day, it is better to spend the night at Alessandria than to perform 
the interesting journey through the Apennines in the dark. 

The railway at first commands picturesque views (to the l.J of 
the H. extremity of Lago Maggiore (p. 146) and the mountains of 
the Brianza (p. 127). Numerous cuttings and embankments. A 
flat , agricultural district extending as far as Alessandria is soon 
reached. The Ticino flows at some distance to the 1. 

Stations Borgo- Ticino, Varallo-Pombia, and Oleggio (to the r. 
a fine glimpse of the Monte Rosa chain). Then stat. Bellinzago, 
and (23 M.) Novara (p. 112), where the Arona and Genoa line is 
crossed by that from Milan to Turin (R. 18); to Turin in 3 hrs 
(fares 10 fr. 45, 7 fr. 85, 5 fr. 25 c). 

Next stations Vespolate, Borgo Laeezzaro, Mortara, the last of 
which was taken by storm by the Austrians two days before the 

ALESSANDRIA. 25. Route. 151 

battle of Novara (p. 112). To the r. and 1. are numerous fields of 
rice, which are laid under water during two months in the year. 

From Mortara to Milan (32 M.) railway in li| 4 — 2 hrs.; fares 4 fr. 
45, 3 fr. 30, 2 fr. 15 c. (from Milan to Genoa by this line express in 5, 
ord. trains in 8 hrs.; comp. R. 26). Stat. Vigevano (Albergo Reale), a town 
of some importance in the silk-trade, with 15,000 inhah., is situated 
near the r. bank of the Ticino. Spacious market-place surrounded by 
arcades. Beyond Vigevano the Ticino in crossed; stat. Abbialegrasso, 
Gaggiano, Corsico, and Milan (p. 113). 

Next stations Valte, Sariirana, Torre-Beretti (railway to Pavia, 
see p. 155). 

To the 1. the long chain of the Apennines forms a blue line in 
the distance. Rice-fields are seen in every direction. The line 
crosses the Po by means of a bridge of twenty-one arches , and 
traverses sandy hills planted with vines. Beyond (30 ^ M.) stat. 
Valenza (branch-line to Vercelli, see p. 112) the train passes 
through a tunnel 1^3 M. in length. Then stat. Veil Madonna; 
several picturesquely situated small towns lie on the chain of hills 
to the r. The Tanaro is then crossed, and some fortifications passed. 

(10 M.) Alessandria (Hdtel de VUnivers; Europa; Victoria; 
Aquila; * Railway Restaurant), an uninteresting town with 57,079 
inhab., situated on the Tanaro in a marshy district, and strongly 
fortified, was founded in 1168 by the Lombard towns allied 
against the Bmp. Frederick Barbarossa and named after Pope Ale- 
ander III. It is surnamed della paglia , i. e. of straw, perhaps 
because the first houses were built of clay and straw. Alessandria 
being a junction of several lines , carriages are generally changed 
here. Railway to the W. to Turin , see R. 13; E. to Piacenza, 
Parma, Bologna (Ancona), RR. 12, 40; to Cavaller-Maggiore, p. ill. 

From Alessandria to acqui, a branch-line towards the S. in 1 hr. 10 
min. (fares 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65, 1 fr. 90 c). Acqui, the Aquae Statielae of the 
Romans, an episcopal town on the Bormida with 8600 inhab., is well 
known for its mineral waters, which resemble those of Aix-la-Chapelle in 
their ingredients and effects. . The Cathedral, with its double aisles, dates 
from the 12th cent. Near Acqui the Austrians and Piedmontese were 
defeated by the French in 1794. Good wine is produced in the vicinity. 
This line is to be prolonged to Cairo and Savona (p. 96), where it will 
unite with the coast-line from Genoa to Nice. 

The line crosses the Bormida , which a short distance below 
Alessandria falls into the Tanaro. About 1^4 M. E. of the bridge, 
in the plain between the Bormida and the Scrivia , is situated the 
small village of Marengo, near which, on 14th June, 1800, 
was fought a battle which influenced the destinies of the whole 
of Europe. The French were commanded by Napoleon, the Austrians 
by Melas. The battle lasted 12 hrs., and the French lost Desaix, 
one of their best generals. 

The district which the railway now intersects is at first flat ; 
in the distance rise the Apennines. Next stat. Frugarolo. (14 M.) 
Stat. Novi (*Sirena) (branch-line to Pavia and Milan, see R. 26 ; 
to Piacenza, see R. 12), situated on the hills to the r., commanded 
by a lofty square tower, was the scene of the victory gained by the 

J 52 Route 26. BUSALLA. 

Austriaus and Russians under Suwarow over the French on 15th 
Aug., 1799. At stat. Serraralle the train enters a mountainous 
district; then Arquata, with a ruined castle on the height. Be- 
tween this point and Genoa there are eleven tunnels. The train 
winds its way through profound rocky ravines (la bocchetta), tra- 
versing lofty embankments and several times crossing the mountain- 
brook iScririu). The scenery is imposing and beautiful. Stat. 
hola del Cantone ; on the height to the r. the ruins of an old castle. 
Stat. liusalltt, the culminating point of the line, 1192 ft. above the 
sea-level, is the watershed between the Adriatic and the Mediter- 

The last tunnel, the (ralleria dei (fiovi, is upwards of 2 M. in 
length, the transit occupying 7 ruin. Then several short cuttings. 
The landscape becomes more smiling; the hills, planted with 
vines and corn . gradually become more thickly sprinkled with the 
villas of the Genoese. 

To the r., on the loftiest summit of the mountain near stat. 
Pontedecimo, rises the white, church of the Madonna della Ouardin. 
Next stat. Bolzaneto and Rimirolo. The railway now crosses the 
Potcevtra , the stony channel of which is occasionally covered by 
an impetuous torrent. On the summits of the heights to the 1. 
are towers belonging to the old fortifications of Genoa. The last 
stat. S. Piir d' Arena is a suburb of Genoa. On the r. are the 
lighthouse and citadel, beneath which the train enters the town 
by a tunnel. On the r. , before the station is entered, stands the 
Palazzo del Principe Dor in. 

(331/., M.) Genoa, see p. Hi. 

26. From Milan to Genoa by Pavia. 

Certosa di Pavia. 

!I5. M. Railway from Milan to Pavia in 50 min. or 1 lir. I tares 4 t'r. 
10. 3 t'r. 20. 2 fr. 30 c.J; from Milan to Genoa in 43| 4 — 5 l |2 hrs. (fares 17 fr. 
25, I '2 fr. 75, M fr. 75 c). An early train should be taken in order that 
Hie remarkable scenery of the Apennines may be seen to advantage. 
Those who desire to visit both the Certosa and Pavia from Milan are. 
recommended to take a return-ticket to Pavia, inspect the town (in about 
3 hrs.), and then drive (one-horse carriage 4-5 fr.) to the Certosa, a 
[pleasant journey of 50 min., skirting a canal. A visit to the Certosa 
occupies t'|a— 2 hrs.; Hence to stat. Certosa a walk of '| 4 hr. (The 
return-ticket is of course not available for the journey from Pavia to the 
Certosa and thence to Milan, as the journey cannot be broken without 
Hie ticket being given up.) 

The train to Pavia at first follows the Piacenza line, then 
diverges to the S.W. before x stat. Royoredo is reached. The high 
road, which in a straight direction follows the Naviglio di Pavia 
(p. lloj, a broad canal, lies on the r. Below Pavia, near the 
union of this canal with the Ticino , there are some remarkable 
locks. The district is Hat; underwood and rice-fields are traversed 
alternately. Stations Locate and Villamagyiore. 

CERTOSA Dl PAVIA. 26. Route. 153 

On the road, to the W. of the line , lies Binasco, a small town 
with an ancient castle, in which, on 13th Sept., 1418, the jealous 
and tyrannical Duke Fil. Maria Visconti caused his noble and inno- 
cent wife Beatrice di Tenda (p. 110) to be executed. 

If the Certosa is visited from the railway, the train is quitted 
at stat. Quinzano , or delta Certosa , whence the path planted with 
willows is followed , and the long garden-wall of the monastery 
skirted towards the r. (walk of '/ 4 hr.). The Sagrestano should be 
enquired for at the entrance. A French lay-brother generally acts 
as guide (fee for 1 pers. 1 fr.; the fees are expended in the mainten- 
ance of the buildings). The monastery at present numbers 11 inmates. 

The celebrated *Certosa, or Carthusian monastery, founded in 
1396 by GianGaleazzo Visconti, and suppressed under Emperor Jo- 
sephll., was restored to its original destination in 1844 and present- 
ed to the Carthusians. The **Fat;ade , begun in 1473 by Am- 
brogio Borgognone, an example of the richest Renaissance style, is 
entirely covered with marble of different colours and most taste- 
fully decorated ; below are medallions of Roman emperors, above 
them scenes from sacred history, and from the life of Giangaleazzo ; 
then heads of angels , beyond them the magnificent windows, and 
above these numerous niches filled with statues. All the most 
distinguished Lombard masters from the 15th to the 17th cent, 
have had a share in its embellishment, and it is unquestionably the 
finest work of this decorative description in N. Italy , although in- 
ferior to the facades of the cathedrals of Orvieto and Siena , es- 
pecially as the upper part has never been completed. The body 
of the church, begun in 1396 by Marco di Campione in the Gothic 
style , consists of a nave with aisles and 14 chapels , and is sur- 
mounted by a dome, borne by ten slender columns. The Interior 
(to which ladies are now admitted) is sumptuously and tastefully 
fitted up. The handsome coloured enrichments were probably 
designed by Borgognone , and the pavement of modern mosaic is 
also worthy of notice. The chapels and altars are richly adorned 
with valuable columns and precious stones, and the church contains 
several interesting pictures and monuments. 

2nd Chapel on the r. : good altar-piece in six sections by Macrino 
d'Alba (1496); 4th Chapel r., Crucifixion by Ambrogio Borgognone; 5th 
Chapel r., St. Sirus with four saints, by the same. The 2nd Chapel on the 
1. (counting from the entrance) formerly contained a picture by Perugino in 
six sections, of which the central part, above, representing *God the Father, 
is alone original, the other parts being now in France and England. The 
other frescoes and paintings by Borgognone, Procaccini , Guercino , Bianc/ii, 
C'respi, father and son, and others are of no great value. The transept and 
choir are separated from the rest of the church by a beautiful screen of iron 
and bronze. S. Transept: magnificent *Monument of Giangaleazzo Visconti, 
designed in 1490 by Ctaleazzo Pellegrini, but executed chiefly by Antonio 
da Amadeo and Giacomo delta Porta, and not completed till 1562. N. Transept : 
Monuments of Ludovico il Moro and his wife *Beatrice d'Este (d. 1497). 
The *choir contains a fine altar with carving of the 16th century. The 
choir-stalls are adorned with figures of apostles and saints from drawings 

1 54 Route 26. PAVIA. From Milan 

by Borgognone. The four handsome bronze candelabra in front of them 
are by Libero Fonlana. The old sacristy to the 1. of the choir contains 
a beautifully carved ivory altar-piece in upwards of 60 sections by Leonardo 
de" Ubriachi of Florence (16th cent.)- The door to the r. of the choir, 
handsomely framed in marble, leads to the Lavatorio, which contains a 
richly adorned fountain and (on the 1.) the Madonna and child in fresco 
by Bern. Luiui. To the r. of the lavatory is a small burial-place. The 
Sagrestia Nuova, or Oratorio, is entered from the S. end of the transept : 
*Altar-piece, an Assumption by Andrea Solario, but the upper part is 
said to have been painted by QiuUo Campi of Cremona. Over the door, 
Madonna enthroned, by Bart. Montagna; the side pictures by Borgognone. 
The front part of the *Cloisters (della Fontana) possesses slender marble 
columns and charming decorations in terracotta. Fine view hence of the 
side of tin- church and the S. transept with its trilateral end. The 
refectory is also situated here. Around the large cloisters, farther back, 
are situated the 24 small houses occupied by the monks, each consisting 
of three rooms with a small garden. 

The battle of Pavia, at which Francis I. of France was taken 
prisoner by Emperor Charles V., took place near the Certosa in 1525. 

Pavia (*Crore Bianco, R. from 2i/ 2 fr., L. y. 2 , omnibus Yafr. ; 
Lombarditi ; Pozzo, near the bridge over the Ticino ; Tre Re, start- 
ing-point of the diligences ; Cafe at the corner of the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele and the Corso favour"), with 29,618 inhab., 
situated near the confluence of the Ticino and the Po, the Ticinum 
of the ancients , subsequently Papia, was also known as the Citta 
ili Cento Torri from its hundred towers , many of which still 
exist. In the middle ages it was the faithful ally of the Grer- 
man emperors, until it was subjugated by the Milanese; it is 
still partly surrounded by the walls and fortifications of that period. 
At the N. end of the town is situated the Castle, erected by the 
Visconti in 1460 — 69, now employed as a barrack. 

Leaving the railway - station , we enter the Corso Cavour 
through the Porta Borgorato or Marengo (in a wall to the r. is the 
statue of a Roman magistrate), and following the Via S. Giuseppe 
to the r. reach the Piazza del Duomo. The Cathedral (PL 4) rises 
on the site of an ancient basilica, to which, a gateway on the 1. and 
the huge Romanesque campanile still belong. The present edifice, 
begun in accordance with a design by Bramante , and continued by 
Cristoforo Rocchi in 1486, but never completed, is a vast circular 
structure with four arms. 

In the interior, on the r., is the sumptuous *Arca di S. Agostino, 
adorned with 290 figures (of saints and allegorical), begun , it is 
supposed, in 1362 by Bonino da Cainpiglione, by whom the figures 
on the tombs of the Scaliger family at Verona (p. 173) were exe- 
cuted. The lance of Roland is also preserved here. Then , to the 
r. of the entrance, a large model in wood of the church as originally 

We may now proceed to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a street 
intersecting the town in a straight direction from N. to S., from the 
Porta di Milano to the Porta Ticinese , and leading to the covered 
Bridge ( a pleasant promenade with picturesque view) over the 

1 Baffni puZbtici A. 5 

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to Genoa. PAVIA. 26. Route. 155 

Ticino , which is here navigated by barges and steamboats. A 
chapel stands on the bridge, halfway across. 

S. Michele (PI. 7), to which the third side-street to the r. leads 
( coming from the bridge ) , a Romanesque structure erroneously 
attributed to the Lombard kings , belongs to the latter part of the 
11th cent., but has recently been restored. The facade is adorned 
with numerous very ancient reliefs in sandstone in ribbon-like 
stripes and a curious gable gallery. The nave and aisles are 
supported by eight pillars, from which rise double round arches. 
The short choir, under which there is a crypt, terminates in an 
apse. Over the centre of the transept rises a dome. The pillars 
of the nave are adorned with ancient frescoes by pupils of Giotto. 

The traveller may now ascend the Corso Vitt. Emanuele to the 
University (PI. 31), the oldest in Europe, said to have been founded 
by Charlemagne. The building is much handsomer than that of 
Padua (p. 189) ; the quadrangles of the interior are surrounded by 
handsome arcades and embellished with numerous memorial-tablets, 
busts, and monuments of celebrated professors and students. In 
the first court is a marble statue of the mathematician Antonio 
Bordoni (d. 1864), in the second three monuments to professors 
attended by students. 

The Contrada del Gesu, opposite the university, and the first 
street diverging from it to the 1. lead to the (r.) Casa Malaspina, 
at the entrance to the court of which are busts of Bo'ethius and 
Petrarch. The former, when confined here by Emperor Theodoric, 
composed his work on the 'Consolation of Philosophy', and the 
latter once spent an autumn here with his daughter and son-in- 
law. His grandson, who died at the Casa Malaspina, was interred 
in the neighbouring church of S. Zeno. A short poem of Petrarch 
in allusion to this event, in six Latin distich s , is one of the many 
inscriptions on the wall opposite the entrance. The building con- 
tains a small collection of pictures and engravings. ■ — The Contrada 
del Gesu terminates in the Piazza del Carmine, in which is situated 
the church of S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 6), a brick edifice of fine 
proportions , flanked with chapels, and dating from 1395. Oppo- 
site to it is a handsome court of the 15th cent, (undergoing resto- 

From Pa via to Valenza by railway in 2 hrs. (fares 5 fr. 75, 4 fr. 5, 
2 fr. 90 c). The line crosses the Ticino and intersects the Lomellina, or 
broad plain of the Po, in a S.W. direction. Stations Cava, Zinasco, Pieve, 
Sannazzaro, Ferrera, Lomello, Mede, Castellaro, Torre-Beretti , Valenza; 
see p. 151. 

Beyond Pavia the line crosses the Ticino, and a short distance 
farther the Po and one of its small affluents. Stations Cava- 
Manara, Bressana, Calcababbio. 

Voghera, and the journey to Tortona , see p. 81. Novi, and 
the journey to 

Genoa, see p. 151. 


27. From Milan to Verona. 

43 M. Railway in 5^—7 hrs. (tares 18 fr. 56, 13 fr. 53, 10 fr. 61 c). 
Finest views to the left. 

First stations Limito and Melzo. Near stat. Cassano , a large 
village with handsome houses , the train crosses the blue Adda, 
which issues from the Lake of Como near Lecco (p. 136). At 
Treviglio the line turns to the N. (branch-line to Cremona, see 
R. 32). 

Bergamo (1*24(3 ft.) (* Italia, R. from 2 fr., L. 1/2, A. i/ 2 fr. ; 
* Yenezia; Elefante; *Caffe Centrale), the capital of the district, or 
•Delegation', consisting of two distinct quarters, the new town (Borgo 
S. Leonardo) and the old town (Citth), is an important commercial 
place with 37,363 inhab.. celebrated for its great Fair, the Fiera 
di S. Alessandro, held annually from the middle of August to the 
middle of September. The New Town, containing the Fiera, or 
site of the fair , the corso, and the new town-hall (municipalita), 
is situated on level ground. The Old Town on the hill, connected 
witli the lower town by the Strada Vittorio Emanuele , and con- 
sisting chiefly of very steep streets, is the seat of the government- 
offices and courts of justice. The Promenade affords a fine view 
of the richly cultivated plain and the beautiful amphitheatre form- 
ed by the surrounding mountains , particularly those to the N.E. 
The Castle, rising on the hill to the N.W. above the town, com- 
mands a still finer prospect. In the market-place (l'/ 4 M. from the 
railway-station), now the Piazza Garibaldi, is situated the Palazzo 
iVmoi'o, the seat of the municipal authorities, erected in the Re- 
naissance style by Scamozzi, but unfinished. Opposite to it is the 
library in the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio, or Broletto , the ground-floor 
of which consists of an open hall supported by pillars and columns. 
Near it is the Monument of Torquato Tasso (whose father Bernardo 
was bom at Bergamo in 1493), and a handsome fountain. At the 
back of the Broletto rises the church of S. Maria Maggiore, erected in 
1 173 in the Romanesque style (entrance on the S. side), with ancient 
portals supported by lions on the N. and S. sides. Adjoining the N. 
portal is the rich Renaissance facade of the chapel of the Colleoni. 
The church contains some ancient pictures , fine * carved work on 
the choir-stalls, admirable inlaid wood (intarsia) by the Bergamas- 
que (Jiov. Franc. Capo Ferrato , and the handsome monuments of 
the celebrated composer Donizetti of Bergamo (d. 1848), by Vine. 
Vel<i . and (opposite) his teacher Uior. Simone Mayr (d. 1845). 
The adjoining *Cappella Colleoni (shown by the sagrestano of the 
church), in the early Renaissance style , contains the monument of 
the founder Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475), with reliefs representing the 
Bearing of the Cross ; Crucifixion, and Descent from the Cross; above 
them, the gilded equestrian statue of Colleoni ; adjacent, the much 
smaller, but beautifully executed monument of his daughter Medea, 
S. (irata, adjacent to a nunnery, contains fine paintings and reliefs. 

•1 « w 

W 3 W 

PESCHIERA. 27! Route. 157 

On the slope of the hill, in the street leading to the lower town, is 
situated the Accademia Carrara, a school of art containing models 
and a picture-gallery (open iaily, 10 — 3). 

1st Room: 28. Velasquez, Portrait. — 2nd R. : 79. Leandro Bassano, 
Monk praying; 85. Vittore Belliniano, Crucifixion; 75. Civetta, St. Chris- 
topher; 97. Paolo Veronese, St. Christina; 95. Moretto, Holy Family; 
87. Titian , Sketch. — 3rd R. : 200. Mantegna, Resurrection ; 218. Bart. 
Vivarini, Madonna; 204. Oiov. Bellini, Portrait; 205. Carotlo, Adoration of 
the Magi ; 213. Beltraffio, Madonna ; 212. Antonello da Messina, St. Sebastian ; 
194. Crivelli, Madonna; 210. Oiov. Bellini, Madonna; 192. Mantegna, Por- 
trait; *190. B. Luini, Annunciation; 187. Giorgione (?), Portrait; 154. Lor. 
Lotto, Holy Family; 146'. A. Previtali, Madonna; 128. (lima, Saints; 
*135. Raphael, St. Sebastian (questionable, perhaps Perugino); 104. Fr. 
Franeia, Bearing of the Cross; 106. Diirer , same subject. — 4th R. : 237. 
A. Palmezzano, Madonna; 128. Previtali, Madonna; *187. Mantegna, Madonna. 

From Bergamo to Lecco by railway in l'|i hr. ; fares 4 fr., 2 fr. 90, 
2 fr. 5 c. ; stations : Ponte S. Pietro, Mapello, Cisano, Calolzio, Lecco. From 
Lecco to Varenna and Colico, see p. 136. 

The line now describes a wide curve towards the S.E., and at 
stat. Seriate crosses the SeWo. Stations Qarlago and Qrumello 
(hence to the Lago d'Iseo , see p. 167). At stat. Palazzolo 
the Oglio (p. 167), descending from the Lago d'Iseo, is crossed. 
Picturesque glimpse of the village in the valley to the 1. with its 
slender towers. Then stat. Coccaglio, with the monastery of Mont 
Orfano on a height, stat. Ospedaletto, and stat. Brescia (seeR. 30), 
commanded by its castle. 

The slopes near Brescia are sprinkled with villas. The red 
colour of the mountains is due to the presence of abundant iron-ore 
(comp. p. 162). The line soon quits the hilly district. Stat. 
Rezzato. Near stat. Ponte S. Marco the Chiese is crossed. Beyond 
stat. Lonato a short tunnel and a long cutting. 

A long viaduct now carries the line to Desenzano (p. 159), a 
harbour at the S.W. end of the Lago di Oarda (see below). The 
train affords an admirable survey of the lake and the peninsula of 
Sermione (p. 159), connected with the land by a narrow isthmus. 
The venerable castle with its pinnacles and tower is especially 
conspicuous . 

Next stat. Pozzolengo. In this district, extending from the 
banks of the la\e to a point considerably beyond Ouidizzolo (on 
the road from Brescia to Mantua), the obstinate and sanguinary 
battle of S jiferino was fought on 24th June , 1859 , between the 
united French and Italian armies and the Austrians. The defeat 
of the latter led shortly afterwards to the Peace of Villafranca 
(p. 178). The line of battle extended to a length of upwards of 
15 M. The village of Solferino (Inn, good red wine ; guides) 
lies on the heights to the S., about 5 M. from the railway ; carriage 
from stat. Desenzano, there and back, 15 fr. 

The train next reaches (in 20 min. from Desenzano) Peschiera 
^Railway Restaurant ; station 3 / 4 M. from the town ; in the latter, 

158 Route 28. LAGO DI GARDA. 

Tre Corone), a fortified town situated at the S.E. end of the Lago 
di Garda , at the efflux of the Mincio from the lake. In 1848 
Peschiera was taken by the Piedmontese after a gallant defence by 
the Austrian General Rath. The villages of Volta and Goito, situ- 
ated at some distance to the S., were also the scene of battles 
during the same year. 

Beyond Peschiera the train crosses the Mincio. Stat. Castel- 
nuovo ; the village is picturesquely situated on the 1. Beyond 
a chain of hills, penetrated by means of several cuttings , the train 
reaches stat. Somma Campagna, then S. Lucia, and finally 

Verona, see p. 171. 

28. The Lago di Garda. 

Steamboat. W. Bank, between Desenzano and Riva: dep. from 
Deaenzano daily at 1. 50 p. m., arr. at Riva at 6. 30 p. m., dep. from 
Riva daily at 7. 30 a. m., except Tuesdays, when it starts at 4 a. m. 
(fares 4 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c). Stations Salo, Maderno, Gargnano, Tignale, 
Tremosine, Limone , Riva. E. Bank, between Riva and Peschiera: dep. 
from Riva daily at 6 a. m., except Mondays, when it starts at 4 a. m.; 
dep. from Peschiera daily at 3 p. m., arr. at Riva at 7. 15 p. m. (fares 
4 x |a, 2'|2 fr.). Stations Mulcesine, Assenza, Castelletto, Forri, Garda, Bardo- 
lino, Lazise, Peschiera. — Poor restaurant on board the steamers. 

The Lago di Garda (_226 ft.), the Lacus Benacus of the Romans, 

the largest of the N. Italian lakes, is 35 M. in length , and 7 M. 
broad at the widest part; area 189 sq. M., depth in many places 
upwards of 1000 ft. The whole lake belongs to Italy, except the N. 
extremity with Riva, which is Austrian. 

The lake is rarely perfectly calm , and in stormy weather is 
almost as rough as the sea, a circumstance recorded by Virgil (Georg. 
II. 160). The blue water, like that of all the Alpine lakes, is 
remarkably clear. The carpione , or salmon-trout, which attains a 
weight of 25 lbs., the trutta, or trout, 1 — J.i/ 2 lb., the lagone, and 
the sardene are excellent fish. 

The banks, although inferior in attraction to those of the Lake 
of Como, present a great variety of beautiful landscapes, enhanced 
by the imposing expanse of the water. Those of the S. half are 
flat and well cultivated, but they become bolder between Capo S. 
Vigilio and a point to the N. of Salo, where the lake contracts. The 
vegetation is luxuriant, especially on the more sheltered W. bank. 
Even the sensitive lemon arrives at maturity here (nowhere else 
in N. Italy, except on the Riviera di Ponente, see p. 95), but the 
trees require to be carefully covered in winter. This is accom- 
plished with the aid of numerous white pillars of brick, 8 — -20 ft. in 
height, erected at regular intervals, and united by transverse beams 
at the top. The fruit is more bitter and aromatic than that of 
Sicily, suffers less from carriage, and keeps longer. Price in plen- 
tiful seasons 3 — 4 fr. per hundred, but frequently as high as 10 fr. 

RIVA. 28. Route. 159 

Desenzano (Mayer's Hotel; Posta Vecchia, pension 6 J /2 fr. ; 
Vittoria; Aquila), a thriving little town with 4000 inhab., at the 
S.W. angle of the lake , is a station on the railway from Milan 
to Verona (R. 27). Omnibus from the steamboat to the train 50 c, 
luggage 25 c. 

To the E., not quite half-way to Peschiera (p. 161), is the 
narrow promontory of Sermione ( i Sirmio , penisularum insularum- 
que ocellus'), projecting 3 M. into the lake, which here attains its 
greatest breadth. The poet Catullus once resided and composed his 
poems in a villa on this peninsula. The still existing rains con- 
sist of two vaults, remains of a bath, etc. A castle was also erect- 
ed here by the Scaligers , who for upwards of a century (1262 
— 1389) were princes of Verona. 

The Steamboat steers near the W. bank, but does not touch at 
the small villages of Moniga and Manerba. Opposite to the promon- 
tory of 8. Vigilio (p. 161) it next passes the small Isola di S. Bia- 
gio and the beautiful crescent-shaped island of Lecchio, or Isola 
dei Frati, the property of the Marehese Scotti of Bergamo. The 
latter was fortified by the Italians in 1859, but the works have 
since been removed. The steamer now steers to the W. and en- 
ters the bay of Sal6 (Gambero) , a delightfully situated town with 
3400 inhab., surrounded with terraces of fragrant lemon-groves. 
The Monte S. Bartolommeo , at the foot of which the town lies, 
affords a charming view, especially by evening light. (Diligence 
to Brescia, see below.) Gardone is the next village ; then Ma- 
demo, on a promontory extending far into the lake, beyond which 
rises the Monte Pizzocolo. Farther on are Toscolano, Cocina, and 
Bogliaco. At the latter a large country-residence of Count Bettoni. 
Most of the lemon-gardens belong to members of the Italian noblesse. 
Then Gargnano (*Cervo), an important looking place (4000 inhab. ) 
in the midst of lemon and oliVe plantations , and one of the most 
attractive points on the lake (diligence twice daily to Brescia by 
Said, Gavardo, and Rezzata). 

i ! The mountains now become loftier. The small villages of 
Muslone, Piovere, Tignale, and Oldese are almost adjacent. Then 
Tremosine, on the hill, scarcely visible from the lake, to which 
a steep path ascends on the precipitous and rocky bank. In a bay 
farther on are seen the white houses of Limone, another lemon and 
olive producing village. The Austrian frontier is passed a little 
beyond La Nova , and a view is soon obtained of the Fall of the 
Ponale (see below). 

^ Rrva (*Albergo Tkaffellini al Sole i>'Oko, K. 1 fl., L. and A. 50 
kr.; *Giardino, K. 90, B. 40, L. and A. 30 kr.; Hotel Kekn ; Cafi Andreis 
Vittoria, both under the arcades on the quay. Baths in the lake to the 
W., beyond the glacis of the castle; Stellwagen to Mori, 65 kr., see p. 
161), charmingly situated at the N. end of the lake, and bound- 
ed by precipitous mountains on the E. and W. The Church of the 

160 Route 28. VALLE DI LEDRO. Lago di Garda. 

Minorites, outside the Porta S. Michele, erected in the 16th cent, 
and adorned with gilding and stucco mouldings, is a fine example 
of its style. The Parish Church in the town possesses several modern 
pictures and frescoes. The watch-tower of La Rocca on the lake, 
fortified anew since 1850, at present a barrack, and the old Castello, 
high on the mountain to the W., erected by the Scaligers, greatly 
enhance the picturesqueness of the place. The situation of Riva is 
sheltered and healthy, the heat of summer being tempered by the 
lake. Private apartments may be procured on moderate terms. 
Luggage is examined at Riva on the arrival and departure of the 
steamboats by Austrian and Italian officials respectively. 

Exccksions. To the Fall of the Fonale (2 hrs.). The waterfall itself, 
which is formed by the Ponale shortly before it issues from the Val Ledro 
into the lake, is hardly worth a visit, especially as it is difficult to find a 
good point of view (best from a boat, 2 fl. and fee), but a walk on the 
*Road to the Val Ledro, which is carried along the rocks of the W. Bank 
at a considerable height by means of tunnels and cuttings, and commands 
beautiful views, will repay the traveller (shade in the afternoon). A path 
to the waterfall diverges from the road to the 1. at the point where it 
turns into the Val Ledro. Limone (p. 159) lies 4>|a M. to the S. of the 

The Monte Brione (1224 ft.), a hill between Riva and Torbole (p. 161), 
'|2 hr. to the X. E., affords a fine survey of the valley and almost the 
entire lake. Path somewhat rough. — Pleasant excursion into the Val 
Varrone. The road, skirting the slope of the hill, leads to Pranzo and 
by the small lake of Tenno to (9 II.) Temw , with an old castle. 
The road then traverses richly cultivated uplands , at a considerable 
height, commanding a succession of views, and leads by Varignano to 
(4 M.) Arco (p. 57). 

The Monte Baldo, a range 45 M. in length, which separates the Lake 
of Garda from the valley of the Adige, is best ascended from JVago, 3 M. 
E. of Riva. The Allissiino di -A'ayu (6811 ft.), the summit towards the N. 
and the most beautiful point, is reached hence in 4>|2 hrs. (with guide). 
Extensive panorama, comprising a great portion of Upper Italy, the lake, 
the valley of the Adige, and the snow-mountains of the Adamello, Presa- 
nella and the Order. The ascent of the Monte Maggiore, or 'Telegra/o 
(6942ft.), the central point, 6 hrs. from Tovri or Garda (see below), via 
Caprino in 7 hrs., is fatiguing. 

The Valle di Ledro affords another interesting excursion. Beginning 
of the route the same as to the Fall of the Ponale (see above). The road 
turns to the W. and enters the green valley. It leads by Biaresa , Bre, 
Barcesine , the pretty Lago di ledro (2135 ft.), and Mezz'olago on its N. 
bank, to (7>| 2 11. from Riva) Piere di Ledro. At Bezzecca, 3J, M. farther, 
opens the Val Come, I, with the villages of ('| 4 hr.) Enguiso and (>| 4 hr.) 
Lenzumo (thence back to Riva direct, by the Mle. Tratta and Campi , in 
3'| 2 hrs.). From Be/./.ecea the road leads by Tiarno and through the 
sequestered Val Ampola to (9 M.) Storo (Cavallo Bianco) in the Val Bona, 
or Chiese, in which, 3 M. higher, lies Conditio (Torre) , the capital of 
S. Giudicaria. — Near the Fort Ampola, which formerly defended the road 
but was destroyed in 1866 (3 M. before Storo is reached), the wild Val 
Lnrina opens on the 1.; through this valley a rough path leads to Magasu 
in the Val Veslino , surrounded by lofty mountains (more conveniently 
accessible from Toscolano on the Lago di (jarda, or from Bondone or Anfo 
on the Lago d"Idro, see below). 

Beyond Storo, and about l 1 ^ M. below the bridge over the Chiese the 
road crosses the Caffaro near Lodroue (Austrian and Italian frontier) ' and 
reaches (l'J 2 31.) the Lago d'Idro, U 31. long, 'j 4 31. broad, the W bank 
of which it skirts. Opposite (3 3 |4 M.) Anfo, with the mountain-castle 

Lagodi Oarda. MALCESINE. 28. Route. 161 

Rocca cTArifo, lies the small village of Idro. At (3 M.) Lavenone, at the 
S. end of the lake, begins the picturesque Val Sabbia, of which the capi- 
tal is (3 M.) Testone (Tre Spade). At (3 M.) Barghe the road divides; 
that to the E. leads by Sabbio, Vobarno, and Volciano to (12 M.) Salt on 
the Lago di Garda (p. 159); that to the W. to Preseglie and through the 
Val Oarza to (15 M.) Brescia (p. 162). 

From Riva to Mori (p. 58) omnibus (Leonardos) twice daily in 2 hrs. 
(fare 65, coupe 75 kr.). The road skirts the lake, and leads through 
Fort H. Nircolb to Torbole (*Bertolini), a harbour at the influx of the 
Sarca into the lake. It then rapidly ascends a wild and stony height 
(where the omnibus requires the aid of oxen), commanding magnificent 
retrospects of Arco and fhe lake , and passes Nago , where a fort was 
erected in 1859. The road next skirts the picturesque little lake of Loppio 
(928 ft.), from the middle of which a wooded rock rises, passes Loppio, 
an estate of Count Castelbarco of Milan, and reaches the village of Mori, 
2 31. from the station. 

10 mill, after the steamboat has quitted Riva the above 
mentioned fall of the Ponale comes in view. Torbole (see above") 
is left on the 1. The steamer now steers S. to Malcesine (2000 
inhab.), a good harbour on the E. bank, with an old cnstle of 
Charlemagne , which was subsequently a robbers' stronghold. 
Goethe, while sketching this ruin, narrowly escaped being arrested 
as a spy by the Venetian government. The castle has since been 
restored. Beyond it is the rock of Jsoletto, then Cassone, and a 
short distance farther the small island of Tremelone. The next 
places of importance are Castello , S. Giovanni , Castelletto, Mon- 
tagna, and somewhat inland Torri. The banks gradually become 
flatter. The promontory of San Vigilio, sheltered from the N. wind 
by the Monte Baldo, extends far into the lake, and is the most 
beautiful point of view on the E. bank. The surrounding hills 
are planted with vines, olives, and fig-trees. The village of 
Oarda (1100 inhab.), beautifully situated in a bay at the influx 
of the Tesino which descends from the Monte Baldo, gives its name 
to the lake. The chateau belongs to Count Albertini of Verona. 
To the S. in the distance is the peninsula of Sermione (p. 159). 
The next places are Bardolino (2000 inhab.) with a harbour, 
Cisano, and Lazise (2600 inhab.), another harbour. 

Peschiera [Restaurant on the quay) (see p. 157) at the efflux 
of the Mincio from the lake , is a station on the Milan and Verona 
railway.. Station I1/4 M. from the lake, omnibus 75 c. 

29. From Favia to Brescia by Cremona. 

T71J2 M. Railway in 5 hrs. (fares 13 fr. 90, 9 fr. 80 c, 7 fr.). None 
of the stations are worthy of note except Cremona , but this line affords 
the most direct communication between Genoa and Verona (on the 
Brenner Railway). — From Pavia to Piacenza bv Codogno in 2 hrs. (fares 
6 fr. 75, 4 fr. 80, 3 fr. 45 c). 

The line intersects the fertile plain watered by the Po and 
the Olona. Stations Motta San Damiano, Belgiojoso, with a hand- 
some chateau ; near Corteolona the Olona is crossed. Then M i- 

Bjedeker. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 11 

162 Route JO. BRESCIA. 

rudolo, C'hignolo on a small tributary of trie Po , Ospedaletto , and 
Cnsalpusterlengo , where the liin" unites with that from Piacenza 
to Milan (R. 40 ). Stat. Codogno possesses large cheese manufacto- 
ries ; the line to Piacenza diverges here to the S. (p. 236). Near 
Pi-zitjhettone, a fortified place, the Adda, which is here navigable, 
is crossed. This district is considered unhealthy. Stations Ac- 
quanegra and ('ana Tiyoxi. 

Cremona (p. 169 ) is a terminus station , from which the train 
backs out. To Treviglio (Milan and Bergamo), see R. 32. 

From Cremona to Brescia the line proceeds due N. , following 
the direction of the high road, through a flat district. Stations 
Olmenetii. Robecco-Pontei-ico, beyond which the Oglio, a consi- 
derable affluent of the Po, is crossed. Yerolanuova, Manerbio, 
then across the Mella to Bagnolo and S. Zeno Folzano. 

Brescia, see below. 

30. Brescia. 

Hotels. Albekgo Reale, B. 2>|2, D. 3, A. I tr.; Albeego Fejuce, in 
the Piazza del Duomo; Italia, well spoken of; Toeke di Londea; *Gam- 
beeo and +Scuno ui Fkancia, moderate; Capello. 

Cafes. Several adjacent to the theatre and in the Piazza del Duomo. — 
Beer at Wiilirer's, near S. f'lemente (PI. 20). 

Fiacres (Cittadine) 85 c. per drive, l'l-i i'r. per hour. 

Diligences twice daily to Edolo, 5 fr. 80 c. (comp. p. 166). From 
Brescia to Iseo 1 i'r. 70 c. ; from Edolo to Pisogne 3 fr. From Brescia to 
Mantua, see p. 181. — Railway by Cremona to Pavia, see E. 29. 

Brescia ( 515 ft. ), the ancient Briria, which was conquered by 
the Gauls and afterwards became a Roman colony, vied with Milan 
at the beginning of the 16th cent, as one of the wealthiest cities 
of Lombardy, but in 1512 was sacked and burned by the French 
under Gaston dc Foix, after an obstinate defence. Five years 
later it was restored to the dominions of Venice, to which it 
belonged till 179?. but it has never recovered its ancient impor- 
tance. On 1st April, 1849, the town was bombarded and taken by 
the Anstrians under Haynuu. 

The town, with 88,906 inhab., many of whom are occupied in 
the manufacture of iron wares, is delightfully situated at-the base 
of the Alps. Previous to the events of 1848 the town and its 
environs constituted a vast manufactory of weapons ('Brescia 
nrmotu), and furnished a large proportion of the arms used by the 
Austrian army. Its energies are now devoted to the service 
of Italy. 

We quit the station by a broad street, turn to the r. into the 
Corso Garibaldi, and follow the third side street to the 1. as far as 
some painted houses, pass between them, and again turn to the 1. 
in front of the double arcades. The first side street on the r. then 
leads to the Piazza del Duomo. 

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BRESCIA. 30. Routt. 163 

The *Duomo Nuovo (PI. 5), or episcopal cathedral , begun in 
1604 by Lattanzio Gambaro, but the dome not finally completed till 
1825, is one of the best churches of that period. 

Intebiok. By the first pillar on the r. is the large *monument of Bishop 
Nava (d. 1831), with gronps in marble and a relief by Monti of Ravenna ; 
by the first pillar on the 1. the monument of Bishop Ferrari. The second 
altar on the r. is adorned with modern statues in marble of Faith by 
Selaroni, and Hope, by Emanueli, and a modern painting, Christ healing 
the sick, by Gregoletti. Then (3rd altar on the r.) a sarcophagus with 
reliefs, date about 1500, containing 'Corpora D. D. Apollonii el Philastri', 
transferred hither in 1674"from the crypt of the old cathedral. High altar- 
piece an Assumption by Zoboli, designed by Conca. In the dome the four 
Evangelists in marble. 

The Duomo Vecchio , generally termed La Rotonda (PI. 6), 
situated on the low ground to the S. of the Duomo Nuovo, is 
shown by the sacristan of the new cathedral (who lives at the back 
of the choir of the latter). This massive structure is circular , as 
its name imports, with a passage round it, surmounted by a dome, 
and resting on eight short pillars in the interior. The substructure 
is very ancient (9th cent.), while the dome and cupola (Romanesque) 
date from the 12th century. The transept and choir with lateral 
chapels at the back were added at a very early period. On both 
sides of the pulpit are statues by Alessandro Vittoria. At the 
second altar on the r. is the monument of Bishop Lambertino 
(d. 1349) with reliefs. Altarpiece, an *Assumption by Moretto. 
Beneath the dome is the crypt, or Basilica di S. Filastrio, sup- 
ported by 42 columns (not at present accessible). 

The Broletto (PI. 2), adjoining the cathedral on the N., is a 
massive and spacious building of the 12th cent., but subsequently 
so much altered that its original form has been almost entirely 
obliterated. It was anciently the seat of the municipal authorities, 
and now contains the courts of justice. Part of it is used as a 
prison. The campanile onthe-S. side, termed La Torre delPopolo, 
belongs to the original edifice. A well preserved fragment of 
Romanesque architecture in the street ascending hence, with circular 
windows and brick mouldings, is also interesting. 

Opposite the E. side of the Duomo Nuovo is the entrance to 
the *Biblioteca Quiriniana (Biblioteca Comunale, PI. 19 ; fee Y^fr.), 
comprising 40,000 vols. , bequeathed to the town in 1750 by Car- 
dinal Quirini. Several curiosities are preserved in a separate 
cabinet. (Admission daily, except Wed., 11 — 3, in winter 10 — 3, 
Sund. 2 — 5; vacation from 24th Dec. to 1st Jan. and from 1st 
Oct. to 2nd Nov. ; closed on high festivals, and during the carnival). 

A Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent, with gold letters on purple 
vellum; a Koran in 12 vols., adorned with miniatures and gilding; a 
*cross 4 ft. in height (Croce Magna), of gold, decorated with cameos and 
.jewels and portraits of the Empress Galla PJacidia and her sons Honorius 
and Valentinian III., resembling modern miniatures, the whole a most 
valuable specimen of the workmanship of the 4th cent. ; a small cross 
adorned with gold and pearls and a fragment of the 'True Cross', said to 
have been worn by St. Helena. The Lipsanoleca, carved in ivory, a cross 


164 Route 30. BRESCIA. Museo Patrio. 

composed of the sides of an ancient relic -casket, with scriptural 
scenes, of the 4th or 5th cent. The Dillico Quiriniano, carved in ivory, 
presented by Pope Paul II., and other diptychs (ivory tablets with 
reliefs). Several calendars carved on a staff. Two caskets containing 
letters which passed between Xapoleon and Canova. — In a separate room 
old Books of the Gospels with miniatures; a MS. of Dante on parchment, 
with miniatures*, a Petrarch of 1470 with various illustrations CPetrarca 
figurato') and written annotations; a Dante with notes, printed at Brescia 
in 1487; the Codice Eusebiano, a concordance of the 11th cent, with minia- 
tures; Madonna painted on lapis lazuli by Titian. 

Ascending tlie street at the back of the cathedral and Bro- 
letto , and turning to the r., we reach the small piazza with 
the entrance to the *Museo Patrio (PI. 17; open 11 — 3 daily, 
gratis; onSund., holidays, and daring the vacations, Sept. and 
Oct., on payment of a fee - visitors knock at the door), established 
in a Corinthian temple of Hercules(?), which according to inscrip- 
tions was erected by Vespasian in A. D. 72 (Tempio di Vespasianol, 
and excavated in 1822. It stands on a lofty substructure with a 
projecting colonnade of ten columns and four pillars to which 
the steps ascend. The substructures , portions of the steps, the 
bases and parts of the shafts of the columns, in white marble, are 
still well preserved. 

The Principal Hall contains the Altar, still in its ancient position. 
The pavement has been restored with the aid of the original relics. An 
ancient mosaic and Roman inscriptions from the province have also been 
placed here. The Room on the right contains mediaeval and other curi- 
osities , ornaments , the monument of Count Pitigliano , weapons , medals 
(those of the Napoleonic period very numerous). In the Room on the left 
are ancient sculptures , the most valuable of which is a fine statue of 
**Victory , excavated in 1826, a bronze figure about 6 ft. in height, with 
a silver wreath of laurel round the head , in the left hand a (restored) 
shield on which she is about to write , beneath the 1. foot a (restored) 
helmet ; this is one of the most admirable specimens in existence of the 
ancient plastic art. Also a number of coins and medals, ornaments, 
busts in gilded bronze, fragments of a colossal figure from a temple, 
portions of sarcophagi, decorated breastplate of a horse, etc. 

The street opposite the museum descends to a small piazza, 
from which a street to the 1. leads to S. Clemente. Remains of an 
ancient edifice are built into the wall of the house No. 285 in the 
small piazza. 

S. Clemente (PI. 20) is a small church containing the tomb of 
the painter Alessandro Bonvicini , surnamed Moretto (d. 1564), a 
monument recently erected to him , and five of his works : r. 2nd 
altar, SS. Cecilia, Barbara, Agnes, Agatha, and Lucia; 1. 1st 
altar, St. Ursula; 2nd altar, St. Jerome praying; 3rd altar, Abra- 
ham and Melchisedech ; *high altar-piece, SS. Clement, Mary 
Magdalene, and Catharine. Moretto is a highly esteemed master, 
and is well represented in Brescia , both in the Galleria Tosi and 
in the churches of S. Maria Calchera , S. Eufemia , Madonna delle 
Grazie, S. Francesco, S. Giovanni Evangelista, and S. Pietro in 

The *Galleria Tosi (or Museo Chico, PL 21), situated a little 
to the S. of S. Clemente, in the Contrada Tosi, Quartiere VIII. 

Galleria Tosi. BRESCIA. 30. Route. 165 

No. 596 (open daily 11 — 3 o'clock; on Sundays and festivals and 
during the vacations, Sept. and Oct. , on payment of a fee), 
bequeathed with the palace to the town by Count Tosi, contains a 
number of ancient and modern pictures, drawings, engravings, 
modern sculptures, etc. in a series of a small apartments. 

In a room on the ground-floor the Laocoon, a group in marble by Fer- 
rari; bust of Galileo by Monti; copies ofCanova's colossal busts of himself 
and Napoleon, by Gandolfi; Moretto, Virgin and Saints, from the church 
of St. Afra. — In the ante-chamber on the first floor a bust of Count 
Tosi by Monti, drawings, and frescoes by Romanino. Handsome inlaid read- 
ing desk by Fra Raffaele'da Brescia (16th cent.). — 1st Room (immediate- 
ly to the 1. of the entrance): 2. Fra Bartolommeo, Holy Family; 3. Moretto, 
Annunciation ; 6. Moretto, Tullia d'Arragona ; 13. Caravaggio, Lute player ; 
16. Portrait in the style of Giorgione; drawings. — 2nd R. : 1. Monbello, 
Presentation in the Temple; 2. Moretto, after Titian, St. Sebastian; 4. 
Moroni, Portrait (1560); 13. Francesco Francia, Madonna; 10. Lor. Lotto, 
Nativity; Moretto, 14. Herodias ; *16. The disciples at Kmmaus. — 3rd 
R. : 3. Albano , Venus and the Graces; 39. Civerchio, Adoration of the 
Child; 10. Moretto, Madonna and saints; 1. Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family 
(much damaged); 18. Moretto, Descent of the Holy Ghost; 20. Cesare da 
Sesto, Youthful Christ (V); 21. Ann. Caracci, St. Francis; *22. Raphael, 
Christ crowned with thorns. — Cabinets with interesting drawings and 
engravings (by A. Diirer, etc.). — 4th R. : Modern pictures. 2. Migliara, 
La Certosa near Pavia; 3. Borsalo, Winter at Venice; 7. Vernet, Night; 
20. Domenico Presenti, Church of St. Celso at Milan, in water-colours; 
13. Basiletti, Ischia ; 17. Canella, Dyeing-works at Roano. — In the adjacent 
cabinet a bust of Eleonora d'Este, by Canova; drawings; in the passage 
a boy treading out grapes , by Barlolini. — Corridor with engravings. — 
In the chapel a statue of the youthful Saviour, by Marchesi. — 5th R. : 
Baruzzi, Silvia, statue in marble, from Tasso. — 6th R. : 2. Canella, 
Night, and other pictures by the same master; 11. Azeglio, Episode from 
Ariosto. — 7th R. : Basiletti, Renica, Riccardi, Bisi, Italian landscapes. — 
8th R. : *Day and *Night, reliefs by Thorvaldsen. — 9th R. : Marble 
statues: 4. Franceschetti, Flora; 1. Same master, Dante's Beatrice; without 
number, Gherardo of Obstal, Sacrifice of Isaac; without number, Gandolfi, 
Genius of music; *8. Thorvaldsen, Ganymede; 9. Pampaloni, Boy praying. 
— 10th R. : Modern pictures. 1. Hayez , Jacob and Esau; 6. Appiani, 
Madonna. — 11th R. : 10. Palagi, Newton. — 12th R. : 1. Belzuoli, Copy 
of Raphael's Disputa. — !3th R. : 1. Podesli, Tasso at the court of Fer- 
rara; 2. Diotti, Death of Ugolino;' 3. Schiavoni, Raphael and the Fornarina ; 
4. Hayez, Departure of the Greeks. 

*S. Afra (PI. 1), situated in the street descending from the 
Museo Patrio, was erected in 1580 on the site of a temple of Saturn, 
but has been entirely modernised. 

1st altar on the r. , Bagnadore, Nativity of Mary; 2nd altar, Franc. 
Bassano, Baptism of S. Afra; 3rd, Passerotli, Assumption; 4th, Procaccini, 
Virgin, S. Latinus , S. Carlo, and many other saints, a confused crowd 
of figures, all of the same size. High altar-piece, by Tintoretto, Ascension, 
in which the blue of the sky is too predominant. Over the N. door, 
* Titian , Christ and the adulteress (generally covered). Over the N. 
altars : Alessandro Maganza , Christ in the house of Simon the Pharisee ; 
*P. Veronese, Martyrdom of St. Afra ; Palma Giovine, Brescian martyrs. 

S. Nazaro e Celso (PI. 13), near the gate leading to the railway - 
station, erected in 1780, contains several good pictures. 

*High altar-piece by Titian, in five sections, the Resurrection being 
the principal subject , " on the r. St. Sebastian and St. Rochus , 1. St. 
Nazarus and St. Celsus with the portrait of the founder of the picture; 
above these the Annunciation. Over the 1st altar on the 1.. *Coronation 

166 Route 30. BRESCIA. 

of the Virgin by Aforetto; over the 2nd altar on the 1., Nativity, with 
S. Nazaro and S. Celso, also by Moretlo. 

Madonna dei Miraeoli (PI. 22), near S. Nazaro, a small church 
with four domes and richly decorated facade iu the early Renais- 
sance style, was erected at the end of the 15th cent. ; 1st altar on 
the r., a *Madonna and Child, with St. Nicholas, "by Moretto. 

'Die Corso Vittorio Emanuele leads hence to the interesting 
Piazza Vecchia, in which rises the *Palazzo Comunale (PI. 16), 
usually termed La Loggia, the town-hall of Brescia, erected by 
Formenlone of Brescia in 1508 on the ruins of a temple of Vulcan, 
with 'putto' frieze by Jucopo Sansovino and window mouldings by 
Palladio, of the latter half of the 16th century. The interior was 
half destroyed by a fire in 1575. The exterior of this imposing 
structure is almost overladen with enrichments. On the ground 
floor is a deep hall resting on columns ; in front are pillars with 
columns in the wall. In the angles of the arches is a series of 
busts of Roman emperors as medallions. The upper floor recedes 
considerably. The handsome adjacent building on the r. (Archivio 
e Camera Notarile) is probably also by Formentone. (The traveller 
should walk round the entire building. ) 

(In the opposite side of the Piazza, above the arcade, rises 
the Torre dell' Orologio, or clock-tower, with a large dial marking 
the hours according to the Italian computation (twice 1 to 12j. 
The bell is struck by two iron figures as in the clock at Venice 
(p. 207). To the 1. rises a Monument, erected by the king in 
1864, in honour of the natives of Brescia who fell during the 
gallant defence of their town against the Austrians in the insur- 
rection of 1849. The third side of the piazza is occupied by the 
Prigioni, a plain Renaissance building with a handsome loggia. 

The *Campo Santo, l /- 2 M. beyond the Porta S. Giovanni, is 
one of the finest in N. Italy. It is approached by a triple avenue 
of cypresses diverging to the 1. from the high road (see below). 
The long halls, with niches resembling the columbaria of the 
ancients, were erected in 1815. Beyond the chapel in the centre 
new halls have been constructed. In the intervening space rises 
a rotunda terminating in a column, at the back of which is a 
mortuary chapel. — Fine view from the gate of the Custello. 

31. From Brescia to Tirano in the Valtellina. 
Lago d'Iseo. Monte Aprica. 

Distance about TS'/a JI. From Brescia post-omnibus daily at an early 
hour from the Albergo Keale , halting at Pisogne (1 hr.) and at Bren'o 
(1 lir. I, and arriving at Edolo in the evening; fare 7 fr. Diligence from 
Edolo to Tirana (4 fr.J 3 times weekly, returning thence to Brescia where 
it arrives in the morning. This route is recommended to travellers 'already 
acquainted with the Lake of Conio and desirous of reaching the upper 
Val 'fellina and the Stelvin or Berninu from Brescia. The scenery from 
Jseo onwards is beautiful the whole wav. 

LAGO D'ISEO. 31. Route. 167 

The omnibus quits Brescia by the Porta S. Giovanni (to the 1, 
is the cypress avenue to the Campo Santo, see above) ; after '/j lir. 
it diverges to the r. from the Milan road through a flat country to 
Camignone, and near Provaglio reaches the mountains. 

11 '/2 M. Iseo (Leone), situated on the lake of that name, is a 
busy little town. Steamboat twice daily from Sarnlco (Leone 
d'Oro), at the S. end of the lake, to Iseo and (in 2y 4 hrs.) Lovere 
(see below) and back, in correspondence with the diligences be- 
tween Grumello (p. 157J and Sarnico, Brescia and Iseo, and Lovere 
and Edolo. 

The *Lago d'Iseo (Lacus Sebinus, 620 ft. above the sea-level), 
about 15 M. in length from N. to S., about 1000 ft. deep in the 
centre, and averaging li/o M. in breadth, somewhat resembles an 
S in form. The Oglio enters the lake between Pisogne and Lovere 
and emerges from it near Sarnico. The scenery vies in beauty 
with that of the Lago di Garda , the soil is admirably cultivated, 
and the vegetation of a luxuriant, southern character. The Mezz- 
Isola, an island 1 '/j M. in length, consisting of a lofty ridge 
descending precipitously on the E. side (at the S. E. base of which 
lies PescMera d'Iseo, and at the N. W. base Siriano, two fishing- 
villages), rises picturesquely and boldly in the middle of the lake. 
Opposite PescMera lies the islet- of <S. Paolo. 

The new rock-hewn *road on the E. bank, beginning at Sale 
Marazzino and terminating at Pisogne, a distance of 6 M. , is little 
inferior in boldness to that on the banks of the Lake of Como 
(p. 135). It is carried through a number of galleries and sup- 
ported by solid masonry. Immediately to the 1. lies the lake, 
while the rocks rise precipitously on the r. overhanging the road at 
places. From Iseo it winds through a succession of vineyards, 
which cover the valley and its slopes, and reaches the bank of the 
lake at Sulzano, opposite the island mentioned above. On the 
mountain, far above, is seen the white church of S. Iiocco ; then 
the ruins of the monastery of S. Loretto on a rock in the lake. 
Sale Marazzino (Albergo della Posta), consisting of a long row of 
houses, is the largest village on the road. Next Marone, at the 
W. base of Monte Guglielmo (6414 ft. ; ascent 4 hrs. , beautiful 
view), and 

11 1/2 M. Pisogne (Albergo Qrisoni), at the N. E. end of the lake. 
Towards the close of this part of the route the scenery is strikingly 
beautiful, especially where the lake terminates in a rounded bay, 
and where Lovere (<S. Antonio, or Posta; Leone d'Oro; Canon 
d'Oro), with its busy harbour, which before the construction of the 
road afforded the sole outlet to the industry of the Val Camonica, 
lies picturesquely on the N. bank. The long and handsome Palazzo 
Tadini, a conspicuous point in the distance, contains a collection 
of antiquities, pictures, and natural history specimens, and in the 

168 Route 31. EDOLO. 

family chapel a monument by Canova. Omnibuses between Lovere 
and Edolo, and Lovere and Bergamo (p. 156). 

The road now quits the lake and. traverses a fertile, alluvial 
tract. To the 1. flows the Oglio. a considerable river, which is 
crossed at Darfo. The road skirts the W. side of the valley, 
which presents the usual characteristics of the valleys of the S. 
Alps, yielding rich crops of maize, grapes, mulberries, etc., 
and enclosed by lofty, wooded mountains. The dark rocks (ver- 
rucano)here contrast peculiarly with the light triassic formations. 

\t Cividate the Oglio is crossed by two bridges. On the height 
a very picturesque deserted monastery. Near Breno a broad hill, 
planted in numerous terraces with vines and mulberries, and 
surmounted by a ruined castle, rises from the valley. 

14 M. Breno [Pellegrino ; Albergo d'ltalia, poor) is the capital 
of the Vol Camonica, which is 36 M. in length, extends from 
Lovere and Pisogne to the Monte Tonale (see below), and produces a 
considerable quantity of silk and iron. The construction of the 
lake-road (p. 167) at a cost of 150,000 fr., defrayed by this district 
alone, bears ample testimony to the prosperity of the inhabitants. 

The road now crosses a mountain-torrent descending from 
Monte Phzv, the indented crest of which peeps from an opening 
on the r. A massive mountain of basalt here extends towards the 
road, and columnar basalt is visible at places near the summit. 
Beyond Capo di Ponte { 1374 ft. ) the character of the scenery 
gradually changes. The valley contracts, maize and mulberries 
become rarer, while numerous chestnut-trees flourish on the slopes 
and in the valley itself. The road ascends slightly. 

I61/2 M- Edolo (2287 ft.) (*Posta ; Due Mori ; Leone), a moun- 
tain-village possessing iron-works, lies in a basin on the Oglio, 
which descends from the rocks here and forms a waterfall. (Dili- 
gence to Tirano, see p. 166; one-horse carriage to Tirano in6hrs., 
10 fr.; to Lovere in 9 hrs., 15 fr. Distance from Edolo to Tirano 
25 M.) 

The new Tonale Rudte , diverging here to the N. E. to the Monte 
Tonale (6345 ft. J, is one of the most important military roads from the 
Tyrol to N. Italy, and was formerly intended by the Austrian government 
to supersede the much higher Stclvio Route (p. 47), the maintenance of 
which was attended with far greater expense. The road leads on the 
E. side of the Monti: Tonale, which forms the boundary between Lomhardy 
and the Tyrol, through the \'ul di Sole (Sttlzherg) and Yal di 1V011 (Nons- 
berg), which descend to 8. Michel,' for Walsch- Michael ) , a station on the 
railway from Bozen to Verona (p. 55), in the valley of the Adige. 

The new road, which crosses numerous bridges and rests al- 
mo>t entirely on masonry, gradually ascends from Edolo on the N. 
slope of the mountain. At Vordenedolo, a village with a large church 
and handsome parsonage, the new road is joined by the old which 
leads on the r. (S.) bank of the Corteno. Beyond it is a picturesque 
rocky gorge. High up on the r. lies the village of Oalleno. 
Near the poor village of 5. Pietro the highest point of the Passo 

CREMONA. 32. Route. 169 

d 'Apnea (4049 ft. J is reached. The boundary-stone between the 
Val Camonica and the Val Tellina stands on the old road to the 
1., about half-way between Edolo and Tirano. The inn Alia 
Croat d'Oro is 3 / 4 M. farther. Aprlca, l'/ 2 M. w °f S. Pietro, is 
another village consisting of rude huts only. 

A view of the Val Tellina , with Sondrio in the background, 
is now soon disclosed. The broad, gravelly bed of the Adda 
(p. 52) and the devastations frequently caused by the stream are 
well surveyed hence. Several of the snowy spurs of the Bernina 
come in view to the N."; lower down, above Tresenda, rises the 
square watch-tower of Teglio (p. 52). On the road is the Belvedere 
(Inn), l'/2 M. from Aprica. Fine view of the valley of the Adda. 

The admirably constructed road now descends through plan- 
tations of chestnuts, in a long curve, to La Motta; it Anally 
reaches the bottom of the valley of the Adda by means of two 
tunnels, and crosses the river near Tresenda (p. 52). In tolerably 
dry seasons, when no inundation of the Adda need be apprehended, 
pedestrians are recommended to quit the high Toad, a few paces 
from the point where it turns to the W., by a footpath to the 
r. , at first, somewhat steep , which near the village of Staziona 
crosses a brook, passes through an opening in the wall, and Teaches 
Madonna di Tirano (p. 52) in I 1 /.) hr. A saving of 4'/ 2 M. is 
thus effected. From Tresenda to Tirano about 6 M. Tirano 
(1413 ft.), see p. 52. Those whose destination is Sondrio need 
not proceed first to Tirano, but carriages are seldom to be obtained 
at Tresenda. 

32. From Milan to Cremona. 

61 Si'. Railway in 3i| 4 hrs. ; fares 11 fr. 90, 8 fr. 65, 6 fr. 15 c. 

From Milan to Treviglio, see p. 156. The train here diverges 
to the S.E. First stat. Caravaggio , birth-place of the painter 
Michel Angelo Amerighi da Caravaggio (1569 — 1609) with the 
pilgrimage - church of the Madonna di Caravaggio. Next stat. 
Casaletto-Vaprio ; then Crema, an industrial town (9000 inhab.) 
and espiscopal residence, with an ancient castle. 

Next stations Castellone , Soresina, Casalbuttano . Otmenetta. 
The station at Cremona is outside the Porta Milanese. 

Cremona {Sole d'Oro; *Italia, R. 2, L. and A. 1 fr., omnibus 
75c; Cappello; cab per drive !/ 2 fr., per '/ 2 nr - 1 f r 0) situated in 
a fertile plain on the 1. bank of the Po, with 31,000 inhab., 
possesses spacious streets and piazzas , bearing testimony to its 
ancient importance. 

The original town was wrested by the Romans from the Gallic Ceno- 
mani and colonised by them at various periods , the first of which was 
at the beginning of the second Punic war (B. C. 218). It suffered seri- 
ously during the civil wars and was several times reduced to ruins , hut 
was restored by the Emp. Vespasian. The Goths and Lombards, especial- 
ly King Agilulf, as well as the subsequent conflicts between Guelphs 

1 70 Route 3->. CREMONA. 

and Ghib'ellines, occasioned great damage to the town. Cremona espoused 
the cause of Frederick Barbarossa against Milan and Crcnia, and after- 
ward's came into the possession of the Visconti and of Francesco Sforza, 
after which it belonged to Milan. On 1st Feb., 1702, Prince Eugene 
surprised the French marshal Villeroi here and took him prisoner. In 
1799 also the Austrians defeated the French here. 

The manufacturers of the far-famed violins and violas of Cremona 
were Amali (1590—1620), the two Gvarneri (1552—80 and 1717—40) and 
Stradivari (1670—1728). 

In the Piazza Grande rises the Torrazzo , a tower 397 ft. in 
height, said to be the loftiest in Italy, erected in 1261 — 1284, 
connected with the cathedral by a series of loggie. The summit 
commands an extensive prospect. Opposite the tower is the Gothic 
*Palazzo Pubblico (PI. 12) of 1245 (restored), containing a few 
pictures by masters of the Cremona school and a richly decorated 
chimney-piece in marble by G. C. Pedone (1502). Adjacent is 
the * Palazzo de' Giureconsulti , of 1292, now a school. In the 
same piazza rises the *('athedral (PI. 3), of 1107, in the German- 
Lombard style, with a rich facade embellished with columns. The 
interior with its aisles and transept , also flanked with aisles, is 
covered with frescoes executed by the chief representatives of the 
school of Cremona , such as Boccaccino , father and son , and the 
later masters Campi , Altobello , Bembo , and Gatti. The best, 
however, are by Giov. Ant. da Pordenone of Venice, particularly 
on the wall of the entrance and the r. wall of the nave. — In the 
vicinity are the octagonal Battistero of 1167 and the Campo Sanlo 
with curious and very ancient mosaics ; among these are Hercules 
and Nessus; Piety wounded by Cruelty; Faith tearing out the 
tongue of Discord, etc. (entrance to the r. of the cathedral , No. 
10). — The street between the Pal. Pubblico and the Pal. de' 
Giureconsulti leads to the Palazzo Ala di Ponzone (now Pal. Beale, 
open daily 9 — 3, except Sundays), which contains natural history 
and other collections, a cabinet of coins, and a few pictures. — To 
the r. of this edifice is S. Arjostino e Giacomo in Braida (PI. 6), 
of the 14th cent., containing paintings by Pietro Perugino (6th 
c-hapelonthe r., Madonna and two saints, 1494) and Galeazzo Campi. 
— Facing the traveller is the Ospedale Dati, with a fine staircase of 
coloured marble. — Among the numerous handsome palaces of 
Cremona may be mentioned the Pal. S. Secondo in the Corso di 
Porta Milanese , with a sculptured portal by Sacchi ; the Casn 
Vidoni , in a side-street , off the Corso ; then ( the Pal. Stanga a 
S. Vicenzo , with a fine Renaissance facade towards the court with 
enrichments in terracotta. — S. Sigismondo, 1 '/ 2 M. from the town 
in the direction of Mantua (E. ), contains frescoes and pictures by 
Campi, Boccaccino, and other Cremonese "masters. *Altar-piece 
by Giulio Campi, Madonna among the clouds ; below , Francesco 
Sforza and his wife, the founders of the church, and saints. — 
Near the village of le Torri is the Villa *le Torri di Picenardi , now 
Sncerdoti, with beautiful garden and park. 

Darmstadt VA W«4ner 

VERONA. 33. Route. 171 

In the chateau of Soncino on the Oglio, 20 M. N. W. of Cremona, 
Eztelino da Romano, once the powerful representative of the Emperor 
Frederick II. at Padua and Verona, renowned for his bravery, as well 
as for his relentless cruelty, died on 27th Sept., 1259, eleven days after 
he had been wounded at the battle of Cassano (p. 156). Even while in 
prison he displayed his haughty and indomitable spirit, spurned from his 
presence the monks who proffered the consolations of religion, refused to 
take food and medicine, and tore the bandages from his wounds. 

From Cremona to Brescia or Pa via, see p. 162; to Mantua see p. 181. 

From Cremona to Pakma diligence (from the Albergo d'ltalia) daily 
in 7 hrs. by Casal Maggiore; but preferable to drive to the (15 SI.) rail- 
way-station Fiorenzuola (p. 336), and take the train thence to Parma. — 
The road from Cremona to Piacenza intersects the plain on the r. (S.) bank 
of the Po, after having crossed the river with its numerous islands l*/a 
it. from the town, and leads by Monticelli, S. Nazzaro, Caorso, where the 
river formed by the CMavenna and Riglio is crossed, and Roncaglia, where 
the Nure is crossed, and then proceeds towards the W. to Piacenza (see 
p. 82). 

33. Verona. 

Hotels. Due Torri (PI. 46), R. 2«| a , L. 3| 4 , B. l'| 2 , D. 4, A. 1 fr. ; *Torre 
di Londra (Pi. 47), similar charges; Hotel Barbesi ; Gran Czara, Via 
Gran Gzara (PI. 48); *H6tel Rainer ai. Gran Parioi, in the Corso, R. 
from 2, L. '!», D. 2'|z, L. ija, A. '| 2 fr. ; *S. Lorenzo, with restaurant, on 
the Adige, in the third narrow street W. of the Porta Borsari, R., L., 
and A. 2'|2 fr., omnibus 75 c. ; *Colomba d'Oro, If. 2>| 2 fr., D. 3, L. and 
A. l'ji fr. ; Aquila Nera, near the church of St. Eufemia and the Piazza 
d'Erbe. Albergo della Posta, near the post-office; Palha d'Oro, Via 
Perar, near the Teatro Ristori; * Albergo Cola, Riva di S. Lorenzo, 

Restaurants. * Del Teatro Filarmonico , on the S. side of the Piazza 
Bra. Beyond the gateway, immediately to the r. by the moat, is the 
^Birraria al Qiardino S. Luca (with baths). Aquila JVera, see above. 
Crespi, near the Ponte delle Navi (p. 176). — Cafes. Europa and *Vitlorio 
Emanuele in the Piazza Bra, where a military band plays every evening. 
* Gaffe Dante, Piazza de' Signori. 

Bookseller. Mitnster, in the Via Nuova, the principal business-street, 
leading from the Bra to the Piazza delle Erbe. 

Fiacres. Drive of 1 ft hr. 60 c, lj 2 hr. 1 fr., 1 hr. 1>| 2 fr. , each sub- 
sequent hr. 1 fr. 25 c. ; in the evening 40 c. per hr. more. From the 
station to the town and vice-versa 65 c. ; luggage 20 c. for each person. 
These fares are for 1 — 2 pers. ; for each additional pers. one-third more. 
Omnibus from the station to the town 30 c. 

Railway Stations. There are two stations at Verona (which it is 
important to observe in case of mistakes about luggage, etc.), one out- 
side the Porta Vesrovo (where the hotel omnibuses are generally in wait- 
ing), 1>|j M. E. of the Piazza Bra, the other outside the Porta Nuova, 
1 M. to the S. of the piazza. — Railway to Bozen and Innsbruck , see 
R. 8; to Mantua, R. 34; the trains start from the Porta Vescovo station, 
but halt at the Porta Nuova station. (Italian banknotes should be ex- 
changed for gold by travellers bound for Austria.) 

The Sights of Verona may be seen in one day : begin with the Arena 
and Piazza Bra, then cross the Adige to the Palazzo Pompei (on the way 
to which is S. Fermo Maggiore, p. 176), return by the Via Leoni to the 
Piazza de' Signori, with the tombs of the Scaligers ; see S. Anastasia, and 
the Cathedral, and cross the Ponte di Ferro to S. Giorgio; drive along 
the Corso, from the Porta Borsari to the Porta Stuppa and S. Zeno , and 
finally to the Giardino Giusti. 

Verona (157 ft.), an ancient town founded by the Gauls, after- 
wards a Roman colony, the Bern of old German traditions, was the 

172 Route 33. VERONA. Arena. 

residence of the Lombard princes in the middle ages , and subse- 
quently suffered severely from the contests of the Guelphs and 
Ghibellines until a happier era dawned under the auspices of the 
illustrious Scaligers. They were followed by Giangaleazzo Visconti, 
through whose widow "Verona came into the possession of Venice, 
to which , with short interruptions , it remained subject down to 
the end of the Republic. The town , with 60,000 inhab. and a 
garrison of 6000, situated at the base of the Alps, on the rapid 
Adiye, which is crossed by Ave bridges, is the most important fort- 
ress, and next to Venice the most considerable town in Venetia. 

The *Arena (PI. '24; entrance from the "W. side by the arcade 
No. V) bounds on one side the Piazza Bra ( Praedium) , or Vittorio 
Emanuele, the principal square of Verona. This celebrated amphi- 
theatre, probably erected under Diocletian (A. D. 284), is 106ft. in 
height, 182 yds. long, 146 yds. wide (the arena itself 80 yds. long, 
47yds. wide), circumference 528 yds. Around the amphitheatre rise 
45 tiers of steps, 18 inches in height, 26 inches in width, of grey 
marble (modern), on which it is calculated that 25,000 spectators 
could sit and 70,000 more stand. Of the external wall a fragment 
only, which appears never to have been completed, is still standing. 
It is an interesting fact that the pillars which were probably left 
rough undesignedly, afterwards became a model for the favourite 
'rustica' pillars of the Renaissance. The arcades, 72 in number, 
are let by the town at high rents to traders of every description. 

On the S. side of the Bra are the old and new Guard Houses 
(the former now a corn-magazine, the latter the Municipio), on the 
N. side several cafes, on theW. the Old Town Hall, now a barrack. 
By the principal gate is an ancient tower of the Scaligers. TheW. 
corner is occupied by the Teatro Filarmonico (PI. 41 ; the custodian, 
No. 1 in the side-street behind the theatre, shows the antiquities and 
the interior of the theatre). The arcades in the court towards the 
Piazza Bra, contain a valuable Museo Lapidario (PL 29), or museum 
of antiquities, collected and described by Scipione Maffei, contain- 
ing Roman, (Jreek, and Arabic inscriptions, Roman and Greek bas- 
reliefs and statues, ancient Christian sarcophagi, and a bust of 

Tn the Corso, to the N. E. of the Brit, is the Porta de Borsari 
(PI. D, 3), a triumphal arch erected under the Emp. Gallienus in 
A. D. 265 (or, according to others, simply a gateway of the old 
town-wall), occupying the whole breadth of the street, consisting 
of two entrance-archways , with two galleries above them, and a 
facade towards the outside of the town. 

The Corso leads straight to the once busy centre of mediaeval 
life. On the r. it lirst reaches the Piazza delle Erbe, the fruit and 
vegetable market . formerly the forum of the Republic, and one of 
the most picturesque piazzas in Italy. At the upper end of it rises 
a Marble Column, which bore the lion of St. Mark down to 1797 to 

Piazza dei Signori. VERONA. .33. Route. 173 

indicate the supremacy of the Republic of Venice. The Fountain 
is adorned with a statue of 'Verona', part of which is ancient. The 
Tribuna, with its canopy supported by four columns , in the centre 
of the Piazza, was anciently used as a seat of judgment. Many 
of the surrounding houses are adorned with frescoes in the old 
Veronese style , recently restored , such as the Casa Mazzanti near 
the column , and the Casa dei Mercanti of the 14th cent. , adorned 
with a statue of the Madonna. Opposite to it is the Tower of the 
Municipio , about 330 ft. "in height. A short street to the 1. of 
the latter leads to the small 

Tiazza dei Signori, a square surrounded by imposing edi- 
fices. Immediately to the r., by the tower already mentioned, is 
the Municipio , or Town Hall , with an interesting and very pic- 
turesque court, founded, according to the inscription, as a Pal. 
della Ragione in 1183. In the angle diagonally opposite is situated 
the Old Town Hall, or '"Palazzo del Consiglio (PI. 34), usually- 
termed La Loggia, erected at the beginning of the 16th cent, by 
Fra Oiocondo da Verona , and adorned with statues of celebrated 
natives of the town , among whom are Cornelius Nepos, Catullus, 
('Mantua Virgilio gaudet Verona Catullo' : Ovid. 'Tantum magna 
suo debet Verona Catullo , quantum parva suo Mantua Virgilio' : 
Martial), Vitruvius, the younger Pliny, and the learned Scipione 
Maffei. In the middle of the piazza rises a marble Statue of Dante, 
who, as recorded by the inscriptions on the monument and on the 
palace adjoining the Loggia at a tight angle, found an asylum here 
with the Scaligers after his banishment from Florence in 1316. 
Opposite is the Pal. de' Oiureconsulti , erected in 1263, but altered 
in the 16th century. A small adjacent side-street contains a pic- 
turesque fountain. 

The passage opposite the entrance to the Piazza delle Erbe 
leads direct to the modernised Romanesque church of S. Maria 
Antica (PI. 11), and the imposing Gothic *Tombs of the Scaligers, 
or della Scala family, who for upwards of a century (1262 — 1389) 
were presidents of the republic of Verona. The ladder which 
forms their crest recurs frequently on the elaborately ex- 
ecuted railings. The largest of these monuments , that at the 
corner of the street, was executed by Bonino da Campiglione for 
Can Signorio (A. 1375) during his life-time. It consists of a sar- 
cophagus resting on a pedestal supported by columns of moderate 
height, over which rises a canopy crowned with an equestrian 
statue of the prince. On the square columns in the middle are 
six Christian heroes, in niches higher up are the Christian virtues. 
On the other side next to the Piazza dei Signori, is the monument 
of Mastino III. (d. 1351), another sarcophagus with canopy and 
equestrian statue. Between these two principal monuments are 
four large Sarcophagi, the three first dating from 1311. The last 
is that of Can Orande II., who was assassinated in the public 

174 Route J3. VERONA. Cathedral. 

streets by his brother Can Siguorio in 1359. Over the church-door 
the sarcophagus and equestrian statue of Can Grande (Francesco 
delta Scala, d. 1329); adjoining it, also on the church wall, that 
of Giovanni delta Scala (d. 1350); finally that of Mastino I. 
(d. 1277) (the custodian lives in a house to the r. of the entrance 
to the church, fee 30 c). 

In the vicinity is *S. Anastasia (PI. 1), a fine Gothic church 
begun about 1261, with a brick facade, a portal subsequently cov- 
ered with marble, ancient sculptures in the lunette of the portal, 
and a fresco of the 14th century. The interior, borne by 12 circu- 
lar columns, is remarkable for boldness and symmetry of propor- 
tion ; the vaulting is painted in the late Gothic style. It contains 
several good tombstones. 

On the two first pillars , as supporters of the basin for consecrated 
water, are two beggars in white and grey marble, that on the 1. executed 
by Gabriel Cagliari , father of Paul Veronese , that on the r. by Aless. 
Rossi in 1591. The chapel of the Pellegrini, on the r. by the high altar, 
is adorned with reliefs of the 14th cent., representing the history of Christ 
from the Nativity to the Resurrection, and contains two monuments of 
the Pellegrini in red marble. In the choir, to the 1., is the monument 
of General Sarega (1432). The chapels on the r. and 1. of the choir con 
lain good frescoes of the 14th and 15th centuries. 

To the 1. of the church , over a gateway adjoining the small 
church of S. Pietro Martire(Pl. 15), is the dark marble sarcophagus 
of a Count Castelbarco, and in the gateway three others of similar 
character, the third of which is adorned with a good relief of the 
Madonna and two saints. 

The Cathedral (PI . 4) is an imposing Gothic structure of the 
14th cent., with choir and Romanesque facade of the 12th cent. 
Behind the columns of the handsome portal are Roland and Oliver, 
the two paladins of Charlemagne, in half-relief. The front col- 
umns rest on griffins. In the interior, over the 1st altar on the 1., 
is an * Assumption by Titian, and an elegantly wrought roodloft of 
marble , designed by Sanmicheli. The arches of the handsome 
Cloisters rest on double columns of red marble in two storeys, one 
above the other (entrance to the 1. of the facade, then turn to the 
1. again opposite the side-entrance). 

Between the Cathedral and the Vescovado , which contains the 
Biblioteca Capitolare with its valuable MS 8. and palimpsests, among 
which Niebuhr discovered the Institutiones of Gaius, is S. Giovanni 
in Fonte, the ancient Baptistery, of the 12th cent. 

On the 1. bank of the Adige, to which the Ponte di Ferro leads 
(toll 2 <;.'), is situated S. Giorgio in Braida (PI. 10; entrance by 
a side-door on the N. when the front-door is closed), completed in 
1604 from designs attributed to Sanmicheli, surmounted by a dome, 
and containing some admirable pictures. 

On the \V. wall, over the door, Baptism of Christ , by Tintoretto; 
1st altar 1., St. Ursula and her companions, the Saviour above, painted 
in 1545 by Franc. Carotto ; 4th altar 1. , *Madonna with two saints, God 
the Father above , three angels with musical instruments below , by 

S. Zenone Maggiore. VERONA. . 33. Route. 175 

Girolamo dai lAbri; 5th altar 1., St. Cecilia, by Moretlo. To the r. in the 
choir the Miracle of the Five Thousand, by Paolo Fqrinati; 1. Shower of 
manna, by Pel. Brusasorci, both painted in 1603. + High altar-piece, 
Martyrdom of St. George, by P. Veronese (generally covered). 

On the r. about the middle of the Corso, on the way to S. 
Zenone (see below) is the Castello Vecchio (PI. C, 3), the ancient 
palace of the Scaligers , now an arsenal , connected with the op- 
posite bank of the Adige by the Ponte di Castello constructed in 
the 14th century. The continuation of the Corso leads to the *Porta 
Stuppa (or Palio) , the finest of the gates of Verona erected, by 
Michele Sanmicheli (1484 — 1559), the most famous builder of 
fortifications of his time. — A little to the N. is the suppressed 
monastery and church of S. Bernardino (PI. 3 ; entrance from the 
E. corner, through a pleasing monastery-court ; if the church-door 
is closed, ring in the corner to the 1., adjoining the church; a 
second court , adorned with a statue of S. Bernardino , is then 
crossed, and the church entered near the high altar). To the r. of 
the high altar is the entrance to the beautiful *Cappella dei Pelle- 
grini, an elegant circular structure by Sanmicheli, with four niches 
and four arches, borne by columns , some of them spiral , others 
fluted , and remarkable for the chaste and simple style of its en- 

*S. Zenone Maggiore (PI. 23) is a Romanesque church of noble 
proportions. The nave in its present form was begun in 1139 ; 
the choir dates from thn 13th cent. ; the projecting portal rests on 
lions of red marble. 

The Poktal is embellished with marble reliefs of scriptural subjects 
executed about 1178, from the creation of woman and the Fall to the 
Betrayal by Judas and the Crucifixion. The hunting-scene to the r. in 
one of the lower sections is known as the 'Chase of Theodoric', an allusion 
to his having embraced the heretical Arian doctrines. Then represent- 
ations from the life of St. Zeno, and of the months, beginning with March. 
The doors , of the same or a still earlier period , consulting of a number 
of small brazen plates with reliefs (the oldest very rudely executed) , are 
said to have been presented by Dukes of Cleve (on the Rhine). 

The Interior is borne by alternate pillars and columns, and has an 
open roof. To the 1. of the entrance is a large ancient vase of porphyry, 
28 ft. in circumference. On the choir screen are statues of Christ and 
the 12 Apostles, in marble, some of them painted, supposed to be coseval 
with the reliefs on the portal. The walls are covered with remains of 
ancient frescoes ; behind those of the 14th cent. , which have peeled off 
at places, are traces of others of the 12th. The approach to the spacious 
Crypt, in accordance with the ancient plan which has been followed in 
the restoration of the building , occupies the entire width of the church. 
It contains the tomb of St. Zeno and ancient sculptures and frescoes ; the 
capitals of the 40 columns are mediaeval, some of them bearing the name 
of the sculptor. The steps to the choir on the r. are flanked with columns 
of brown marble, resting on lions and bulls, each in one block. To the 
r. in the Choir, above the crypt, is the very ancient painled marble 
figure of St. Zeno , Bishop of Verona , holding his episcopal staff and 
(as patron-saint of fishermen) a fishing-rod with a silver fish. Behind the 
high altar is a fine *picture (covered) by Mantegna, in excellent pre- 
servation , in three sections, a Madonna and angels, with groups of saints 
on the r. and 1. ; the three lower pictures are copies from Mantegna. 

A door in the N. aisle leads to the admirably preserved ^Cloisters. 

1 76 Route 33. VERONA. Museo Oivico. 

with elegant double columns and a projecting structure, restored (accord- 
ing to an old inscription) as early as 1123. Immediately to the r. two 
tombstones are recognised as pertaining to the Scaliger family by the 
ladder represented on them. — On the S. side of the church is a small 
disused Churchyard, whence a general view of the church with its cam- 
panile of 1045 (restored in 1120) is best obtained. At the entrance to a 
disused Mausoleum, with a sarcophagus and two columns (descent by 12 
steps), a stone bears the inscription, '■Pipini Italiae regis, Magni Caroli 
hnperatorix tilii piismimi Repulcntm\ Adjacent is a very large Roman sarco- 

Within a closed garden (visitors ring at the gate facing them, 
2 — 3 soldi) in the Vicolo Franceschine , aside-street of the Via 
Cappuccini , is situated the suppressed Franciscan Monastery 
(PI. 20), where a partially restored chapel contains a rude sar- 
cophagus in red Verona marble, called without the slightest author- 
ity the Tomba di Qiulietta , or 'Tomb of Juliet' (fee 25 c. J. The 
whole scene is prosaic and unattractive. Shakespeare's play of 
'Romeo and Juliet' is founded on events which actually occurred at 
Verona. 'Escalus, Prince of Verona' was Bartolommeo della Scala 
I d. 1303). The lofty and narrow house of Juliet's parents (PI. E, 4) 
in the street of S. Sebastiano (formerly Capelletti), now a tavern, 
still bears the hat (over the entrance to the court) which was the 
distinctive emblem in the armorial bearings of the family. 

To the 1. in the Via Leoni, which leads from the Piazza delle 
Erbe to the Ponte delli Navi, at the corner of the Corticella Leoni, 
rises the *Arco tie' Leoni, the half of a Roman double gateway, 
coaeval with the Porta de' Borsari , but more delicately executed, 
and bearing an inscription partially preserved. 

A little farther N. is the Gothic church of S. Fermo Maggiore 
(PI. 6), erected at the beginning of the 14th cent. The architec- 
ture of the exterior, with its facade of brick, enriched with marble, 
is worthy of inspection. The interior is modernised ; beautiful old 
ceiling in walnut-wood, and remains of good frescoes of the 14th 
cent, by Zevio , Fra Martino , and Pisanelio , the finest being a 
Crucifixion over the 1. side entrance. To the 1. of the entrance is 
a Resurrection carved in wood ; in the chapel to the 1. of the choir 
a Madonna with saints, by Franc. Buonsignori (1484). The Cappella 
del Sagramento contains (1.) an altarpiece by Caroto , painted 
in 1528; above are the Virgin and St. Anna, beneath are John 
the Baptist, St. Sebastiano, and other saints. 

The Ponte delle Navi in the vicinity , which commands a good 
survey of the choir and transept of S. Fermo, was erected to replace 
a bridge destroyed by an inundation in 1757. Immediately to 
the r. beyond it, at the beginning of the promenade, is situated the 
*Palazzo Fompei alia Vittoria (PI. 36'/. 2 ), an architecturally 
interesting edifice, by Sanmicheli, presented by the faTnily to the 
town, and now containing the Museo Civico (fee 1 fr.). 

On the Ground Floor are several rooms containing casts, antiquities, 
chiefly from excavations in the old theatre near the Porta Pietra , and 
fossils from the Monte Bolca ; in the 4th, a *drawing by Andrea Mantegna. 

Castello S. Pietro. VERONA. 33. Route. 177 

— The Pinacoteca, or picture-gallery, on the first, floor, contains works 
principally of the Veronese school. The first and second rooms contain 
the Oalleria Bernasconi, presented to the town by Dr. Bernasconi. I. Room : 
9. Paris Bordone, Portrait; 27. Giovanni Bellini, Madonna and Child; 31. 
Paolo Veronese, Baptism of Christ; 51. Tintoretto, Portrait of a doge; 52. 
Madonna and Child with the infant John, attributed to Titian; 71. Car- 
toon by Giulio Romano. — II. R. (r.): 158. Girolamo dai Libri , Madonna; 
157. Franc. Buonsignori, Madonna; 151. Francia, Madonna with two saints ; 
82. Correggio (?) , Head of an angel ; 83. Bern, da Pordenone, Conversion 
of St. Paul; *88. Fra Bartolommeo, Head of Christ; 87. Adoration of the 
shepherds , ascribed to Raphael , a charming picture of the Umbrian 
school ; 86. Circumcision , after the picture by Giovanni Bellini in S. 
Zaccaria at Venice ; 93. Holy Family , of the Ferrara school ; 100. Am. 
berger , Portrait of the scholar Falb ; without number , Franc. Caroto, 
Madonna and Child; 125. Cesare do Sesto , Entombment ; 129. Montagna, 
Entombment. — III. R. : Four pictures by Andrea Schiavone; 184. Bayna- 
cavallo, Holy Family ; *196. Moretto, Madonna ; 202. Copy of the picture 
by Veronese in S. Giorgio. — IV. R. (to the 1. of the 1st): 79. Giolfino, 
Madonna; 74 l . Paolo Veronese, Entombment; *81. Girolamo dai Libri, 
Adoration of the Child ; without number , Holy Family , School of Ra- 
phael ; 88. Franc. Caroto, Adoration of the Child ; *74 2 . Paolo Veronese, 
Portrait of Gualtieri , 1556. — V. R. : Ligozzi , Surrender of Verona to 
Venice ; 90. Paolo Veronese , Music , a fresco transferred to canvas ; 93. 
Paolo Moranda, surnamed Cavazzola, Madonna with two saints, 1522; 94. 
Girolamo dai Libri, Madonna and saints, 1530. — VI. R. : 51. Turone, 
Altar-piece of 1360 ; 68. Cimabue (?) , Old Testament in 30 sections on a 
gold ground ; without number, large Crucifixion by Giacomo Bellini (father 
of Giovanni) ; 59. Benaglio, Altar-piece ; 99—109. Cavazzola, Passion. Re- 
turn hence through the 5th and 6th rooms, and enter (to the 1.) the — 
VII. R. : Nothing noteworthy. — VIII. R. : a corridor with engravings, 
some of them by Agostino Caracci, Rembrandt , and Diirer. — IX., X., 
XI., and XII. R. : Nothing of importance. — An adjacent room without 
a number contains two large pictures of scenes from the history of Ve- 
rona : 220. P. Farinati , Battle of the Veronese against Fred. Barbarossa 
at Vigasi in 1164; 224. F. Brusasorci, Victory of the Veronese over the 
inhabitants of the banks of the Lago di Garda in 849. — XIV., XV., XVI. 
R. : Nothing important. 

In the vicinity is the Porta S. Vittoria , beyond which , to the 
1. is the uninteresting Campo Santo, enclosed by a Doric colonnade, 
connecting a lofty church with two temples. The summit of the 
pediment is adorned with a marble group of Faith , Hope , and 
Charity, by Spazzi. 

A fine *view of Verona and its environs , the Alps and the 
distant Apennines , is obtained from the Giardino Giusti on the 
1. bank of the Adige (PI. G. 4 ; always accessible ; ring at a gate 
on the r. ; fee 25 c), containing a few Roman antiquities, but 
chiefly celebrated for its numerous and venerable cypresses , some 
of which are 400—500 years old, and 120 ft. in height. The cam- 
panili of 8. Lucia (i'/g M. ) and «Sf. Massimo are conspicuous. 
Somma Carnpagna (p. 158) and Custozza (p. 178) lie 10—12 M. 
to the S. "W. 

The view is still finer from the Castello S. Pietro (ascent near 
the Ponte delta Pietra, built by Fra Oiocondo ; permission obtained 
at the commandant's office at the entrance), the ancient castle of 
Theodoric the Great, the 'Dietrich of Bern' of German lore. It 
was entirely remodelled by Oaleazzo Visconti in 1393, destroyed 

B/edekek. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 12 

178 Route 34. MANTUA. 

by the French in 1801, and refortified by the AustrianB in 1849. 
At its base, immediately below the bridge, are the remains of an 
ancient semicircular Roman Theatre (PI. 37), excavated in the 
court of a private house. 

34. From Verona to Modena by Mantua. 

From Mantua to Reggio, Farma, Cremona, or Brescia. 

62 M. Railway in 5 hrs. ; fares 12 fr. 35, 9 fr. 5, 6 fr. 60 c. 

Soon after quitting the station outside the Porta Nuova (p. 171) 
the train diverges to the S. from the Milan line (R. 27) and tra- 
verses a richly cultivated plain , varied occasionally with wood. 
Fields of rice are passed near Mantua. Stations Dossobuono and 
Villafranca, with an ancient castle, where the preliminaries of a 
peace between France and Austria were concluded on 11th July, 
1859, after the battle of Solferino. About 5 M. to the N.W. lies 
Custozza , where the Italians were defeated by the Austrians in 
1848 and 1866. Next stations Mozzecane and Roverbella. The 
line then passes the Citadel of Mantua , where Andreas Hofer, 
the Tyrolese patriot, was shot by order of Napoleon on 20th Feb., 
1810, and intersects the Lago di Mezzo (see below). 

Mantua, Ital. Mantova (Aquila d'Oro, or Leone; Croce Verde, 
or Fenice , R. 2, L. ] |2, A. 3 |4 fr. ; both in the centre of the town, in the 
Contrada Croce Verde. — Cab per drive 60 c, 1st hr. 1 fr. 50 c. , each 
following i| 2 hr. 50 c. ; diligences, see p. 180), a very ancient town 
founded by the Etruscans , with 30,000 inhab. (3000 Jews), is a 
strongly fortified place, bounded on the N.W. by the Lago Superiore, 
on the N.E. by the Lago di Mezzo, on the E. by the Lago Jnferiore, 
and on the S. and S.W. by marshy land , which in case of a siege 
is capable of being laid under water. The aspect of the town is 
unattractive and dull , although it contains a number of large 
palaces. The traffic of the place is chiefly confined to the arcades 
of the Contrada Croce Verde and the Piazza delle Erbe , near S. 
Andrea. Beyond the latter, in a small piazza in front of the Ca- 
mera di Commercio, is a Statue of Dante, erected in 1870. A little 
farther in the same direction is the Piazza S. Pietro , the N.E. 
corner of Mantua , with the Cathedral (see below) and the Corte 
Reale ( PI. 5) , the ducal palace of the Gonzagas , part of which is 
now a barrack. The latter was begun in 1302, but was altered 
by Oiulio Romano and adorned with interesting frescoes. 

The custodian's room (second large gate on the r.), the Uffizio delta 
Xc/ialcfieria , is adorned with hunting-scenes by pupils of Giulio Romano, 
but the Diana over the chimney-piece is by himself (d. 1546). On the 
upper floor is a large saloon containing portraits of the Gonzagas by 
Jlibbieua. Then the Stanze deir Imperalrice, a suite of apartments in which 
Raphael's tapestry, now at Vienna, was formerly preserved. The Dining- 
Rooni is adorned with allegorical figures of the rivers and lakes around 
Mantua; adjoining it is a garden with a casino. *Sala dello Zodiaco, 
with allegorical and mythological representations of the signs of the zodiac 

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MANTUA. 34. Route. 179 

by Oiulio Romano (Napoleon I. once slept in this room) ; then three 
Stanze delV Jmperatore , containing copies of the tapestry formerly here, 
painted on the walls by Canepi. The Picture Gallery contains nothing 
worthy of note ; to the 1. , by the door , a good bust of a Gonzaga by 
Bernini. The visitor now passes through several dilapidated rooms into 
the Stanza delV Made, with four scenes from the Iliad by Giulio Romano. 
Then the four Stanze Vicereali (named after the viceroy Eugene Beau- 
harnais) , with fine ceilings. The Ball Room contains three ceiling-paint- 
ings , Night , Olympus , and Day , the last , and the 5th medallion to the 
1. of it by Giulio Romano, the rest by his pupils. A stair descends to a 
remote part -of the palace containing the Appartamenlo and Sala di Troja, 
decorated by Giulio Romano , and a dilapidated but handsome gallery 
(view of the lake), and finally'two small rooms with frescoes in the style 
of Raphael. — The hall of the archives (shown during office-hours only) 
is adorned with frescoes by Andrea Mantegna (d. 1506). 

The Cathedral of 8. Pietro (PL e), a church with douhle aisles, 
and a transept covered with a dome, and flanked with two rows of 
chapels, possesses an unpleasing facade and a huge unfinished tower 
of much earlier origin. The interior was remodelled from designs 
by Giulio Romano. The nave has a fine fretted ceiling. 

*S. Andrea (PI. a J, in the Piazza delle Erbe, a church of very 
imposing proportions, the finest in Mantua , was erected in 1492 
from designs by the Florentine Leo Battista Alberti, but the dome 
was not added till 1782. Adjoining the white marble facade, with 
its spacious portico, is a square tower, built of red brick, and sut- 
mounted by an elegant octagonal superstructure with Gothic spire. 
The summit affords a good survey of the town and its peculiar situ- 

The Intekiok , 110 yds. in length , is covered with massive barrel 
vaulting , the panels of which are partly painted. 1st Chapel on the r. : 
Arrivabene, St. Antony admonishing the tyrant Ezzelino (painted in 1844). 
At the sides are frescoes representing Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise 
according to Dante. — 3rd, Cappella S. Longino: on the 1. Sarcophagus 
with the inscription : Longini ejus , qui latus Chrisli percussit , ossa. To 
the r. is the sarcophagus ofGregorius of Nazianz. The frescoes, designed 
by Giulio Romano, represent the Crucifixion, beneath is Longinus, on the 
opposite side the finding of the sacred blood. The saint is said to have 
brought hither some drops of the blood of Christ, which were preserved 
in an altar (destroyed by Hungarian soldiers in 1848) in the Crypt, beneath 
the high altar. The S. Transept contains the monument of Bishop Andreasi 
(d. 1549) , erected in 1551 by dementi , a pupil of Michael Angelo. The 
swan is the heraldic emblem in the armorial bearings of Mantua. — Choir. 
Martyrdom of St. Andrew, a fresco by Anselmi, a pupil of Paolo Veronese. 
In the corner to the 1. by the high altar is the marble figure of Duke 
Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder of the church, in a kneeling posture. — 
2V. Transept. Chapel on the 1.: Monument of Pietro Strozzi, with cary- 
atides , designed by Giulio Romano (best seen from the middle of the 
nave). Another monument with the recumbent figure of a Count Andreasi, 
was also designed by G. Romano. — The first small chapel to the 1. of 
the W. portal contains the tomb of the painter Andrea Mantegna (d. 1506), 
with his *bust in bronze. The frescoes on the walls and dome , which 
exhibit a rare harmony of colouring, are of the 18th cent., most of them 
by Campi. 

In the vicinity to the N.W. is a very extensive space, planted 
with trees and bounded by the Lago di Mezzo on the N., termed 
the Piazza Virgiliana, adorned with a bust of Virgil, who was born 
in the neighbouring village of Pietole (see below). The Teatro 


180 Route 3t. MANTUA. 

Virgiliano (PI. 16) is employed for open-air performances on sum- 
mer evenings. Beyond the theatre, from the parapet towards the 
Lago di Mezzo, a superb view of the Tyrolese Alps is enjoyed in 
clear weather. 

The Accademia Virgilinnn di Science e Belle Arti (PI. 1) 
contains frescoes, sculptures, casts of little value. Behind it is the 
Liceo (PI. 6) with a Library (a room in which contains the Trinity, 
by Rubens, torn into two parts) and Museum. 

The museum contains some very valuable antiques. Near the entrance 
a bust of Euripides and that of an unknown Greek poet, erroneously 
termed Virgil. To the r. of the entrance, torso of a Minerva; busts of 
emperors ; sarcophagus with the myth of Medea ; another with a battle of 
the Amazons ; in the centre (opposite) , torso of Venus in Greek marble ; 
Bacchanalian figures on a square pedestal ; relief, perhaps from a Roman 
triumphal arch ; in the centre , opposite , a young Hercules asleep , by 
Michael Angelo. In the adjoining room the so-called 'seat of Virgir and 
inscriptions. Then return to the galleries. Window-wall: Greek cippus. 
Wall on the 1. , several modern objects ; sarcophagus with Selene and 
Endymion ; large Bacchanalian relief; in the centre, opposite, *archaic 
Apollo ; at the end of the galleries, a Roman tomb-relief, father and son. 
Opposite wall, colossal *head of Juno; warriors sacrificing, in relief; in 
the centre , a youthfiil Mercury. 

A short distance hence, immediately beyond the Porta Pusterla, 
the S. "W. gate, is situated the *Palazzo del Te (PI. 11) (contracted 
from Tajetto), erected by Oiulio Romano, and containing in com- 
paratively small apartments some of that master's largest frescoes. 
Antechamber, to the r. of the entrance, the sun and moon. 1st 
Room to the 1., the favourite horses of Duke Frederick Gonzaga; 
2nd R., myth of Psyche and Bacchanalians ; 3rd R. , representation 
of the zodiac ; 4th R. , fall of Phaeton and numerous smaller 
pictures ; then several rooms with beautiful friezes in stucco ; fine 
open loggia ; at the back of the latter the celebrated *Sala de' 
Giganti, with the fall of the giants, whose figures are 14 ft. in 

The long Ponte 8. Giorgio leads to the N. E. between the Lago 

di Mezzo and the Lago Inferiore to the suburb Borgo S. Giorgio, 

which also belongs to the fortifications. 

Pietole, supposed to be the Andes of the Romans and the birthplace 
of Virgil, lies about 3 M. S.E. of Mantua, near the efflux of the Mincio 
from the Lago Inferiore. 

From Mantua hi Reogio (37>|2 M.) diligence daily in 7>|2 hrs. Near 
Borgoforte (p. 181) the road crosses the Po and reaches Guastalla (Posta), 
a small town on the r. bank, which in the 16th cent, gave its name to a 
principality of the Gonzagas, Dukes of Mantua. They became extinct in 
1746, and their territory fell to Parma. In the market-place is the bronze 
Statue of Ferdinand I. Gonzaga (d. 1557 at Brussels), by Leone Leoni. The 
road then leads by Gualtieri , which contains a large market-place sur- 
rounded with arcades and a palace of the Gonzagas, and crosses the 
Crostolo to (9 M.) Reggie* (see p. 237). 

From Mantea to Parma (30 M.) diligence daily in 6'|z hrs. (fare 7, 
coupe 8 fr.). A little beyond the town the road diverges to the 1. from 
that which leads to Cremona (see below), and passes Montanara and 
C'ampitello. It then crosses the broad channel of the Oglio , and leads by 
S abbionetta to Oasalmaggiore (C'roee Verde), whence an omnibus runs to 

MIRANDOLA. -3 i. Route. 181 

Verona. A ferry here crosses to the r. bank of the Po. Then Colorno 
on the Parma, with an extensive, but now neglected ducal chateau, with 
pleasure-grounds and hothouses. From this point to Parma 9'|2 M. — 
Parma, sec p. 239. 

From Mantua to Cremona (43'|2 JI.) diligence daily in 10 hrs. (rail- 
way projected). The road passes Curtatone; then, near the influx of the 
Mincio into the Lago Superiore , the church of S. Maria delle Orazie, 
founded in 1399, a celebrated place of pious resort, chiefly remarkable 
for a number of life-size figures in wax, presented by various devotees. 
The next places are Gastelliiccliio, Marcaria, Bozzolo (4000 inhab.), where 
the old road to Parma diverges to the r. ; Piadena, whence another road 
leads to Parma ; Cicognolo, and 10 M. farther Cremona (p. 169). 

From Mantua to Brescia (39 M.) diligence daily in 9 hrs. , passing 
through Goito , Gitidizzolo (both scenes of engagements during the war of 
1848) , Casliglione (for the capture of which in 1796 Marshal Augereau 
was afterwards created Due de Castiglione by "Napoleon) , Montechiaro, 
Caslenedolo, Brescia (see p. 162). 

The Railway to Modbna intersects the S. fortifications, passes 
the Palazzo del Te (see above), and crosses the Po at stat. Borgo- 
forte, once an important tete-de-pont, the fortifications of which 
were Mown up by the Austrians in 1866. The railway-bridge 
being still unfinished , travellers alight and cross the river by 
the bridge of boats to stat. Motteggiano , where another train 
awaits them. 

Next stations Suzzara, Reggiolo-Oonzaga, Rolo-Novi. 

About 10' (a M. E. of Kovi is situated Mirandola, formerly the capita 
of a duchy which belonged to the Pico family, a town with broad streets 
and picturesque, antiquated buildings. It was originally under the juris- 
diction of the abbey of Nonantola and the Countess Matilda, and after 
many vicissitudes came into possession of the Counts of Pico, who re- 
tained their supremacy for upwards of three centuries. Count Gio- 
vanni Pico (1463 — 94) was remarkable for his ability and learning. 
Alexander I. was the first of the family who bore the title of Duke of 
Mirandola and Concordia. Francesco Maria , the last duke , sold his 
dominions to Modena in 1710. The Old Palace of the dukes, the Cathedral, 
and the church of Gesu should be visited. 

The line skirts several canals and reaches stat. Carpi, with 5000 
inhab., an episcopal see, possessing a Cathedral attributed to 
Bramante, an old castle, a modern palace, and broad streets. 
Correggio (p. 238) is situated 7 M. to the S. "W. 

Solliera is the last station. The railway crosses the Secchia 
and reaches Modena (p. 243). 

35. From Verona to Venice. Vicenza. 

72 M. Railway in 3>| 4 -4 hrs.; fares 13 fr. 95, 10 fr. 15, 7 fr. 25 «'. ; 
finest views generally to the left. Arrival at Venice, see p. 196. Venice 
being a free port , travellers entering it are exempt from the payment of 
imposts , but those quitting it are subjected to the formalities of the 

Railway-stations at Verona , seep. 171. Soon after quitting 
the station outside the Porta Nuova the train crosses the Adige 
below the town. On the r. and 1. are a number of detached forts, 
which render Verona the strongest fortress of N. Italy. The line 

182 Route ,°5. VICENZA. From Verona 

skirts the S. spurs of the Alps and intersects the great Venetian 
plain. Vineyards, mulberry plantations, and fields of Indian corn 
intersected by cuttings for their irrigation are passed in unbroken 

Near S. Michele on the 1. stands the pinnacled castle of Mon- 
tario, formerly the property of the Scaliger family (p. 173). Stat. 
S. Martino. The mineral springs of stat. Caldiero, which attract 
many visitors , were known to the Romans. On the hill to the 1. 
the slender campanile of S. Viltore. Villanuova , with the castle 
of Soave, once belonging to the Scaligers, on the height to the 1., 
presents a good picture of a mediaeval fortified town. 

Next stat. S. Bonifacio. Arcole, S ] /-> M. to the S., was the 
scene of the battle of 15th — 17th Nov., 1796, between the Aus- 
trians and the French under Bonaparte , Masse'na , Augereau , and 
Lannes. Stat. Lonigo ; the village lies 4>/o M. S. E., at the W. 
base of the Monti Berici, a chain of volcanic , wooded hills , be- 
fVeen which and the spurs of the Alps the line now runs to 
Vicenza. Stat. Montebello is not to be confounded with the 
place (p. 81 ) of that name in Piedmont. Beautiful view towards the 
mountains; the stately chateau belongs to Count Arrighi. To thel. 
on the hill the castles of the Montecchi ; then stat. Tavernelle. 

30 M. Vicenza [Hotel de laVille (PI. a), at the railway-gate, R. from 
2 It., D. 3, A. and L. I fr. ; Stella d'Oro , in the Corso; Due Mori e 
Gran Parigi , good cuisine , omnibus to meet the trains , Albergo e 
Trattoria ai tee Garofani , both in the Contrada delle due Ruote ; Roma ; 
Caff'e Principe Umberto and Caffi- Xazionale , in the Corso; Garibaldi, 
Piazza de' Signori; +Railtcay Restaurant] , the Vicetia Of the ancients, 
with 37,686 inhab., situated on the Bacchiglione , is celebrated as the 
birthplace of Palladia (1518- — 80), who erected his finest secular 
structures here (churches at Venice, see p. 202). His successors 
Scamozzi, Longhena, and others adhered uniformly to his style, so 
that the town presents a remarkably handsome and ornate ap- 
pearance. If time is limited, a glimpse at the interesting buildings 
may be obtained in an hour , by walking through the Corso to the 
Piazza de' Signori, and thence to the Contrada Porto. 

The town is entered by the VV. gate (near the entrance the 
Palazzo Ousano, now Hotel de la Ville ) ; in the Piazza to the r. is 
the Casa del Diiirolo, a large unfinished palace by Palladio ; the 
traveller then follows the long Corso Principe Umberto. On the 1. 
the new church of S. Filippo Neri (PI. 16). 

The short Contrada del Monte (opposite which is the Contrada 
Porto with numerous palaces, some in the Venetian and others in 
Palladio's style) to the r. leads from the Corso to the liandsome 
Piazza de' Signori. with two columns of the Venetian period. Here 
rises the *Palazzo del ('onsiglio, or Basilica (PI. 40), with a double 
series of grand and beautiful open arcades, the lower with Doric, 
the upper with Ionic columns, surrounding the Palazzo delta 
Ragione ^town-hallj. These arcades, be^un in 1549 , are one of 

to Venice. VICENZA. 35. Route. 183 

Palladio's earliest works. The lofty and slender red tower is of 
later date ; adjoining is the Tribunate. Opposite the Basilica is 
the unfinished Loggia del Delegate, or Palazzo Prefettizio (PL 47), 
also by Palladio (1571), adjacent to which are the Monte di 
Pieth and the church of 8. Vicenzio. In the Piazza, near the 
Basilica , stands a good Statue of Palladio in marble , by Gajassi, 
erected in 1859. 

On the 1., at theE. end of the Corso, is the small Ctisa di Pal- 
ladio (PL 8), the facade* of which was once painted ; then r., in the 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, the 

* Museo Civico (PL 39), a handsome modern edifice, incorporated 
with the Palazzo Chieregati , which was erected by Palladio (open 
daily 9—5, 1/2 ft.). 

On the Ground Floor Roman antiquities from an ancient theatre, 
among which two female statues only deserve mention. The Upper Floor 
contains the *Pinacoteea. Some of the pictures are provided with num^ 
bers, others are without. Since the re-arrangement they no longer cor- 
respond with the numbers in the written catalogue. 1st Saloon : 3. Giro- 
lamo di Tonsi of Vicenza , Madonna enthroned and two saints (1526) ; 4. 
Luca Giordano, Marriage of Cana; 25. Andrea Basato , St. Anthony; 37. 
Giov. Bellini, Madonna and Child, SS. Sebastian and Rochus; German 
School, Crucifixion. — 1st Room on the 1.; 9. Van Dyck, The four ages; 
Titian (?) , Madonna and Child; 32. Bernardino da Murano, Madonna 
enthroned and four saints. The shoes which the doge wore in the Bu- 
cintoro on his nuptial procession (comp. pp. 209, 212) are also preserved 
here. — 2nd R. : * Cima da Gonegliano , Madonna with St. Jerome and 
John the Baptist (1489); 35. Giov. Bellini, Madonna and Child (much 
injured); 50. Girolamo Moceto, Madonna and Child; Paolo da Venezia, 
Death of Mary (1333) ; 58. Marco Palmezzano, Dead Saviour and three saints. 

— 3rd R. : Cima da Conegliano , The angels of the last day. — 4th R. : 
Masters of Padua and Vicenza only : * Bartolommeo Montagna , Madonna 
enthroned and four saints , with three angels below ; Madonna and 
Child, with two saints; Madonna enthroned with St. Jerome and John 
the Baptist; * Presentation of Christ in the Temple. — 5th R. : Portraits. 

— Returning to the saloon , to the r. are two rooms with pictures 
of inferior value , then two rooms with coins , and one room with 
drawings and reminiscences of Palladio. — The Natural History Collec- 
tion contains some fine fossils : a fish , a palm, a crocodile, etc. , most of 
them found in the neighbourhood of Vicenza. 

In the vicinity is the *Teatro Olimpico (PL 51; fee 1/2 fr.), 
designed by Palladio, but not completed till 1584, after his death. 
It was inaugurated by the performance of the 'CEdipus Tyrannus' 
of Sophocles. Palladio is said to have adhered to the directions 
given by Vitruvius with regard to the construction of ancient 
theatres, but the result differs materially from what would have 
been anticipated. The perspective of the stage is very remark- 
able ; it is closed by a facade adorned with statues, through three 
doors in which a glimpse of the distant landscape is obtained. 
The orchestra is in front of the stage, 5 ft. below its present 

Besides the'above mentioned, the following structures of Pal- 
ladio may be noticed: Palazzo Barbarano (PL 34), Tiene (PL 48), 

184 Route 35. VICENZA. 

Valmarano (PI. 49), Porto Voleoni (PL 45), and the Rotonda (see 

The Cathedral (PI. 10) consists of a broad and low nave, the 
aisles having been converted into chapels, a choir considerably 
raised above the rest of the church and covered with a dome, and 
a crypt beneath it, but contains nothing remarkable. To the 1. in 
the piazza is the Vescovado, the court of which to the 1. contains 
beautiful, Jjut uncompleted arcades. Opposite to it is the Casino. — 
The church of S. Corona (PI. 12), a brick edifice with plain 
Lombard facade, contains a large Baptism of Christ by G. Bellini, 
an Adoration of the Magi by P. Veronese , and a handsome monu- 
ment in a chapel to the r. of the choir. — S. Lorenzo (PI. 19), in 
the Contrada di S. Lorenzo, has a Gothic facade which deserves 
notice, and contains the tomb of B. Montagna (d. 1572), by whom 
the high altar-piece, representing SS. Lorenzo and Vicenzo was 
painted. — S. Stef'ano (PI. 29) contains in the 1. transept a large 
^altar-piece by Palma Vecchio , the Madonna with SS. Lucia and 

A walk to the pilgrimage-church of Madonna del Monte (PL 24) 
on the Monte Berico is recommended in the morning before the 
heat of the day, or in the afternoon when the arcades afford shade. 
The route is either through the Porta S. Giuseppe (before passing- 
through which the *Ponte S. Michele crossing the Retrone, by 
Palladio, is seen on the r.), or immediately to the r. from the 
railway-station, past the Villa Karolyi, and across the railway, to 
the arcade leading to the church, a passage resting on 180 pillars, 
and 715 yds. in length, which was sharply contested in 1848 by 
Italian irregular troops , who had fortified the hill with its villas, 
and the Austrians. To the 1., beyond a bend in the arcade, a view 
is obtained of Palladio's Villa Rotonda. The church is in the form 
of a Greek cross with a dome, the present 1. transept was the 
original church, erected in 1428 and adorned with pictures by 
Montagna. The old refectory of the monastery (shown by the 
sacristan) contains the Banquet of Gregory the Great by Paolo 
Veronese, which was entirely torn to pieces in 1848, but has been 
restored with the aid of the copy in the Pinacoteca. Behind the 
church is a monument to those who fell here in 1848 ; to the r. an 
Italia Liberuta dedicated to them by the municipio of Vicenza. 
Pleasant view hence (tolerable tavern). 

On the hill of S. Sebastiano, at the N. E. base of Monte Be- 
rico (not visible from the road thitherj, 1 1/ 2 M. from the town, 
is situated the celebrated Villa Rotonda Palladiana (PL G, 7) of 
the Marchesi C'apra, with an Ionic colonnade surmounted by a 
pediment on each of the four sides. In the centre is a circular 
hall with a dome. 

The Cimetero, which deserves a visit, contains the grave of 
Palladio (d. 1580). 

I>arm*lrtfll Ed W H finri 

PADUA. 36. Route. 185 

The Balht of Recoaro (Inn of Domenico Trettenero), about 25 M. 
N.W. of Vicenza (by carr. in 4 hrs.), are picturesquely situated and 
much frequented , especially in July and August. The mineral water 
contains iron. 

Stat. Pojana, the only one between Vicenza and Padua. Coun- 
try flat. To the S. in the distance , the Monti Euganei (p. 191). 

19 M. Padua, see below. To the 1. as the train proceeds the 
Tyrolese Alps are perceived in the distance. Near stat. Ponte di 
Brenta the line crosses the Brenta ; at stat. Dolo a lofty, slender 
campanile ; at stat. Marano an arm of the Brenta is crossed. 
From (18 M.J stat. Mestre the line to Trieste by Treviso and Udine 
diverges to the N. (R. 39). Venice, with its dark blue line of 
towers and churches rising from the sea, now gradually comes into 
view. The islands with their groups of houses appear to float in 
the water. The line passes Fort Malghera and two large barracks 
on the 1. and reaches the immense *Bridge, the longest in the 
world (222 arches, length 2i/ 3 M. , breadth 28 ft.), by which the 
train crosses the Lagune (p. 203) in 8 ruin, and reaches the station 
at the N. W. end of (5 M.) Venioe (R. 38). 

36. Padua, Ital. Padova, Lat. Patavum. 

Hotels. Stella d'Oko , in the Piazza Garibaldi (or dei Noti), R. 2'la, 
D. 4, A. 3|4, L. >|;j fr. ; Aquila d'Oko, near S. Antonio, R. 3, L. 3 |.i, D. 4, 
A. 1, omnibus 3 U fr. ; *Croce d'Oko, in the Piazza Cavour (or Biade), 
R. 2, omnibus l J2 fr. ; Aquila Nera , in the same Piazza and belonging 
to the same proprietor, opposite Cafe Pedrocchi ; Albekgo Pakadiso , ad- 
jacent to the Stella d'Oro ; *Doe Croci Blanche, opposite S. Antonio. 

Cafes. * Pedrocchi (PI. 28), opposite the University, an imposing 
edifice with halls and columns of marble; *Vittoria, in fhe Piazza Unita 
d'ltalia (or de' Signori). — Birraria di Franc. Stoppato, Via Eremitani; 
also on the ground-floor of the Albergo del Paradiso (see above). *iJ«'s- 
toratore Gasparotto at the back of the Cafe Pedrocchi. 

Cabs. '■Broughams'' are those with one horse : to or from the station 
1 fr. , luggage 40 c, '| 2 hr. 1>| 2 fr. , 1 hr. 2 fr. , drive in the town 50 c, 
at night 25 c. more. Omnibuses from the hotels meet each train. 

Sights. The following walk is recommended. Proceed straight through 
the Porta Codalonga, then turn to the 1. past the church of / Carmini 
(*Scuola adjacent) to the Ponte Molino and the Strada Maggiore , follow 
the latter to the Piazza de 1 Signori (or Unita d'ltalia), turn into the 
Piazza dei Frutti to the 1., pass through the Palazzo delta Ragione to the 
Piazza delle Erbe , see the Cafi Pedrocchi on the 1. , turn to the r. to the 
Strada di S. Lorenzo and (where there is a direction 'al Santo') again to 
the r. into the Selciato di S. Antonio leading to the *Santo (Scuola, S. 
Giorgio, Museo Civico); then back to the Cafe Pedrocchi, pass through it, 
and cross the Piazza Biade and Piazza Noli to the * Eremitani and *S. 

Padua, situated on the Bacchiglione which flows through it in 
several branches, a town of very great antiquity, tracing its origin 
traditionally to Antenor, brother-in-law of Priam, was the weal- 
thiest town in Upper Italy during the reign of Augustus. In 1405 
it placed itself under the protection of the republic of Venice , to 
which it adhered until the dissolution of that state. From the 

186 Route 36. PADUA. S. Antonio. 

middle ages down to the present day Padua has been celebrated 
for its University, which was founded by Emp. Frederick II. in 
1238. The town, a quiet place with 51,000 inhab., occupies an 
extensive area. Its narrow streets and arcades are interspersed 
with spacious gardens. 

*S. Antonio (PI. 1), the Basilica of St. Antony of Padua (d. 
1231), commonly known as L Il Santo', is supposed to have been 
designed by Nicola Pisano in 1237, but was not begun till 1296. 
The principal part of the church was completed in 1307, the 
remainder not before 1475 (when the domes were raised); the 
whole was restored in 1749 after a Are. This vast structure with 
its seven domes is larger than S. Marco at Venice. Over the 
portal of the facade, which is 117 ft. in width, stands a statue of 
the saint; in the lunette Madonna with SS. Bernardino and Antonio, 
a fresco by Mantegna. The church is 100 yds. in length, 49 yds. 
in width across the transepts, and 123 ft. high in the centre. The 
nave and aisles are supported by twelve pillars ; the semicircular 
choir contains eight clustered columns and a series of eight chapels ; 
at the back of the choir is the Santuario, in the 'baroque' style, con- 
taining the treasury of St. Antony. 

The Interior , now whitewashed , was probably once covered with 

At the entrance, in the nave r. and )., two handsome 'benitiers', with 
statuettes of St. John the Baptist and of Christ, dating from the beginning 
of the 16th cent. 

S. Aisle. By the 1st pillar a * Madonna in Trono with SS. Peter, 
Paul, Bernard, and Antony, an altar-piece by Antonio Boselli of Bergamo. 
— 1st Chapel: Altar with reliefs in bronze by Donatello, representing the 
miracles of St. Antony; 1. the sarcophagus of General Gattamelata (p. 187) 
and his son. 

S. Transept. *Cappella S. Felice, with frescoes from the history of 
Christ and St. James, by Allichieri da Zetio and Jac. d'Avanzo, painted 
in 1376, and restored in' 1773, also architecturally interesting. — On the 
N. side of the choir is the Cappella del B. Luca Belludi , a pupil of S. 
Antony, with frescoes representing the history of St. Philip and St. James 
the Less, painted by Oiov. and Ant. Padovano in 1382, and restored in 
1786; the walls are covered with numerous votive paintings. 

"N. Transept. *Cappella del Santo, designed by Sansovino; the facade 
has four columns and two elegant corner pillars adorned with reliefs by 
Matteo and Tommitso Qarri; between the five arches are the Evangelists; 
above is the inscription : Divo Antonio confessori sacrum Rp. Pa. po. The 
walls are embellished with nine ^reliefs of the IGth cent. , representing 
the miracles of St. Antony: (beginning to the 1. of the altar) *1. Ordina- 
tion of St. Antony, by Antonio Minelli (1512}; 2. Resuscitation of a mur- 
dered woman, by Giovanni Maria Padovano; *'i. Resuscitation of a youth, 
by Oirolamo Campana; 4. Resuscitation of a suicide, by Sansovino; 5. Re- 
suscitation of a dead man; 6. Tullio Lombardo, Discovery of a stone in 
the corpse of a miser instead of a heart (1525) ; 7. Tullio Lombardo, Cure 
of a broken leg; 8. Miracle with a glass; *9. A child testifying to the in- 
nocence of its mother. The bones of the saint repose beneath the altar, 
which is also adorned with many votwe tablets. Two magnificent silver 
candelabra, borne by angels in marble. 

N. Aisle. Large monument of the Venetian Admiral Caterino Cor- 
nelia (d. 1674), with two figures as supporters, two prisoners in fetters, 
and the life-size statue of the admiral by Giusto le Curt; ^Monument of 
Antonio de* Roycellis (d. 1466), of an architectural character; by the last 

Museo Civico. PADUA. 36. Route. 187 

pillar (1st from the W. portal) the monument of Count Sicco; opposite to 
it is the last altar , that of St. Stanislaus , with a vault which once be- 
longed to the kingdom of Poland; adjacent to it is a relief by Luigi Fer- 
rari to the memory of the Princess Jablonowska (d. 1846). 

In the Choir are twelve reliefs in bronze , representing scenes from the 
Old Testament, most of them executed by Vellano, a pupil of Donatello, 
at the end of the 15th cent. The features of the full-length figure of St. 
Antony are said to be faithfully represented. The reliefs on the altar and 
the symbols of the four evangelists on the r. and 1. are by Donatello. 
Adjacent to the altar is a bronze * Candelabrum, ll'|2 ft. in height, by 
Andrea Riccio , adorned with a variety of Christian and heathen repre- 
sentations (1507). The Crucifix in bronze, with the Virgin and the tutelary 
saints of Padua, is by Donatello; the marble work is attributed to Qiro- 
lamo Campagna. 

Nave. On the 2nd pillar on the 1. the ^Monument of Alessandro Con- 
tarini (d. 1553) , General of the republic of Venice , with six slaves as 
supporters. On the opposite pillar (2nd on the 1.) is the simple and chaste 
monument of Cardinal Bembo (d. 1547) ; on the 4th pillar on the 1. the 
monument of the Venetian Admiral Hieronymus Michiel (d. 1557). 

The Cloisters , entered from the S. aisle (several monuments and 
frescoes in the style of Giotto in the passage) , with their wide and lofty 
pointed arches , contain a number of ancient tombstones. 

The Scuola del Santo, adjoining the church, the assembly-hall 
of the brotherhood of St. Antony, is adorned with seventeen frescoes 
by early Paduan masters (viz. Nos. 4, 8, and 10), by Domenico 
Campagnola (Nos. *2, 3, 9, and 17), by Titian in his early period 
(1500—1520) (Nos. *1. St. Antony giving speech to a child; 11. 
The saint saves a woman -who is threatened with death by her 
jealous husband; 12. Healing of a youth), and by pupils of Titian. 
Written catalogue for the use of visitors. The ancient *Chapel of 
8. Jjfiorgio, adjacent, contains twenty-one admirable frescoes of 
1377 by Jacopo d'Avanzo and Altichieri: to the r. below is the 
legend of St. Lucia, above it the legend of St. Catharine ; to thel., 
above and below the legend of St. George. Altar-wall : Crucifixion, 
Coronation of the Virgin. Wall of the door : Flight into Egypt, 
Adoration of theMagi, Nativity. The chapel is undergoing restoration, 
but the scaffolding commands an excellent view of the pictures. 

In front of the church is the equestrian Statue of Erasmo da 
Narni, surnamed Oattamelata, commander of the army of the 
Republic of Venice in 1438 — 41, cast in bronze by Donatello, the 
first great specimen of bronze-casting of the modern period of Italian 
art (45th cent.). 

To the 1. of the church of S. Antonio, on the' way to the Orto 
Botanico, is the Museo Civico e Bottacio, established in an old 
monastery, with a handsome Gothic court. The Pinacoteoa, or 
picture gallery, is temporarily placed in a large room on the first 


*" 51. Garofalo, Madonna and Child , Elizabeth and?Zachariah with the 
infant John ■ 47. Oirolamo da Santa Croce, Entombment; 56. Lorenzo Lotto, 
Madonna and Child with saints ; 74. Bonifazio , Madonna and Child with 
saints; 68. Titian (?), Christ, Mary, andfapostles ; 91. Owrgione (?), Ma- 
donna and Child in a .landscape; *125. Basaiti, Madonna and saints; 
Squarcione, 133. Altar-piece in three sections ; 148. Madonna and 
Child- 164 Tiepolo, S. Patricio healing a lunatic; 170. Romamno, Sacra- 

188 Route 36. PADUA. Eremitani. 

ment; 181. Romanino , Madonna enthroned and four saints, one of the 
angels with a tambourine ; Marco Palmezzani da Forli , 179. Madonna and 
Child with John the Baptist , 185. Madonna and Child with John the Bap- 
tist and St. Joseph (1535) ; 187. Romanino, Madonna enthroned, saints, and 
singing angels (1521); 29. Mantegna, Warriors. — The coins, casts, re- 
liefs, and bronzes are not at present shown. 

Eremitani (PI. 12), an Augustine church of the middle of the 
13th cent., judiciously restored of late, with painted vaulting of 
wood, is a very long building, destitute of aisles, columns, and 

On the r. and 1. are two old monuments of Princes of Carrara, the 
ancient lords of Padua , in a style peculiar to this town. The walls of 
the Choir are covered with indifferent frescoes by Guariento (beginning 
of loth cent.) , representing scenes from the history of the Augustine 
Order, subsequently restored. — The celebrated ^frescoes of Mantegna in 
the chapel of S. Jacopo e Cristoforo (the beautiful decorations also worthy of 
notice), adjoining the church on the r., are in a very damaged condition: 
1. the history of St. James by Mantegna, the two highest pictures by Ar- 
suino or Pizzolo; r. that of St. Christopher (of the latter the lower part 
only is by Mantegna; the small lance-bearer, whose head alone now 
remains recognisable, on the 1. is the painter himself; the upper scenes 
are by Ansuino , one of his pupils). The terracotta altar, Madonna and 
Saints by Giovanni da Pisa, a, pupil of Donatello ; behind it, Assumption 
of the Virgin, by Pizzolo. The chapel to the r. of the high altar contains 
a Coronation of Mary of the school of Giotto. — The Sacristy (entrance 
1. of the choir) contains an altar-piece by Guido Reni (covered), repre- 
senting John the Baptist. 

In a garden adjoining the Piazza in front of the church (if 
closed , ring at the large wooden gate) , is situated the *Madonna 
dell' Arena [Annunzictta , PL 2 ; the oval garden is the site of an 
ancient amphitheatre), a small Romanesque chapel, erected by the 
Paduan master Scrovegno in 1303 , the walls of which are covered 
with **Frescoes , most of them in good preservation, painted by 
Giotto in 1304, and representing the history of the Virgin and 
Christ , from the birth to the death of the former. The series 
begins in the 1. corner of the 1. side, in the upper row, and is con- 
tinued by the upper row to the r. , the middle row to the r. , the 
lower row to the 1. , and the lower row to the r. ; beneath are alle- 
gorical figures ; in the choir the Coronation of the Virgin and saints, 
by a follower of Giotto. On the AV. wall is a single painting, 
grandly conceived, representing the Last Judgment , supposed to 
have been suggested by Dante, when on a visit to his friend Giotto 
("custodian l j> fr. ). Morning light is the most favourable. (Photo- 
graphs from the originals may be purchased of Naya at Venice, 
l'/o fr. each. ) 

Near the Porta Codalunga , in the vicinity, is the church of 
I Carmini (PL 6). with a dome and large choir with six chapels 
on each side, and an unfinished facade. Adjoining it on the r. 
is the * Scuola del Carmine (now a baptistery) with frescoes from 
the lives of SS. Joachim, Anna, Mary, and Christ: 1. *Titian, 
Joachim and Anna (a shepherd kneeling on the r.) ; Girolamo da 
Santa Croce, Birth of Mary , Presentation in the Temple , Purifi- 

University. PADUA. 36. Route. 189 

cation, and Sposalizio ; the others by Paduan masters. *Altar piece, 
Madonna and Child in an attitude of benediction, by Palma Vecchio. 

The Cathedral (PI. 11), dating from the latter half of the 16th 
cent., with a plain facade, is uninteresting. The Baptistery (PI. 3), 
adjoining it on the N., a brick structure of the 12th cent., is adorn- 
ed with frescoes of 1380 by Oiusto Padovano. 

The Palazzo della Ragione (PI. 37), now the Municipio, situat- 
ed between the Piazza d'Erbe and the Piazza diFrutti, a 'Juris 
Basilica 1 as the inscription records , was erected in the 11th cent, 
and remodelled in 1420. It is celebrated for its great Hall , with 
vaulted wooden ceiling, one of the largest in the world, 91 yds. 
in length, 30 yds. in breadth, and 79 ft. in height (custodian tfe fr.). 
It contains a large wooden model of a horse by Donatello , which 
has given rise to various conjectures , but was probably employed 
by the artist as a model for the horse in the monument of Gatta- 
melata (see above ; it closely resembles the third horse to the r. on 
St. Mark's at Venice, p. 205, which was probably the original model). 
The walls are adorned with about 400 pictures in fresco , painted 
soon after 1420 by Oiov. Miretto and others , representing the 
influence of the constellations and the seasons on mankind. Under 
the loggia towards the Piazza di Frutti, and that towards the Piazza 
delle Erbe are Roman antiquities , chiefly inscriptions. Behind 
the horse is the tombstone of T. Livius Halys , a freedman of the 
family of the historian Livy , who is believed to have been born at 
Abano (p. 190). 

The Palazzo del Podesth , in the Piazza delle Erbe , the Pal. 
del Capitaneo , with a clock - tower, in the Piazza de' Signori (now 
the Piazza dell' Unita d'ltalia) , and the Pal. Oiustiniani near the 
church of S. Antonio also merit inspection. 

The Loggia del Consiglio, or Oran Ouardia, in the Piazza 
dell' Unita d'ltalia , to the W. of the Palazzo della Ragione , by 
Biagio Rossetti, is a very elegant example of the early Renaissance 
style, possessing a deep vestibule with an open arcade above a broad 
and lofty flight of steps. 

The University (PI. 47), opposite the Cafe" Pedrocchi (p. 185), 
is established in a building termed 'II BV , from a tavern which 
once existed in the vicinity with the sign of the ox. Beneath the 
handsome colonnades in the court , erected in 1552 by Jac. San- 
sovino, are numerous inscriptions and coats of arms of distinguished 
'cives academicV. 

Padua has also dedicated a number of monuments to the 'audi- 
tores PatavinV , or students of the university, who distinguished 
themselves in after-life. A double series of statues , a few only of 
which possess aTtistic merit (e. g. those of Poleni and Capello by 
Canova), adorn the *Piazza Vittorio Emanuele II., formerly termed 
Prato della Valle from its original condition as a grassy dale (now 
a promenade , ^ hr. walk from the university; PI. C, 3, 4). In 

190 Route 36. PADUA. 

the inner row to the 1. No. 63. Savonarola , 74. Steph. Bathori, 
75. John Sobieski; in the external row Tasso , Ariosto , Petrarch, 
Galileo. This spacious Piazza presents a busy scene at the time 
of the fair (fiera) , which begins on the festival of St. Antony 
(13th June). 

Opposite to the Prato, to the N. W. , in front of the Gothic halls of 
the Palazzo delta Loggia (PI. 40") , a modern structure of brick and 
stone, are the two marble Statues of Dante and Giotto, by Vincenzo 
Vela , erected in 1865. To the E. of the Prato is situated the 
church of 

*S. Giustina (PI. 16) , an edifice of strikingly noble and im- 
posing proportions, especially in the interior, completed in 1549 by 
Andrea Riccio or Briosco. It possesses a nave with two aisles, four 
domes and an unadorned facade of brick , approached by a hand- 
some flight of twelve steps, of the entire breadth of the structure. 
The church is paved with black, yellow, and red marble. In the 1. 
transept is. the sarcophagus of St. Luke, in the r. transept that 
of St. Matthew. Over the high altar, which contains the tomb of 
St. Justina , is the *Martyrdom of St. Justina , by Paolo Veronese. 
Magnificently carved *Choir-stalls by Tavolino (1550), in 50 differ- 
ent sections, each representing a subject from the New Testament 
above , and one from the Old below. In the chapel on the r. of 
the choir is represented the Virgin with the body of Christ, at the 
sides John and Mary Magdalene , a large group in marble by 
Parodi. The old choir, the sole remnant of the original church, also 
possesses fine carved stalls. 

In the vicinity is the Botanic Garden (PI. 32) , the oldest in 
Europe, well stocked with trees peculiar to the south. 

The traveller is often importuned here by commissionaires to 
visit the Castello Pacerotti, a miniature imitation of a feudal castle, 
erected about 1830 , containing old armour , an imitation of the 
dungeons at Venice, implements of torture, etc., but not worthy of 
a visit. 

37. From Padua to Bologna by Ferrara. 

77>|2 M. Railway in 3—5 hrs. ; fares 14 fr. 50, 11 fr. 10, 7 fr. 95 c. 

The line skirts and crosses the navigable Canale di Battaglia. 
Stat. Abano , a small town , the birthplace of the historian Livy, 
lies at some distance to the r. of the line. In the vicinity is Bagni 
('Baths', a well-appointed establishment) , the Aquae Patavinae, 
or Fons Aponi, of the Romans, on the E. slope of the Monti Euganei, 
with warm springs and mud-baths. 

The Monti Euganei, an isolated volcanic chain of hills rising on the 
r., 12 M. in length, from N. to S. , 6 M. in breadth, from E. to W., 
contain extensive quarries of'trachytc , and afford interesting excursions 
from Padua. Their culminating point is Monte Venda (1890 ft.), with the 
ruins of a monastery. 

ESTE. 37. Route. 191 

Stat. Montegrotta. To the 1. , beyond a long tunnel, near stat. 
Battaglia, is seen the old and well-preserved chateau of Cattajo, 
the property of the Duke of Modena , adorned with numerous fres- 
coes by Celotti. It was erected by the now extinct Venetian family 
Obizzo , who , according to a notice on a family-portrait , claim to 
have invented the howitzer. The chateau contains valuable 

Antiques. Ground-floor. Ante-chamber: inscriptions, large trilateral 
Roman monument ; farjher on, a room with inscriptions and architectural 
fragments. First floor. 1st Room: casts. 2nd R. : early Christian sculp- 
tures. Hall: twenty Etruscan cinerary urns with scenes of leave-taking 
and battles; 9, 17, 19. Death of Neoptolemos at Delphi; 18. Cadmus 
slaying the dragon; 7. Rape of Helen; to the 1., farther on, 35. Torso of 
a Cupid; 40. Cippus of a tomb; 43. Torso of a satyr. Brazen cinerary 
urns from the Euganean Mts. ; *102. Greek (?) tomb-relief; 100, 115. 
Terracottas, Artemis, Selene, and Endymion; 111. Scene from the con- 
quest of Troy, in relief; *288. Basrelief, Victory (?), the laurel-wreath 
modern. Terracottas from Etruscan tombs: 479. Mithras; 529. Woman in 
relief (the swan modern); 5, 9. Minerva; *545. Statue of Sabina, wife of 
Hadrian, in a sitting posture; 561. Antinous; 605. Isis, in imitation of 
the Egyptian style; 656. Cinerary urn in terracotta, formerly painted, 
with Troilus and Achilles; 1065. Statue of a youth; 1155. Augustus as an 
augur (the staff modern); 1179. Bearded Dionysus. In the centre, 1196. 
Statue of a magistrate; 1206. Torso of Hercules. — A room to the r. con- 
tains a large collection of mediaeval relics , weapons , guns , and artillery 
models. The Oratorio S. Michele, or chapel of the chateau contains good 
early Italian pictures. 

(11 M.) Stat. Battaglia (Albergo della Luna, no fixed charges) 
possesses warm baths of considerable repute. The principal spring 
(S. Helena) adjoins the chateau of Count "Wimpffen, the proprietor 
of the watering-place. About 3 M. to the S. W. of Battaglia , on 
the Monti Euganei , is situated Arquh del Monte , a small town 
prettily situated in a valley, and a favourite retreat of Petrarch, 
who died here in 1374. His monument in front of the church 
consists of a sarcophagus resting on short columns of red marble, 
bearing the inscription : 

Frigida Francisci lapis hie tegit ossa Petrarce, 
Suscipe virgo parens animam ! Sate virgine, parce ! 
Fessaque nam terris celi requiescat in arce. 

On the top is a bust of Petrarch , dating from 1547. His house in 

the upper part of the town, with painted wooden ceilings and faded 

frescoes in allusion to his poems , contains a few reminiscences of 

its former illustrious owner. 

Stat. Monselice, a town at the base of the Monti Euganei, has 
remains of fortified walls and a ruined castle. To Arqua and Este 
a drive of 3 hrs. 

(7M.) Stat. Este. The town , the Atesteof Tacitus according to 
ancient inscriptions, lies 3 3 / 4 M. to the N., on the road which here 
diverges to Mantua. It possesses the extensive , but now ruinous 
ancestral residence of the House ofEste, a spacious piazza surrounded 
with arcades, a Museo Civito in the church of S. Francesco (contain- 
ing several interesting Roman inscriptions), a cathedral of elliptical 

192 Route 37 FERRARA. From Padua 

plan with a lofty choir , and a church of S. Martino with a leaning 

The line now quits the canal, and near stat. Stanghella crosses 
the Gorzone Canal. The country is fertile , but flat and marshy. 
Near Boara a small new fort is passed and the Adige crossed. 

(9'/2 M.) >Stat. Rovigo (Cappa d'Oro; Corona Ferrea), on the 
Naviglio Adigetto , an episcopal residence and the capital of a 
'Delegation', also has a leaning tower. 

Adria, 16 1 J2 SI. to the E., on the Bianco Canal, occupies the site of the 
very ancient Etruscan town of the same name, whence the Adriatic derives 
its appellation. The sea has gradually receded from it, and is now 
17 SI. distant. 

Stat. Arquh. The line crosses the Bianco Canal near the 
Bosaro, and near 

Stat. Polesella reaches the Po , which is here the boundary 
between Venetia and the Romagna. The 1. bank of the Po is now 
followed. Stat. Paviole; then S. Maria Maddalena. The river is 
then crossed, and the train reaches stations Pontelagoscuro, and 

(T4 1 /o M.~) Ferrara {Europa, opposite the post-office, R. 2, 
omnibus 3/ 4 fr. ; Stella d' Oro , opposite the castle , R. 2 , L. and 
A. 1 fr. ; Tre Corone, R. ll/ 2 , A. 1/2 fr -, tolerable; Caffe del Corso ; 
Caffe Castiglione , Piazza del Commercio), situated near the ancient 
Forum Alieni , 3 ! /o M. S. of the Po , in the midst of a fertile , but 
unhealthy plain. It is the capital of a Delegation , with 27,688 
inhab. , and possesses broad, deserted streets , mouldering palaces, 
and other imposing reminiscences of its golden period. It was once 
a prosperous commercial place, numbering 100,000 inhab., and was 
the seat of the renowned court of the House of Este, several mem- 
bers of which were great patrons of literature and art in the middle 
ages. Ariosto and Tasso were among the most brilliant stars of 
this court. 

The family of Este was of Tuscan extraction. Azzo I. became Count 
or Slargrave of Este under Emp. Henry III. His eldest son Welf (founder 
of the younger branch of the Ouelphs) was invested with the Duchy of 
Bavaria, which had belonged to his grandfather, the last male representa- 
tive of the elder branch of the Guelphs , and his son Henry the Proud 
became the founder of the families of Brunswick and Hanover. Giulio, 
the second son of Welf, was the ancestor of the dukes of Ferrara and 
Jlodena. fihizzo III., who added Slodena and Reggio to his dominions 
(d. 1352), considerably extended the power of his house , which from an 
early period was a liberal patron of art and science. In 1452 Borso 
received the title of Duke of Modena and Reggio from Emp. Frederick III., 
and that of Duke of Ferrara from Pope Paul II. He died in 1471. His 
brother Hercules I. (1471—1505), and the son of the latter, Alphonso I. 
(1505 — 34), husband of the infamous Lucrezia Borgia, were powerful and 
influential princes. Cardinal Hippohitus cVJCsle, Archbishop of Milan, 
brother of Alphonso , was the friend and patron of Ariosto. Hercules II. 
(1534 — 58), son of Alphonso, was the husband of Renata, daughter of 
Louis XII. of France, patroness of the Reformers Calvin and Marot to 
whom she accorded an asylum. Having declared herself in favour of the 
reformed doctrines, she was separated from her husband and children. 
Her son Alphonso II. (1558 — 97) raised the glory of Ferrara to its culmi- 
nating point, but with him the family became extinct, his three marriages 


a . del Cttmmercio D 't.5 . 

I delta Pace M. 

c . Munitipale D.5. 

d. del toUajoli 1Mb 

e. ILocca CaiLole CB.45 
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. F. 6. 


, VI. 

. .B.5. 

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to Bologna. FERRARA. 37. Route. 193 

being childless. He was the patron of the poets Tasso and Ouarini (author 
of the 'Pastor Fido', born at Ferrara in 1537, died at Venice in 1612). 
Gcethe in his 'Torquato Tasso* has drawn a faithful picture of the court of 
Ferrara about the year 1575, although a somewhat ideal colouring is given 
to some of the characters. His description of the attachment of Tasso to 
Eleonora (1537 — 81), the youngest unmarried sister of the duke, is however 
not without foundation. Anna (1531 — 1607), one of the sisters, was married 
to the Due de Guise, and afterwards to the Due de Nemours ; Lucrezia 
(1534—98), the other sister, was the wife of the Duke of Urbino. Alphonso 
II. was succeeded by Cesare cTEste, descendant of a natural son of 
Alphonso I., but only as duke of Modena and Reggio, Ferrara and 
Comacchio having been claimed by Pope Clement VIII. as vacant fiefs. 
In the history of art and science the renown of the House of Este is 

'Whoe'er in Italy .is known to fame 

This lordly House as frequent guest can claim.' 

Several celebrated painters who lived at Ferrara must also be men- 
tioned : Cosimo Tura, a pupil of Mantegna; Lorenzo Costa, who subse- 
quently became a follower of Francesco Francia at Bologna; then, at the 
beginning of the 16th cent., Dosso Dossi and Benvenuto Tisio, surnamed 
Oarofalo (1481 — 1559), an adherent of Raphael. Titian also occasionally 
resided at Ferrara, where he painted his 'Cristo della Moneta', now at 

The *Palaee (PI. 17), an ancient and picturesque edifice with 
four towers, situated in the centre of the town, is now occupied by 
the local authorities and the telegraph-office. The custodian 
shows several dungeons, and among them one at the base of the 
'lion tower', where on 21st May, 1425, the Marquis Nicholas III. 
caused his faithless wife Parisina Malatesta and his natural son 
Hugo, her paramour, to be beheaded. Lord Byron in his poem of 
'Parisina' substitutes the name of Azzo for Nicholas as being more 
metrical. The Sala del Consiglio (or Sala de' Gigantf) in the 
building of the prefecture, contains frescoes by Dosso Dossi, repre- 
senting wrestling- matches of the ancient palsestra. The Sala delV 
Aurora, with frescoes by the same master, is shown only by 
special permission of the prefect. 

The *Cathedral (£. Paolo, PI. 1), of 1135, has an imposing 
facade with three series of round arches, one above the other , an 
admirable example of the Lombard style. The lower part of the 
front and the lateral facades date from 1135; the upper part is of 
the 13th cent., the sculptures of the 13th and 14th. The projecting 
portal, enriched with sculptures and four lions, was added at a later 
period. The spacious interior, with its aisles and double transept, 
has been entirely , but not unpleasingly modernised. In the 2nd 
transept on the r. : *St. Peter by Oarofalo, Martyrdom of St. Law- 
retice by Guercino. Crucifix and four figures in bronze by Niccolb 
Baroncelli; terracotta figures of Christ and the apostles in both 
transepts by Alfonso Lombardi. In the choir, to the r. , Annuncia- 
tion, to the 1. St. George, by Tura; above, Last Judgment, by 
Bastianino. 3rd Chapel on the 1., Madonna enthroned with saints, 
by Oarofalo. On the r. and 1. of the principal door, SS. Peter and 
Paul, in fresco, by the same master. 

B^liKKKK. Italv I. 3rd Kdit. 13 

194 Route 37. FERRARA. From Padua 

At the S. corner of the cathedral rises a lofty and handsome 
Campanile in four massive storeys, erected in the Renaissance style 
under Ercole II. (p. 19'2). Opposite to it is the Pal. delta Rayione, 
a Gothic brick building with restored facade. 

S. Francesco (PI. 7), erected in 1498 by Pietro Benvenuti, is 
entirely covered with domes and each aisle is flanked with chapels. 
1st Chapel on the 1., frescoes by Garofalo, the Donors and the Kiss 
of Judas. The other pictures are copies, of which the originals are 
preserved in the pinacoteca. The church contains monuments of 
the family of Este and that of Giambatiista Piyna, the secretary 
of Alphonso II. and rival of Tasso (a simple slab, outside, to the 
1. of the entrance). A famous echo here (under the second 
dome in the nave) answers sixteen times if awakened with due 

On the way to the railway-station is S. Benedetto (PI. 3), dating 
from the same period, erected by Giambattista and Albert Tristani, 
consisting of nave and aisles supported by pillars, and flanked with 
chapels. The circular vaulting is interrupted by the domes. The 
monument of Ariosto was removed hence to the library (p. 195) 
in 1801. The old monastery, now a hospital (keys at the Palazzo 
Comnnale not always easily obtained), is adorned with frescoes by 
Scarsellino and Dosso Dossi; that of the ante-chamber of the re- 
fectory represents Paradise, with saints and angels, among whom 
Ariosto caused himself to be painted. 

-S. Domenico (PI. 6) was adorned with statues on the facade by 
Ferreri, and with paintings in the interior by Garofalo and Carlo 
Bonone (the latter now in the pinacoteca). The celebrated Cello 
Calcaynini of Ferrara (1479 — 1541), who to some extent antici- 
pated Copernicus in his discoveries regarding the solar system, the 
contemporary and friend of Ariosto, bequeathed his library to the 
adjacent monastery. His bust is placed over the entrance. 

S. Maria in Vado (PI. 11), one of the oldest churches at Ferrara, 
but altered after 1475 by Biayio llossetti and Bartolommeo 
Tristani , consists of a nave divided into three parts , with a flat 
ceiling resting on ten columns, and surmounted by a dome sup- 
ported by buttresses. It contains admirable paintings by Carlo 
Bonone (Marriage of Cana, Coronation of Mary, etc.), Dosso Dossi, 
and Palma Vecchio. 

S. Paolo (PI. 13) is adorned with paintings by Bonone and 
Scarsellino , and contains the monument of Antonio Montecatino, 
the friend and minister of Alphonso II. 

The *Palazzo de' Diamanti (PI. 30), so called from the peculiar 
facing of the stones with which the building is covered, a handsome 
early Renaissance structure, begun in 1493 and completed in 1567, 
contains the Ateneo Civico and the Civic Picture Gallery, most of 
the works in which have been collected from suppressed churches. 

to Bologna. FEHBARA. 37. Route. 195 

Garofalo and Dosso Dossi are particularly well represented (open 
daily 9 — 3 ; good catalogue ^fe ' r - ; r i- n g on tie 1. at the entrance ; 
fees prohibited). 

' I. Room: 2. (two pictures) Bastoruolo, SS. Christopher and Sebastian ; 
8. Bambini, Nicholas of Bari and two saints ; 10. Bastianino, Madonna and 
saints ; 104. Domenico Tintoretto , Madonna del Rosario. — II. Room : 19. 
Boccaccino (d. 1515), Death of the Virgin; 23. Lor. Costa, Madonna enthroned 
with SS. Petronius and Jerome; 83. Panetti (d. 1531, the teacher of Garo- 
falo), Annunciation; 87. Panetti, St. Andrew; 106. Tura, St. Jerome (about 
1450). — III. Room : 45. Garofalo, Large fresco symbolical of the victory 
of Christianity over Judaism; 96. Scarsellino (d. 1614), Marriage of Cana; in 
the centre of the room, without number, ^Garofalo, Madonna in clouds with 
saints; Ercole Grandi, St. Sebastian. — IV. Room: *81. Palma Vecchio (?), 
Jesus and the Pharisees ; 53. Garofalo , Madonna del Riposo ; 52. Garofalo, 
St. Peter the Martyr; 28. Carpi (d. 1567), St. Antony of Padua, causing an 
infant to bear testimony to the honour of its mother; 51. Garofalo, Adora- 
tion of the Magi. — V. Room : *38. Dosso Dossi, St. John the Evangelist 
in the island of Patmos -, 25. Cortellini, Madonna enthroned and four saints 
(1500); *75. Mazzolino (d. 1560), Adoration of the Child; 54. Garofalo, 
Madonna del Pilastro; *55. Garofalo, Adoration of the Magi, 1537 (the 
artist has painted a 'garofalo 1 or carnation by way of signature in the 
foreground) ; 82. Panetti , Mary's meeting with Elisabeth ; 79. Ortolano, 
Adoration of the Child (about 1500) ; 56. Garofalo , Christ in Geth- 
semane. — VI. Room: 66. Guercino, Beheading of St. Maurelius; 33. 
Carpaccio , Death of Mary ; 39. Dosso Dossi, Annunciation ; 58. Garofalo, 
Slaughter of the Innocents; 61. Garofalo, Finding of the Cross; *60. 
Garofalo, Raising of Lazarus. — VII. Room: 107. Timoteo delta Vile, 
Assumption. — VIII. Room : *33. Dosso Dossi , Madonna surrounded by 
saints , a very large picture in several divisions. Also a room with 
modern pictures. 

The *Studio Pubblieo, or Universith (PI. 22), a school of medi- 
cine, mathematics, and jurisprudence, contains a valuable collec- 
tion of coins and Greek and Latin inscriptions (in the court several 
early Christian sarcophagi and one of Roman origin), and a Library 
of 100,000 vols, and 1100 MSS. Among the latter are several 
cantos of the 'Orlando Furioso' in Ariosto's handwriting, with 
numerous corrections , and a copy of Tasso's 'Gerusalemme Libe- 
rata', also with corrections ; letters and poems written by Tasso in 
prison: Ouarini's MS. of the 'Pastor Fido' ; a number of choir- 
books of the 13th — 16th cent, with beautiful miniatures. Among 
the printed books are fifty -two old editions of Ariosto. His monu- 
ment was brought here from S. Benedetto in 1801. 

The simple House of Ariosto (PI. 25), which he erected for 
himself and occupied during the latter part of his life, Via dell' 
Ariosto No. 67, has been the property of the town since 1811. It 
bears the inscription, composed by the poet himself: 

'Parva, sed apta mihi, sed nulli obnoxia, sed non 
Sordida, parta ineo sed tamen aere domus.' 

A few reminiscences of Ariosto are shown in the interior. A 

monument was erected to him in the Piazza Ariostea (PI. E, F, 3). 

While the poet was studying law, which however he soon 

exchanged for poetry, he resided in the Casa degli Ariosti, near 


196 Route 37. CENTO. 

the church of S. Maria di I'.oeehe. He quitted this house on his 
father's death. Ouarini's House still belongs to his descendants. 

The Hospital of St. Anna (entrance in the Stradella Giovecca, 
next door to the Europa, PI. 29) is interesting as the place where 
Tasso was kept in confinement for seven years (from 1579) by 
order of Alphonso II. He is supposed to have incurred the 
displeasure of his patron by his passion for the Princess Leonora, 
the sister of Alphonso, or to have suffered from periodical attacks 
of insanity. A dungeon is shown in which he is said to have been 
incarcerated, with the names of Byron and other poets written on 
the walls. 

In the church of N. (iiorgio, outside the Porta Romana, Pope 
Eugene IV. opened the Council convened in 1438 with a view to 
effect a union of the Greek and Roman churches, in the presence 
of the Greek Emp. John Paheologus. This locality being considered 
unhealthy, the seat of the Council was afterwards transferred to 

From Ferrara to Bologna by railway in 1 — 1 1 /% hr. The 
train crosses the Cavo Tassone Canal, which communicates with 
the Pb di Primaro, and traverses flat, well cultivated land (rice- 
fields). Stations Poggio Renatico, (lallkra, S. Pietro in Casals, 
and San < iiorgio. 

From S. i;iorgio an excursion may be made lo (5 M.) Cento, a small 
town on the. Itato, Ihe birthplace of the great painter C't/ei-ci/io (d. at. 
Bologna 16(36). Several ol' the churches, particularly those of *<S. Biagio 
and the Madonna del Rosario, contain admirable works by Gnercino, who 
was greatly attached to his native town. His house, where he received 
many illustrious visitors, is still shown. In the. centre of the town is his 
statue hy Galetti. — Near Cento is situated I'iei'c di Cento, a small town 
with tin 1 pilgrimage-church of S. Maria Assuitta; the high altar-piece is 
an + Assumption by Gi>iU<>. 

Next stations Castel Maggiore and Corticella. The fertility of 
the soil increases as liologna is approached. 

Bologna, see R. 43. 

38. Venice, Italian Venezia. 

Arrival. The railway-station is confined and noisy. The porters with 
badges convey luggage to an omnibus-boat, (p. 198) or to a gondola, 
according to the wish of Ihe traveller, to whom an official presents a 
number for a gondola and a printed tariff of fares from the station to any 
part of Ihe city (as far as S. Marco 1 fr., lo more, distant, points 1 fr. 25 c, 
each box 15 c. ; with two rowers double Ihese charges). A second generally 
proll'ers his services, but may be dismissed with Ihe words 'basta uno! 1 
The holcls send commissionaires to meet Ihe trains, but their services are 
unnecessary. The 'omnibus 1 is a very slow craft, often crowded and 
affording no view. — Oondola tariff for those who arrive by sea, see 
p. t!)8. 

Hotels (romp. Tnlrod. V). Okano Hotel Koval (Danieli, PL a) in 
ihe old l'ala:co Be.inaiili, Riva degli Schiavoni, E. of Ihe Palace of the 
Doges, It. from 3, L. I, 1'.. 2, I). 5, A. I fr. ; -tEuitoi'A (PI. b), in Ihe 
former I'alazzo lliiislitiinm , on the (Jrand Canal, opposite, the Dogana di 
Mare and near the Piazza of SI. Mark, similar charges. *Hotel Barbesi 


'.Angelo S.S/lirit 



1 Acradrmia deffe^BelteArti . .B.5. 

2 AreMrio terztralediFrari. B.3. 

3 Arsenate (Forta, dSigresso) JL1. 
4- Campanile P.* 


5 S^JpostoH, F.2 

6 S.Siago ttl 

7 l.Carnwii C.1. 

8 S.Fantino E.l. 

9 S.Franeesco delta Vigna- . ft3. 

10 I,Frari(S.Jtaria Glorwsa,) . B.3, 
It I.GesuM F.2 

12 5. Giorgio ilagaiore . G.5. 

13 " " " degliSetdarone . 6.3. 
+ 13^ • « dW 0rm Gt. 

v «* C* ' S.Cassicmo E.3. 

a c -s.etae.di-Huato e.3. 

14- 5. Giarcauvi GrUostomo 

15 S " " < 

16 J. GiuKano 

17 S. Marco I ' Cattedrale- ) 

18 X Maria Formosa, 

19 " " KaterDormbd. 

20 " " dri JKracoK 

21 deE'Grto 

22 " " delta. Salute 

23 " • 
24- .V. Moise 

25 A iV&»U da TotenHno 

26 S.Pantaleme 

27 S.Fietro H CasteOo 

28 A Redentore- . . . . 

29 S.Boceo 

30 5. Sabratore ... 

31 0K &a/«i 

32 Scuota del Angela Cuitode 

33 .V. Seiajtiano ... 
J* S. Sbneone e jrieeolo 

35 J. *tofeu> 

36 5. ZacearUi .... 

37 Fogana, cbL Mare 

38 Diretume. diPolima 

39 Ctuhnetto di tettura 



























Fwnta di^ 
$. Marie, 



a- GreauL ESteLRoyal (DajriebL) 

h Furopa 

e Barbesi 

d FeHe rue, (IsnenghLJ . 

e S.JXarco 

■f Luna- 

g Vtturriw 

h. Italia/ 

i Taporc ...... 

k Gatlo 

I Cxtta cti Monica . 

m, Stella, d'oro (Bauer) 

tv Hotel garni f SrJiar/hageZ / 

Puntoj c i 


tO Giardzni FapadrpoU 
iiOtpedate Otrile, 

1-2 Balbi . . . 
43 Bariarigo 
44- Battogia 
45 Bembo 

16 Bernardo 

17 Cdaa ferro 

18 Co.- d'oro 

19 Cqmerlingld 

50 CaraW 

5 1 Conuxruii del Scrigni 

52 " " Pasan, . 

53 " " Figure . . 
51 Corner 

55 Corner delta Regina. 

56 Corner .rpineSt . . 

57 Correr (Xuseo ccncoj 
.".8 Dandalo 

59 Dario Angaruti 

60 Jhteale 

61 JSmo Treret . . 

62 Fini 

63 Fondaeo de TedetcH 
61 Fondaeo dt, Furehi 

65 FartetU . . 

66 Foseari 

67 tritTYiini'IU 

68 Siu.iHimi . ■ 

69 Siustuiivi. Zohn, 

70 ffrimami (S. Tama,! 

71 (rrimaxa, delta Vida, 






























' '^vlSOLA PI S. PlETBt 


6 «*» 




72 Grasti 

73 Labia, 
71 Loredan 

75 Jfan/rm .... 

76 Mangilli Tatmarana 

77 Mamn 

78 Xanzoni Angaraxd 
70 Micteeli dette Colonne 

80 Xocenigo .... 

81 Noeemgo IByroit) 
. 82 Mom -Lin, 

83 Fersieo 
81 Pesaro 
85 Fhani, 
«8 Reale 

87 Renter 

88 Rexzonieo . 

89 Sacredo 
00 Tiepolo Sturmer 

91 " ZueheU 

92 Ttepolo 

93 Trtm 

91 Vendramai CalergM 
95 liMEnterhaxi . 

Tunta delta 

96 Tosta. ; . . 1 

97 Prigioni erim.eFonte dei Su.tpA 

98 Scaola, di S. Jtocca, < 

99 Semmarw Patriareale ] 


100 la,Ferdee 

101 Apollo 

102 GaBo 

103 Jhtibran 
101 Camploj. 

iB6 VffitUi dtl TUtgraJv 

Darm«la(it / Ed."Wa^ner. 

VENICE. 38. Route. 197 

(PI. c), in the Palazzo Zucchelli, on the Grand Canal, opposite the church 
della Salute; *Vittoria (PI. g), E. 2>|2 fr. and upwards, D. 4, L. and 
A. 1, B. l'|2 fr., situation less favourable. (Travellers are sometimes 
requested to pay in gold, but they cannot be legally required to do so.) — 
S. Marco (PI. e), in the Piazza of St. Mark, in the old Procuratie, similar 
charges; *H6tel Bellevue (PI. d), N. side of the Piazza of St. Mark, 
R. 3 fr. and upwards, B. l'/z, A. 1 fr. ; *Hotel New York, in the former 
Palazzo Ferro (p. 216); *Luna (PI. f), to the W. of and opposite to the 
former Imperial Garden, close to the Piazza of St. Mark, similar charges; 
*CiTTa di MoNaco (Munich Hotel) (PI. 1), on the Grand Canal, near the 
Piazza of St. Mark, R. 2'k fr., L. 75, A. 60 c. ; Cirra in Roma, S. Moise, 
Piscina , new ; Hotel Pension Suisse , on the Grand Canal , opposite S. 
Maria della Salute; *Italia (PI. h) ; *H6tel Bauer (PI. m), S. Moise, 
Calle Lunga, with restaurant; Hotel Garni National and Hotel Laquna, 
both in the Riva degli Schiavoni; ^Pension Anglaise in the former 
Palazzo Oiustinian Vescovi, Grand Canal, recommended; Vapore (PI. i); S. 
Gallo (PI. k), with good restaurant; *Leon Bianco, Calle de' Fabbri, N. 
of the Piazza of St. Mark ; Sandwirth, Riva degli Schiavoni , German, 
unpretending. — Hotel Garni au Beao-Rivage , 'de'pendance' of Hotel 
Danieli (see above), Riva degli Schiavoni; Scharfnagel's Hotel Garni 
(PI. n) by the Campanile, well spoken of, R. and L. 2>|2 fr. per day, 
'50 fr. per month. 

Strangers are cautioned against sleeping with open windows on account 
of the gnats. Mosquito-curtains (zanzariera) afford the best protection 
against these pertinacious intruders. Pastilles ( l fldibus contro le zanzare"), 
sold by the chemists, are generally effectual in dispersing them. Drinking- 
water is bad at Venice; new water-works are projected. 

Private Apartments , advertised by notices on the shutters or in the 
windows , are easily obtained. The rents of those on the Grand Canal 
and the Riva degli Schiavoni are the highest. The Fondamenta delle Zaitere 
is a quiet and agreeable situation (e. g. in the Calle del Ridotto, R. 1 — 2 
fr. per day, 30 — 50 fr. per month). It is usual to pay for one month in 
advance, before which the tenant is recommended to see that every 
necessary arrangement, is made, ^tuilo compreso^. 

Restaurants (Traltorie, comp. lntrod. V). On the first floor of the 
*Ca/4 Quadri; *Qallo (good Italian cuisine); *Bauer (see above) ; to the r. 
in the same street , farther on , Citta di Firenze , good wine, Calle del 
Ridotto, opposite the Europa; < Leon Bianco (see above); *Cavaletto, at 
the back of the Hotel S. Marco. These are probably the best, most of the 
others being deficient in cleanliness and comfort. — The wines of Cyprus 
and Santos are among the best at Venice (sold by Oiacomuzzi , Calle 
Vallaressa, near the S. W. corner of the Piazza of St. Mark, and others). 
— Beer. * Bauer and Griinwald (Hotel Bauer, see above); Citta di Genoru 
(see above); S. Polo, with pleasant garden; and at most of the cafes. 

Cafes (comp. lntrod. V). In the Piazza of St. Mark, S. side: *Florian, 
good ices; Caf& Svizzero. N. side: Degli Specchi; *Quadri (recommended 
for breakfast); *Cafi Giardino Reale, to the r. of the Piazzetta, beautifully 
situated. After sunset hundreds of chairs and small tables are placed in 
front of these cafes for the accommodation of customers. Strangers are 
often importuned by flower-girls, hawkers, musicians, etc. The cafes on 
the Riva degli Schiavoni are also much frequented, although less fashion- 
able: Briciacco (good ices), Alle Nazioni, etc. 

Boats take the place of fiacres at Venice. The light, old Venetian 
Gondola, with a low black canopy or cabin (felze) and black leather seat, 
accommodates 2 — 3 pers. They are painted black in conformity with a 
law passed in the 15th cent. The Barca, a modern institution, is a larger 
craft, open at the sides, covered with coloured material, and accommo- 
dating six or more persons. The heavy indented iron prow (ferro), resembling 
a halberd, is partly designed to counterbalance the weight of the rower, 
and partly as a measure of the height of the bridges, which cannot be 
passed unless the ferro, the highest part of the craft, clears them. The 
rower himself is hailed as 'Poppe\ from the poppa on which he stands. 

198 Route .W. VENICE. Boats. 

Charges. Gondola with one rower (barcajiiolo), according to the tariff, 
a copy of which the gondolier is bound to exhibit if desired, for the first 
hour, or for each trip 1 Jr., for each half-hour 25 c. (hut. a fee 
is expected in addition to these low fares), for the whole day (of 10 hrs.) 
o fr. To or from the station, see p. 196. Luggage 15 c. From the steamers 
to the Piazzetta (two rowers required) 50 c, to the Rialto Bridge 2 fr., 
beyond it, 2'| 2 fr. From the Piazzetta to the Giardini Pubhlici 50 c. ; after 
sunset, one-half more. Those who visit the theatre and wish to secure a 
gondola for returning had better keep the boat in which they have gone 
(3'f2 hrs., 2 l \i fr.). For short distances a bargain should be made. For a 
second rower double the ordinary fare is charged. One, however, suffices 
for the gondola, and even for the barca if not heavily laden, unless greater 
speed than usual is desired. Officious loiterers who assist passengers to 
disembark expect a gratuity of a few centimes. 

It is usual for the passenger, after having selected a gondola or barca, 
to mention his destination and the fare to the gondolier; e. g. i alla station e 
mi franco, S. Giovanni e Paolo mezzo franco'', etc. Should the proper fare 
be declined, application is made In another. If the gondola be hired hy 
the hour, the passenger shows his watch and remarks, t aW ora\ The 
highest demands are generally made at the Piazzetta and Riva and in the 
vicinity. It need hardly be observed that the intervention of a com- 
missionaire or waiter in the hiring of a boat causes the fare to be con- 
siderably raised. A second rower, who is generally desirous of being en- 
gaged , may be dismissed with the words 'l>asta nno\ According to the 
official regulations gondoliers guilty of extortion or want of respect are 
liable to severe punishment. — The shouts of the gondolier; on turning a 
corner are peculiar, e. g. gib, e (boat ahead!), preme (pass to the r. !), 
stall (pass to the 1. !), etc. 

Omnibus Boats ply, on the arrival of every train, from the station 
to the Riva del Carbon (near Ponte Rialto) and the Piazzetta. Fare 25 c, 
gratuity 5 c. , each heavier article of luggage 15 e. ; the porter belonging 
to the boat, who conveys luggage In the holel , also expects a fee. On 
quitting Ihe railway station, the traveller who purposes employing one 
of these conveyances names his hotel or other desiinal ion and is conducted 
by the railway-officials to the proper boat (cmiip. p. 196). Omnibus boats 1o 
the station (in 20 min.) start from the Molo , E. of the Piazzetta, 3 |.| Iir. 
before the departure of each train (Iheir station is hy the first bridge, Ihe 
Ponte delta Paglia, nearly under the Bridge of Sighs). 

Ferries ( Traghctti) across the Grand Canal (5 e., after dusk 8 c), 15 
in number, see Plan. 

Guides (Hither , Schneider , Fvchs , Joseph Scholl , Ferrari, Fassetta, 
Carabba, Mrola, Marco Vera, etc.) are to be met with before 9 a. m. or 
about 8 p. in. in the Piazza of St. Mark. Each hotel generally has its 
own guide. Parties of strangers are frequently formed hy Ihe guides, 
who undertake to conduct them to all the principal sights of Venice at a 
charge of 3 — 4 fr. each pers., which includes gondola-fares, gratuities, 
etc., but, as the number is usually unlimited, this wholesale system 
cannot be recommended, the members of the party being entirely deprived 
of their indejjendence. The traveller, alone, or accompanied hy a few 
friends, will find it far preferable to have a guide at his own disposal. 
In tub case the fee, including all expenses, is 20 fr. (i. e. 5 fr. for the 
guide and about 15 fr. for gondolas, lees, elc). — The guides arc often 
reluctant to cross to S. Redentore on the Giudecca, but the traveller may 
insist on their accompanying them. 

It must, however, be observed that the aid of the Handbook, coupled 
with a slight acquaintance with the Italian language , will enable the 
traveller entirely to dispense with a guide. The principal objects of interest, 
should be visited in a definite order, such as that suggested below, and 
the most direct routes ascertained from the Plan, in order that the proper 
orders may tic given to the gondolier at each stage of the route. 

Baths of every description, also for swimming (galleggiante), are situated 
between the Riva degli Schiavoni and the Isola S. Giorgio, but are used 

Theatres. VENICE. 38. Route. 199 

during the three summer-months only (bath 1 fr.)- Ferry from the 
Piazzetta to the baths 10 c. ; the word 'bagno'' is a sufficient direction to 
the gondolier. Swimmers (1 fr.) ask at the establishment for a ticket for 
the 'vasca' (basin) ; a separate bath (l 1 ^ fr.) is a '•camerino' ; common bath 
for ladies (sirene) 1 fr. 40 c. ; separate bath for ladies 3 fr. No gratuities 
expected. The best time for bathing is about high tide, the water at low 
tide being shallow and muddy. — The baths on the Lido (p. 232) are 
pleasanter. In summer a steamboat plies every hour (in the height of the 
season every half-hour, 30 c.) between the Biva degli Schiavoni and the 
Lido in 12 min. , returning after a halt of ^2 hr. From the landing-place 
to the baths a walk of 10 min. (omnibus 25 c). Bath 1 fr., less to 
subscribers. Improvements are taking place here, promenades laid out, 
and lodging houses erected; also several restaurants and cafes. — Warm 
Baths at most of the hotels, and at Chitarirfs (salt-water), near S. Maria 
della Salute, l l | a — 2 fr. 

Consulates. American, S. Maria del Rosario, Fondamenta Venier 709; 
British, S. Maria del Giglio, Calle Gritti del Campanile 2489; French, 
S. Stefano, Calle Giustiniano 2891; German, S. Benedetto, Calle Ramo 
Contarini Pal. Cavalli 3978; also others for all the principal European 

Post Office (Uffizio della Posta, comp. Introd.) (PI. 39) in the Palazzo 
Grimani , on the Grand Canal, by the Campo S. Luca, not far from the 
Ponte RIalto. Letter-boxes in the Piazza of St. Mark , at the Uffizio del 
Lloyd, etc. — Telegraph Office behind the W. side of the Piazza of St. 
Mark, above the guard-house. 

Booksellers. Miinster, Piazza of St. Mark, S.W. corner ; Colombo Coen, 
Procurazie Vecchie 139, and at the Hotel New York; Ebhardt, S. Luca, 
Calle de' Fuseri 4355, Hotel Vittoria. — Photographers : Ifaya, Riva degli 
Schiavoni 4206; Ponti, Riva degli Schiavoni 4178; both of whom have 
shops in the Piazza of St. Mark. 

Steamboat Office (Uffizio del Lloyd Austriac'o) in the Piazzetta, below 
the Zecca (PI. 54). To Trieste three times weekly; to Chioggia daily at 5 
or 6 p. m. (fares 2 or l'/a fr.), on Sundays 8 a. m. (return-tickets 3'J2 fr.) ; 
to Ancona (in 15 hrs. ; Societa Adriatico-Orientale, Piazza Of St. Mark, 
under the new Prociirazie) every Saturday. To the Lido, see above. 

Theatres (comp. Introd. VI). Della Fenice (PI. 100) , the largest in 
Venice, is capable of accommodating 3000 spectators ; internal arrangements 
worthy of inspection; performances during the Carnival only, sometimes 
also in June and July. The following are employed throughout the whole 
year: Apollo (PI. 101), Rossini (Gallo) (PL 102), and Camploy (S. Samuele) 
(PI. 104). Malibran (PL 53), ppen-air theatre. 

Shops (comp. Introd. VI). The best are in the Piazza of St. Mark, 
in the Merceria and in the Frezzaria , entered from the Piazza of St. 
Mark, opposite to the church. The Venetian pearls and jewellery enjoy a 
high reputation; bracelets, necklaces, and other ornaments in mosaic, 
glass, and shells are also well executed here and are suitable for presents 
or reminiscences. The most extensive manufactory of mosaic is that of 
Salviati, on the Canal Grande, in the Campo S. Vito , not far from S. 
Maria della Salute. Many of the shopkeepers take two-thirds or even 
one-half of the price first demanded. Crystal-wares , Dalmedico , Merceria 
deir Orologio, 218. Antiquities and objects of art, Guggenheim, Campo 
S. Maria del Giglio (Zobenigo), No. 2467, and Ricchetti and Rietti, both on 
the Canal Grande. Venetian lace , Ruggieri (near S. Gallo) , Borgnesi 
(Merceria), etc. 

Exhibition of Art in the Palazzo Mocenigo S. Benedetto, see p. 217. 

English Church Service, Palazzo Contarini degli Scrigni, Grand Canal, 
near the iron bridge. — Scotch Presbyterian Church on the Grand Canal, 
not far from S. Maria della Salute. 

Plan of Visit. A stay of 3 — 4 days may suffice when time is limited, 
in which case the following plan is recommended, but it may be extended 
or modified at discretion. 

200 Route 38. VENICE. Plan of visit. 

Afternoon or Evening of arrival. In order to gratify their first curiosity, 
and obtain a general idea of the peculiarities of Venice , strangers are 
recommended 1o undertake a preliminary voyage from the Piazzetla along 
the Grand Canal (see p. 215) to its extremity (near the railway-station is 
the church DerjU Scalzi , see p. 220, which should now he visited on 
account, of its remoteness from the other points of attraction); then under 
the iron bridge (p. 221) to the Canal di Mestre, to the 1. of which is the 
Jews' quarter (the Ghetto, inhahited by the lowest classes); back hence 
by the Grand Canal to the Ponte Riallo, where the gondola should he 
quitted. Then walk (comp. p. 203) through the Merceria (p. 222) to the 
Piazza of St. Mark. The whole expedition will occupy 2 — 2'|2 hrs. 

1st Day. **S. Marco (p. 205); **Palace of the Doges (p. 208); *S. Gior- 
gio Maggiore (p. 230) (ascend campanile); *Redeniore (p. 230); S. Sebastiano 
(temporarily closed, see p. 231). 

2nd Day. Pal. Emo Treves (p. 216); S. Maria delta Salute (p. 226); 
**Accademia delle Belle Arti (p. 212) ; *S. Stefano (p. 226); *Frari (p. 224) ; 
*Scuola di S. Rocco (p. 225). 

3rd Dav. S. Sulvatore (closed, seep. 222); *Pal. Vendramin (p. 219) ; 
Museo Correr (p. 220); * Madonna delV Orio (p. 227); Gesuiti (p. 227); S. 
Maria de" Miracoli (p. 229). 

4th Day. *S. Zaccaria (p. 221); S. Maria Formosa (p. 222); *S. Gio- 
vanni e Paolo (p. 228) ; S. Francesco delta Vigna (p. 229) ; Arsenal (open 
till 3 p. m.); Giardini Pubblici (view, p. 231). 

Finally ascend the Campanile of S. Marco, p. 207. 

Those who make a longer stay may proceed by S. Lazzaro to the 
Lido (p. 232), and make excursions to the N. to Murano, and Torcello 
(p. 232, 5 hrs. there and back); to the S. to Malamocco and Chioggia 
(p. 232). — Every leisure hour should be devoted to S. Marco and its 

Admission is generally obtained to the 

Churches from 6 a. m. till 12 or 1 o'clock, after which application 
must he made to the sacristan (nonzolo, fee 30 — 50 c), for whom one of 
the officious loungers in the neighbourhood may be sent (5 c). 

** Academy (p. 212) 9—4 daily, on Sundays and festivals 10—4 o'clock. 

* Arsenal (p. 212) 9—3 daily. 
'"Palace of the Doges (p. 208) 9—4 daily, on Sundays and festivals 10 — 4. 

'Museo Correr (p. 220) Mond., Wed., Sat. 10—4. 

Permanent Exhibition of Art (p. 217) in the Pal. Mocenigo open daily, 
adm. 40 c. 

Seminario Patriarcale (p. 216) daily. 

The Private Palaces (* Vendramin, Emo- Treves, Fini- Wimpfen, Pes&ro) 
are generally shown between 9 or 10 a. m. and 3 or 4 p. m. When the 
proprietors are residing in them, application should be made on the day 
previous to the visit, but is often dispensed with (fee to attendant 1 fr., 
to porter 25 — 50 c). 

History. The modern Venetia was inhabited during the Roman period 
by the Veneli, whose principal towns were Patavium, Altinum , Aquileia, 
etc. These were successively destroyed, after the fall of the W. Roman 
Empire , by the hordes of barbarian invaders by whom Italy was now 
overrun, and their inhabitants took refuge on the islands of the Lagune, 
founded a new state there, and at an early period carried on a consider- 
able commerce with the Levant. The necessity of a constitutional govern- 
ment was soon felt, and in 697 Pavluccio Anafeslo was elected the first 
doge. In 819 the doge Angela Participaco transferred the seat of govern- 
ment from Malamocco to Riallo, which he connected with the adjacent 
islands by means of bridges, thus laying the foundation of the modern 
oity of Venice. 

During the following centuries, notwithstanding continual internal dis- 
sensions, the might of Venice steadily increased. The foundation of its 
subsequent greatness, however, was principally laid at the period of the 

History. VENICE. 38. Route. 201 

Crusades (1097 — 1271), which the shrewd policy of Venice contrived to 
turn to its own aggrandizement. In 1177, under the Doge Sebastiano Ziani, 
the celebrated meeting of Emp. Frederick I. with Pope Alexander III. 
(p. 209) took place at Venice. Enrico Daiidolo (1192 — 1200), one of the 
most valiant of the doges, conquered Constantinople in 1204 with the 
aid of French crusaders. In consequence of this the Byzantine Empire 
was divided , and Venice obtained possession of the coast-districts of the 
Adriatic and Egyptian seas and numerous islands , among which was 
Candia. Under the successors of Enrico Dandolo the republic underwent 
severe contests with Genoa, which occasioned the loss of the Venetian 
conquests in the East, but at length terminated with 'the total defeat of 
Genoa in 1252 , under* Andrea Dandolo. Hi* successor Marino Falieri 
contemplated the overthrow of the aristocratic form of government, but 
his scheme was discovered, and he was beheaded on 17th April 1355. 
During the reign of Andrea Contarini (1367 — 82) Padua, Verona, Genoa, 
Hungary , and Naples formed an alliance against Venice. In 1379 the 
Genoese took possession of Chioggia, but were surrounded in the Lagune 
and compelled to surrender, 24th June, 1380. In 1381 the peace was con- 
cluded by which Venice lost all its possessions on the mainland. 

The republic, however, soon recovered from these reverses. In 1386 
Antonio Venter (1382 — 1400) took possession of the island of Corfu, then of 
Durazzo, Argos, etc. Under Micliele Steno (1400 — 14) the Venetian general 
Mulatesta conquered Vicenza, Belluno, Feltre, Verona, and Padua (1405); 
in 1408 the republic gained possession of Lepanto and Patras, in 1409 of 
Guastalla, Casalmaggiore, and Brescello. In 1421 Tommaso Mocenigo waged 
war successfully against Hungary. In 1416 the Venetian fleet under 
Loredan conquered the Turkish at Gallipoli, and in 1421 subjugated all 
the towns of the Dalmatian coast, so that Venice was now in possession 
of the entire coast district from the estuary of the Po as far as the 
island of Corfu. 

Mocenigo's successor was Francesco Foscari (1423 — 57). In 1426 Brescia 
fell into the hands of the Venetian general Carmagnola, but in 1431 his 
successful career was terminated in consequence of a suspicion of treason, 
and in 1432 he was executed by order of the Council of Ten. In 1449 
the Venetians gained possession of iCrema, but were unable to prevent 
the elevation of Sforza to the dignity of Duke of Milan (1450). 

In 1457 Foscari, now enfeebled by old age and domestic misfortunes, 
was deposed by the Council of Ten owing to the intrigues of his enemies. 
Under Cristoforo Moro (1462—71) the Morea was conquered by the Turks. 
In 1480, in consequence of the renunciation of Catharine Cornaro, wife of 
king James of Cyprus', this island came into the possession of Venice, 
and in 1483 the republican dominions were farther augmented by the 
island of Zante. 

The close of the 15th cent, may be designated as the culminating point 
of the glory of Venice. It was now the grand focus of the entire commerce 
of Europe, numbered 200,000 inhab. , and was universally respected and 
admired. Its annual exports were valued at 10 millions ducats, 4 millions 
of which were estimated as clear profit. It possessed 300 sea-going vessels 
with 8000 sailors , and 3000 smaller craft with 17,000, as well as a fleet 
of 45 galleys manned by 11,000 men , who maintained the supremacy 
of the republic over the Mediterranean. At the beginning of the 16th 
cent, the power of Venice began to decline. Its commerce was gradually 
superseded to a great extent by that of the Portuguese, in consequence of 
the discovery of the new sea-routes to India. The League of Cambray, 
formed by the Pope , the Emperor, and the kings of France and Arragon 
against Venice in 1508 , and the victory of the French at Agnadello in 
1509 occasioned serious losses to the republic. The wars between Emp. 
Charles V. and Francis I. of France (1521 — 30) were also very prejudicial 
to Venice, and its power was still more undermined by the extension 
of the Osman empire in Europe and Asia. In 1540 Nauplia, the islands 
of Chios, Paros, and others were lost, and in 1571 Cyprus notwith- 
standing its brave defence by Bragadino. In the naval battle of Lepanto 

202 Route 3$. VEMCR. 


(1st Oct., 1571) llio Venetian flcvl greatly distinguished itself. In 1659 the 
island of Oandia was conquered by the Turks. In 1684 the Venetians 
under Fraitrrsro Morosini and Kbniusmark were victorious in the Morea 
and conquered f.'oron , Patras, Corinth, etc.; in 1696 and 1698 they again 
defeated the Turkish fleets and hy the Peace of Oarlowitz in 1709 they 
retained possession of the More a ; but in 1715 the Turks reconquered the 
peninsula, and in 1718 were confirmed in their possession hy the Peace 
of Passarowitz. 

From this period Venice ceases to occupy a prominent position in the 
history of Kurope. It retained its N. Italian possessions only, observed a 
strict neutrality in all the contests of its neighbours, and continued to 
decline in power. On the outbreak of the French Revolution Venice at 
first strenuously opposed the new principles, on the victorious advance 
of the French il endeavoured to preserve its neutrality , and repeatedly 
rejected Buonaparte's proposals of alliance. Irritated by this opposition, 
the French broke off their negotiations and took possession of the city on 
16th Slay, 1797. By the Peace of Campo Formio (1797) Venetia was ad- 
judged to Austria, by that of I'n sshurg (lS(f>| to the kingdom of Italy. 
In 1814 Venice was again declared Austrian, and remained so until 1S48, 
when a revolution broke out, and the citizens endeavoured to re-establish 
their ancient republican form of government, under the presidency of 
Manin. Their renewed independence, however, proved most disastrous and 
short-lived. The city was torn by internal dissension , and at. the same 
time besi"ged by tin- Austrians After a siege of 15 months it was com- 
pelled to capitulate to fiadetzki/ , in August, 1849, a victorv which cost 
the Austrians upwards of 2().<K)0 soldiers. The war of 1859 did not afferl 
the suprcmacv of Austria over Venetia, the re-union of which with Italy 
was finally effected by the events of 1866. 

In the, History of Akt Venice occupies a prominent position. The 
Venetian School of painting, v\ hieh was cspceially celebrated for the bril- 
liancy of its colouring, boasts of many illustrious names. The most con- 
spicuous painters of the Loih cent, were Antnuio Bar(<>lniiunt\> and Ltiiyi 
I'ivarini of llurano. Vitton 1 Carjnircio , (in/file and tiioi-anni Billini. The 
Madonnas of the latter are remarkable for their grace and tenderness. 
Among his numerous pupils, <;iambaltisla t'inta of Conegliano and (iioryio 
Barbarelli of Castelfranco (' 11 (lionjionr' , 147S -1511) were the most distin- 
guished. The next well-known names arc Jaeopo Pal ma il Yecchio of Ber- 
gamo, Paris Bordone, and I'ord<none, but the most celebrated of all is that 
of Titian, or Tiziauo ]'ec,-llio (1477-1576), whose marvellous power of life- 
like delineation and richness of colouring are unparalleled. His greatest 
contemporaries were the talented masters Jaeopo Robvsti, surnamed 'Tinto- 
retto* (1515-941, Paolo Caijliari , surnamed ' Veronese' (1528—88) from his 
native town, and Jaeopo da 1'ontt of ISassann ; then Bonifazio, Alessandro 
Bonvicini, surnamed 'It ifontto', and (woe. Batt. Morone. In the 17th cent. 
Palma Giovine and I'adoranino attained a well-merited reputation, hut the 
art was now decidedly on the decline. The only subsequent names worthy 
of mention arc Jiosal'ba Carriera (A. 175<). a paintress of miniatures, 
Antonio Canale , surnamed i Canalelto' (d. 1768), and Tiepolo (d. 1769), the 

Venice is adorned with several structures in the Byzantine and Gothic 
styles, hut its architecture did not attain to a high degree of perfection 
until the period of the Renaissance. To this epoch belong the Lombard/, 
Aficliele Sanmiclieli , Jac. Sansovino , Antonio da 1'onte, Palladio, Scatnozzi, 
and Longhena. The Lombard i and Sansovino were also sculptors. — Ve- 
nice still enjoys a considerable reputation in the artistic world. The 
father of the celebrated Canora was a Venetian. 

Venice, the population of which had dwindled from 200,000 to 
60,000 after its dissolution as an independent state (1797), gra- 
dually revived under the Austrian regime, owing chiefly to its ad- 
vantages as a Free Harbour, and is now , although much inferior 
to Trieste, one of the greatest seaports on the Adriatic (128,901 

Situation. VENICE. 38. Route. 203 

inhab., 1/4 paupers). The 15,000 houses and palaces of Venice 
are situated on three large and 114 small islands, formed by 147 
canals , connected by 378 bridges (most of them of stone) , and 
altogether about 7 M. in circumference. The city is surrounded 
by the Lagune, a shallow bay about 25 M. in length and 9 M. in 
width, protected from the open sea by long sand-hills (lidi), which 
are converted into a still more efficient bulwark by means of 
bulwarks (murazzi) of solid masonry, averaging 30 ft. in height and 
40 — 50 ft. in width. Towards the Lagune the Murazzi are per- 
pendicular,, while towards the sea they descend in four terraces. 
The Murazzi on the Lido from Palestrina to Chioggia date from the 
last period of the republic. The Diga of Malamocco, a pier which 
extends for a distance of IV4 M. into the open sea, was constructed 
by the Austrian government after 1825 , in order to prevent the 
harbour from becoming choked with mud. 

The Lagune are connected with the open sea by means of four 
entrances , of which those of the Lido and Malamocco alone are 
available for vessels of heavy tonnage. The steamers usually enter 
by the Porto di Lido (p. 232), but in stormy weather occasionally 
by that of Malamocco. 

The Lagoons are termed either 'lagune vive", or 'lagune morte , 
about one half of them belonging to each" class. In the former the 
tide rises and falls about 2 ft. ; the latter, shallower, and situated 
nearer the mainland, are unaffected by the tide. Venice is situated 
in the 'laguna viva'. 

At high water innumerable stakes, protruding from the water 
in groups of the most varied form , mark the situation and shape 
of the low sand -islands which surround the city on every side, 
forming a complicated network of navigable channels, most of them 
accessible to small boats only. 

Most of the houses rise immediately from the canals (rii), or 
are separated from them by narrow streets only , here termed (as 
in Spain) colli ( sing, il calle) and paved with broad slabs of stone, 
or sometimes with brick or asphalt. These lanes form a laby- 
rinth from which the stranger will frequently find it difficult to 
extricate himself; none, however, but walkers can form an adequate 
acquaintance with the picturesque nooks of the city and the char- 
acteristics of its inhabitants. The following description is so 
arra7iged that many of the sights can be visited on foot (comp. 
p. 221), but all the principal buildings may also be visited by 
boat. Gondola-travelling is very pleasant , and is of course far 
preferable to walking for expeditions of any length. 

The *Piazza of St. Mark, usually termed 'La Piazza' (the other 
small open spaces are termed campi). is a square paved with blocks 
of trachyte and marble, 192yds. in length, on the "\V. side 61, and 
on the E. 90 yds. in breadth. On three sides it is enclosed by 

204 38. Route. VENhjk. fiazza of St. Mark. 

imposing structures, which appear to form one vast marble palace, 
blackened by age and exposure to the weather; on the E. it is 
bounded by the Church of St. Mark and the Piazzetta (p. 208), a 
small piazza, the S. side of which adjoins the Lagune. These 
palaces were once the residence of the 'procurators', the highest 
officials of the republic , whence their appellation of Procurazie : 
N. the Procurazie Vecchie, erected at the close of the 15th cent, by 
Bartolommeo Buon; S. the Procurazie Nuove , begun by Scamozzi 
in 1584, now the Palazzo Reale, containing handsome modern 
apartments (entrance under the New Procurazie ; custodian 1 fr. 
for 1 — 3 pers.); the modern edifice on the W., termed the Atrio, 
or Nuova Fabbrica , was erected under Napoleon in 1810 on the 
site of the former church of S. Geminiano. The ground-floors of 
these structures consist of arcades, in which the cafe's and shops 
mentioned at pp. 197, 199 are established. — The Piazza of St. 
Mark is the grand focus of attraction at Venice. On summer 
evenings, after sunset, all who desire to enjoy fresh air congregate 
here, and the prince, as well as the humblest citizen, may be seen 
enjoying their sorbetto in front of the cafe's. The scene is most 
animated towards 8 p. m., especially on the evenings when the 
military band plays (Sundays, and generally on Tuesdays and Thurs- 
days also, 8 — 10 o'clock), when the Piazza is sometimes thronged 
until after midnight. On other evenings the crowd disperses about 
10 o'clock. In winter the band plays on the same days, 2 — 4 p. 
m. , and the Piazza is then a fashionable promenade. Early in 
the morning a few visitors to the cafe's may be seen sipping their 
coffee, but these are rarely natives of Venice. The Venetians 
themselves are seldom visible at a very early hour, and the Piazza 
is comparatively deserted except at the hours just mentioned. The 
Piazza with its adjuncts (the Procurazie, St. Mark's, the Palace of 
the Doges, Piazzetta, and Lagune) presents a strikingly imposing 
appearance by moonlight. The Piazza is also the chief scene of 
the Carnival , which has retained more of its original attractive 
character at Venice than in any other town in Italy. 

A large flock of pigeons resorts daily to the Piazza at 2 p. m. to 
be fed at the expense of the city. According to tradition , Admi- 
ral Dandolo, while besieging Candia at the beginning of the 13th 
cent., received intelligence from the island by means of carrier- 
pigeons, which greatly facilitated its conquest. He then despatched 
the birds to Venice with the news of his success , and since that 
period their descendants have been carefully tended and highly 
revered by the citizens. They nestle in the nooks and crannies of 
the surrounding buildings, and are generally seen in great numbers 
in the evening, perched on the facade of St. Mark's. 

The three lofty Flaystaffs (Pili) of cedar in front of the church, 
rising from pedestals resembling candelabra, executed in 1505, 
once bore the banners of the kingdoms of Cyprus, Candia, and the 

S. Marco. TENICE. 38. Route. 205 

Morea, to commemorate their subjugation by the republic. On 
Sundays and festivals the Italian colours are now hoisted here. 

**S. Marco (PI. 17), the Church of St. Mark, the tutelary 
saint of Venice , whose remains are said to have been brought 
from Alexandria to Venice in 828, was erected in 976 — 1071 
in the Romanesque -Byzantine style peculiar to Venice, and 
decorated with lavish and almost oriental magnificence during 
subsequent centuries. The facade received some additions in the 
Gothic style in the 14th cent. The form of the edifice is that of a 
Greek cross (with equal arms), covered by a Byzantine dome in the 
centre and one at the extremity of each arm. Around the W. and 
part of the N. transept is a vestibule covered by a series of smaller 
domes. Externally and internally the church is adorned with five 
hundred columns of marble , the capitals of which present an ex- 
uberant variety of styles. The most remarkable are eight detached 
columns in the vestibule, four at each of the lateral portals on the 
W. side, with peacocks and lions. The mosaics, the oldest dating 
from the 10th cent., cover an area of 45,790 sq. ft., whilst the 
interior is also profusely decorated with gilding, bronze, and orien- 
tal marble. The aggregate effect is highly picturesque and fan- 
tastic. Since 1807 St. Mark's has been the cathedral of Venice, a 
dignity which formerly belonged to S. Pietro di Castello (p. 231). 

Over the principal portal are *Four Houses in gilded bronze, 5 ft. in 
height , which were long supposed to be the work of a Greek master 
(Lysippus), but. are now believed to be of Roman workmanship, probably 
of the time of Nero. They are finely executed and are especially valuable 
as the sole existing specimen of an ancient quadriga preserved intact. 
They probably once adorned the triumphal arch of Nero , then that of 
Trajan. Constantine caused them to be conveyed to Constantinople, whence 
the Doge Dandolo brought them to Venice in 1204. In 1797 they were 
carried by Napoleon I. to Paris, where" they afterwards occupied the 
summit of the triumphal arch in the Place du Carrousel. In 1815 they were 
brought back to Venice by the Emp. Francis and restored to their former 

Faqade. * Mosaics in the arches, best surveyed from the steps of 
the flagstaffs. Below, over the principal entrance, the Last Jugdment, exe- 
cuted in 1836, r. the embarcation of the body of St. Mark at Alexandria, 
its disembarcation at Venice, both executed in 1660 ; 1. the veneration of the 
saint, of 1728, and the church of St. Mark into which the relics are con- 
veyed, of the 13th century. Above are the four horses in front of the great 
arched window, 1. and r. are four mosaics of the 17th cent., Descent from 
the Cross, Christ in Hell, Resurrection, Ascension. 

Entrance Hall (Atrio), the entire breadth of the church: the vault- 
ing consists entirely of mosaic, of which the older portion (12th cent.) 
represents Old Testament subjects, beginning on the r. with the Creation ; 
the modern part, scenes from the New Testament 5 over the entrance to 
the church is St. Mark, executed in 1545 from a design by Titian. The 
three red slabs commemorate the reconciliation between the Emp. Fred. 
Barbarossa and Pope Alexander III., which was effected here on 23rd July, 
1177, through the mediation of the Doge Seb. Ziani. According to an old 
tradition the emperor kneeling before the pope said , i non iibi sed Petro' 1 , 
to which the pope replied , 'e( mihi el Petro\ In the corner to the 1. is 
the temporary tomb of Daniele Manin, president of the republic in 1848, 
whose remains were brought from Paris in 1868 and deposited here, this 

206 Route 38. VENICE. S. Marco. 

being the only interment which has taken place in the church for upwards 
of three centuries. 

Interior, 86 yds. in length, 70 yds. in width, with five domes and 
an apse. Over the Entrance-door Christ, Mary, and St. Mark, of the 10th 
cent., one of the oldest mosaics in the church. The beautiful stone mo- 
saic pavement of the 11th cent, is smooth and slippery , and very uneven 
at places from having settled. By the screen, on the r. and 1. of the 
approach to the high altar , are two Pulpits in coloured marble , each 
placed on seven columns in accordance with the ancient custom. The 
mosaic (of 1542) on the upper part of the wall in the N. aisle (1.) repre- 
sents the genealogy of Mary. Adjoining it in the 1. transept (1. side) are 
some remarkably fine Byzantine mosaics. On the Screen are fourteen 
statues in marble (of 1393), representing St. Mark, Mary, and the twelve 
Apostles, with a bronze Crucifix. On the arched Parapet on each side of 
the Choir are three reliefs in bronze , by Sansovino (d. 1570) , representing 
events from the life of St. Mark. On the parapet of the Stalls the four 
Evangelists in bronze , by Sansovino , and four Fathers of the church, 
by Cagliari (1614). 

The High Altar (Altare Maggiore) stands beneath a canopy of verde 
antico, borne by four columns of marble (with reliefs of the 11th cent.). 
The Pala cTOro, enamelled work with jewels, wrought on plates of gold 
and silver, executed at Constantinople in 1105, constitutes the altar-piece, 
which is uncovered on high festivals only. (It was originally intended to 
embellish the front of the altar.) Beneath the high altar repose the relics 
of St. Mark , as the marble slab at the back records. — Behind the high 
altar is a second altar with four spiral columns of alabaster, of which the 
two white ones in the middle are semi-transparent, and are said to have 
once belonged to the Temple of Solomon. 

The Sacristy (Sagrestia), to the 1., contains some fine mosaics on the 
vaulting; cabinets with inlaid work of 1523 ; on the door leading from the 
high altar, reliefs in bronze by Sansovino (1556); to the r. of the handle 
is the portrait-head of the maker of the door; in the r. corner the head 
of Titian. Entrance to the Crypt, see below. 

To the r. of the high altar : Cappella di S. Clemente, with altar relief 
of the 16th cent., representing SS. Nicholas, James, and Andrew and the 
Doge Andr. Gritti. In front of the Cappella del Sagramento , in the r. 
transept , are two rich candelabra in bronze ; on the other side a corre- 
sponding pair. 

In the r. aisle, close to the principal entrance, is the Battistero, in 
the centre of which is a large bronze font of 1545 ; above it is John the 
Baptist. Also the monument of the Doge And. Dandolo (d. 1354). The stone 
over the altar is from Mt. Tabor. To the 1. of the altar the head of John 
the Baptist, of the 15th cent. ; beneath it is the stone on which he is said 
to have been beheaded. — From the Baptistery the stranger enters the 
^Cappella Zen, containing the handsome monument of Cardinal Giam- 
battista Zen (d. 1501), wrought, entirely in bronze; on the sarcophagus 
is the figure of the cardinal, over life-size; beneath are the six Virtues. 
The *altar and canopy are also cast in bronze, with the exception of the 
frieze and the bases of the columns. Over the altar are groups in bronze, 
of the Madonna, St. Peter, and John the Baptist; on the altar itself a 
relief of the Resurrection. To the r. and 1. two lions in coloured marble. 

In the r. transept is the entrance to the Treasury ( Tesoro di S. Marco, open 
on Mondays and Fridays 12'|-2 — 2 o'clock, except on festivals), containing 
candelabra by Benvenuto Cellini ; cover of the books of the Gospels from 
the church of St. Sophia at Constantinople, decorated with gold and jewels ; 
a crystal vase with the 'Blood of the Saviour', a silver column with a 
fragment of the 'True Cross', a cup of agate with a portion of the 'skull 
of St. John', the sword of the Doge Morosini, cuneiform writings from 
Persepolis , an episcopal throne of the 7th cent., said to be that of St. 
Mark, and a number of other curiosities. 

The Cbvpt , freed from water and restored in 1868, also deserves a 
visit; open 12 — 2 o'clock, entrance by the first door to the r. in the Sa- 

Clok Tower. VENICE". 38. Route. 207 

cristy (p. 206); at other hours it is shown by the sacristan. To the r. 
a well executed Christ in relief by Sansovino. 

A walk (sacristan l fe fr.) round the Gallery inside the church is 
strongly recommended in order that the mosaics may be more closely 
inspected. The ascent is from a door to the r. in the principal portal, 
which the sacristan opens. The gallery on the outside of the church 
should then be visited for the sake of examining the bronze horses. 

On the S. Side of the church are two short square *Columns, 
inscribed with Coptic characters , brought hither from Ptolemais 
in 1256 , from the church of St. Saba which was destroyed by the 
Venetians. From the Pietra del Bando , a block of porphyry at 
the S.W. corner, the decrees of the republic were anciently pro- 
mulgated. Two curious Reliefs in porphyry are immured by the 
entrance to the Palace of the Doges, representing two pairs of 
knightly and armed figures embracing each other. They are said 
also to have been brought from Ptolemais and have given rise to a 
great variety of conjectures, the most recent being that they re- 
preseiit four emperors of Byzantium of the 11th cent., and once 
adorned the pedestal of an equestrian statue. 

Opposite St. Mark's, to the S.W., rises the isolated square 
*Campanile of St. Mark (PI. 4), 322 ft. in height, which is always 
open to the public (doorkeeper 10 c. on entering). It was founded 
in 911, restored in 1510, and finally completed in 1591, the upper 
part and the spire having been constructed by Bartolommeo Buon, 
the architect of the Palace of the Doges. The ascent by a wind- 
ing inclined plane , and finally by a few steps , is easy and well- 
lighted. The watchman at the summit is provided with a telescope 
and opens the door to the second gallery for a trifling gratuity. 
The *view comprises the city, the Lagune (comp. p. 203), the Alps, 
and part of the Adriatic; W. the Monti Euganei near Padua 
(p. 190), rising from the Lagune ; E. in clear weather the Istrian 
Mts. (p. 65), rising above the Adriatic, a magnificent spectacle 
towards sunset. The ascent of the campanile is recommended to 
the stranger , both for a preliminary survey, and as an appropriate 
termination to his visit to Venice. The *Bronze Doors of the 
Loggetta, or vestibule (erected by Sansovino in 1540), on the E. 
side of the campanile, cast in 1750, deserve inspection. This 
chamber once served as; a waiting-room for the procurators, whose 
office it was, during the sessions of the great Council, to command 
the guards. It is now employed for public auctions and 'tombola' 
(lottery) drawings. The bronze statues of Peace, Apollo , Mercury, 
and Pallas, and the reliefs on the coping are by Sansovino. 

The Clock Tower (La Torre delV Orologio), on the opposite side, 
at the E. end of the old Procurazie, erected by Pietro Lombardo in 
1496, rises over a gateway, resembling a triumphal arch, restored 
in 1859. On the platform are two Vulcans in bronze , who strike 
the hours on a bell. The custodian of the clock, who lives in the 
building, shows and explains the mechanism (fee */$ fr.). The 

208 Route 38. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

entrance is under the archway to the]., where it is indicated by 
a notice. The Mercerla (p. 222), the principal commercial street 
of Venice, quits the Piazza of St. Mark here and leads to the Ponte 
Rialto (p. 2181. 

On the W. side of the Piazzetta is the *Library (Libreria 
Vecchia, or Antica Libreria di S. Marco), which now belongs to the 
royal palace, begun by Sansovino in 1536 , a magnificent structure 
of the 16th cent., and one of the finest secular edifices in Italy. 
In the direction of the Lagune are two Granite Columns , brought 
by the Doge Michiel from Syria in 1120 and erected here in 1180; 
one of them bears the Winged Lion of St. Mark, the emblem of 
the tutelary saint of Venice; the other is surmounted by St. Theo- 
dore on a crocodile, the patron of the ancient republic, placed there 
in 1329. This is the headquarters of the gondoliers. On the 
Lagune, between the Library and the Royal Garden, is situated 
the Zecca or Mint, from which the old Venetian Zecchino or sequin 
derives its name. 

The **Palace of the Doges (Palazzo Ducale, PL 60), the W. 
side of which, 82 yds. in length , looks towards the Piazzetta, and 
the S. side, 78 yds. in length , towards the Molo, was founded in 
800, subsequently destroyed five times, and as often re-erected in 
a style of greater magnificence. The present sumptuous structure, 
in the Venetian-Gothic style, was erected about 1350 by Filippo 
Calendario. On the "W. towards the Piazzetta, and on the S. 
towards the Molo the palace is flanked by two colonnades of 107 
columns (36 below, 71 above), one above the other, with pointed 
vaulting. The mouldings of the upper colonnade, termed 'La 
Loggia', are remarkable for their richness. From between the 
two columns of red marble (9th and 10th from the principal portal") 
in the Loggia, the Republic anciently caused its sentences of death 
to be published. The capitals of the short columns below are 
richly decorated with foliage, figures of men and animals, etc. On 
the corner-pillar by the portal is a group representing the Judg- 
ment of Solomon, the 'justizia alia vedova\ as the long inscription 
terms it. At the corner towards the Lagune , Adam and Eve. 
f Porphyry-reliefs on the corners to the 1., see p. 207.) The fine 
Portal adjoining St. Mark's, constructed of marble of different 
colours in 1439 in the Gothic style with a Renaissance tendency, 
and recently restored , is termed the Porta della Carta, from the 
placards formerly exhibited here to announce the decrees of tho 
republic. Justice is represented in the pediment. 

The *Court, begun at the close of the 15th cent, by Antonio 
Bregno and Antonio Searpagnino , but only partially completed, 
has an admirable finished facade on the E. wing. The iinsym- 
inetrieal form of the court was probably rendered necessary by the 
previous existence of surrounding buildings. Within one of the 
highest windows to the 1. was once the prison of the poet Count 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE. 38. Route. 209 

Silvio Pellico , who was subsequently incarcerated from 1822 to 
1830 in the Spielberg at Briiiin (in MoraviaJ. In the centre of 
the court are two Cistern-fronts in bronze. To the r. on the facade 
of the Clock Tower is a statue of the Venetian general Duke 
Maria I. of Urbino (d. 1625). The other statues are antique , but 
freely restored. The charming small facade farther E., perhaps 
the best, is by Guglielmo Bergamasco (1520). 

The Scala dei Oiganti , the flight of steps by which the palace 
is entered, derives its name from the colossal statues of Mars and 
Neptune at the top, executed by Sansovino in 1554. On the 
highest landing of these steps the doges were once wont to be 
crowned. Opposite the landing are two statues of Adam and Eve, by 
Antonio Rizzo (1462). 

Around the upper colonnade are placed the busts of a number 
of Venetian scholars, artists, and doges. The first staircase is the 
Scala d'Oro (generally closed) , constructed by Sansovino ,• which . 
was once accessible to those only whose names were entered as 
Nobili in the Golden Book. The visitor ascends the next broad 
stair closed by a gate, ejiters the door of the library to the 1., and 
turns to the r. to the principal suite of apartments, which may be 
designated No I. ; to the r. also to the Archaeological Museum, suite 
No. II. ; one storey higher is suite No. III., with the inscription 
'Storia Naturale'. Guide unnecessary; information is obtained 
from the custodians if required (fee prohibited). 

I. *Sala del Maggior Consiglio (door generally open; if not, ring). 
In this large hall (55 yds. long, 26 yds. broad, 47 ft. high) the Nobili, 
whose names were entered in the 'Golden Book', and who constituted 
the highest authority in the Republic, formerly sat. In 1848 — 49 the 
deputies under the Dictator Manin also assembled here. On the frieze are 
the portraits of 76 doges, beginning with Angelo Participaco (d. 827); 
on the walls 21 large pictures by Bassano, Paolo Veronese, Tintoretto, etc., 
painted to commemorate the achievements of the Republic , especially 
against Fred. Barbarossa. 'On the E. wall Jac. Tintoretto's Paradise, said 
to be the largest oil-painting in the world, containing a perplexing multi- 
tude of figures. — The series of Historical Pictures begins on the S. 
wall: 1. Doge Enrico Dandolo and French Crusaders swear an oath of 
alliance at St. Mark's in 1201 , for the purpose of liberating the Holy 
Land, by Giov. Le Clerc; 2. Surrender of Zara to the Crusaders in 1202, 
by Dom. Tintoretto (placed over the door to a balcony, which affords a 
fine view of the Lagune and the islands of S. Giorgio and Giudecca) ; 4. 
Alexius, son of the dethroned Greek Emp. Isaac Angelos , requesting the 
aid of the Venetians in behalf of his father in 1202, by Andrea Vicentino; 
7. Count Baldwin of Flanders elected Greek Emp. in the church of St. 
Sophia, 1204, by Andr. Vicentino; 8. Coronation of Baldwin by the Doge 
Enrico Dandolo, 1204, by Aliense. (Above this, a black tablet on the frieze 
among the portraits of the Doges bears the inscription : Hie est locus Ma- 
rini Falethri dectpitati pro criminibus.) *9. Return of the Doge Andr. 
Contarini from the victory over the Genoese fleet near Chioggia, 1378, by 
Paolo Veronese ; 10. Pope Alexander III. presenting gifts to the Doge Ziani 
in recognition of his defence of the papal throne against Fred. Barbarossa, 
e. g. a ring, the symbol with which the Doge annually 'wedded the Adri- 
atic', 1177, by Oiulio dal Moro; 11. (over the door) Conclusion of Peace 
between the Pope, Doge, and Emp. Fred. Barbarossa, by Girolamo Gam- 
barato; 12. Fred. Barbarossa kneeling before the Pope (p. 201), by Fede- 

B.ffiDEKER. Italy I. 3rd Edit. 14 

210 Route 38. VENICE. Pal. of the Doges. 

rigo Zuccaro; 13. Pope Alexander granting permission to Otho, son of the 
Emperor, to repair to his father in order to negotiate a peace, by Palma 
Giovine; 14. (over the door) The Doge presenting the son of the Emperor 
to the Pope, by Andr. Vicentino; 15. Battle of Salvore (Pirano, p. 65), 
defeat of the Imperial fleet, and capture of Otho, 1177, by Dom. Tinto- 
retto; 16. (over the window) Departure of the Doge with the papal bene- 
diction , by Paolo Fiammengo ; *17. The pope presenting a sword to the 
I)o r 'c , by Franc. Bassano; 18. The ambassadors of the Pope and the Doge 
presenting to Fred. Barbarossa at Pavia a petition for a cessation of hos- 
tilities, by Jac. Tintoretto; 19. (over the window) Presentation of the con- 
secrated candle, by Leandro Bassano; 20. Parting audience of the ambas- 
sadors of the Pope and the Doge on their departure for Parma, 21. Meeting 
of Pope Alexander III. and the Doge Seb. Ziani [at the monastery della 
Carita, both by pupils of P. Veronese. The ceiling-paintings are* by P. 
Veronese, Bassano, Tintoretto, and Palma Giovine; the large central paint- 
ing , representing the Glory of Venice , is by P. Veronese. 

The Cokkidok contains a bust, of the Emp. Francis. The Sala dello 
Sckutinio, or voting hall, is decorated similarly to the preceding saloons. 
On the frieze are the portraits of 39 doges, down to Lodovico Manin (1797). 
On the wall of the entrance : *Last Judgment, by Palma Giovine. On the 
left wall, towards the Piazzetta: 1. Victory of the Venetians over King 
Roger of Sicily in 1148; 2. Subjugation of Tyre under Domenico Michieli 
in 1125; 3. (over the door to the balcony, which affords a good survey 
of Sansovino's library) Victory of Dom. Michieli over the Turks at Jaffa 
in 1123 ; 4. Victory in the lagoons over Pepin , son of Charlemagne in 
811; 5. Siege of Venice by Pepin in 809. — Opposite the entrance: Monument 
to the Doge Francesco Morosini 'Peloponnesiacus', who in 1684—90 con- 
quered the Morea and Athens (p. 202). — On the right wall: 6 Lazaro 
Mocenigo conquers the Turks near the Dardanelles in 1657; 7. (over the 
window towards the court) : Destruction of Margaritino in 1571 ; 8. Battle 
of Lepanto , in the same year ; 9. (over the second window) Conquest of 
Cattaro in Dalmatia during the war against. Genoa in 1378; 10. Re-capture 
of Zara in 1346. — On the ceiling several other scenes from the history 
of the Republic. 

The celebrated Library of St. Mark, containing many rare MSS., and 
the valuable and extensive Collection of Coins, are open to the public on 
Wed. at 2.45 p. m. only. The visitor should ask to be shown the *Bre- 
viario Grintani, which contains interesting miniatures. 

II. The Akch.s:ological Museum, established in 1846 in the apart- 
ments in which the doges resided till the close of the 16th cent., contains 
ancient, sculptures in marble. 1st Room: 29. Venus and Cupid; 32. Boy 
with goose, a fountain-figure; 35. Cupid bending his bow; 46. Dancing 
Silenus; +51, 56. Muses from the amphitheatre of Pnla; *80. Apollo re- 
posing, perhaps part of a group, as appears also to be (he case with *85. 
Dionysus and Satyr; 90. Colossal Minerva. — 2nd Boom: 102. Copy of the 
Cupid, bending his bow, of Praxiteles, in Parian marble ; 113, 187. Heads 
of Pan ; 138. Leda with the swan ; *144. Gaul , in his last desperate 
struggle ; +145. Dead Gaul lying over his shield; *153. Gaul sinking from 
exhaustion ; these three resemble the Dying Gladiator in the Capitol at 
Rome , and probably belonged to the groups dedicated to the Acropolis 
of Athens by Attains , King of Pergamos in the 3rd cent. B. C. ; *148. 
Ganymede, robbed by the eagle, freely restored; 169. Hermaphrodite, 
fragment of a group. The chimney-piece dates from the end of the 15th 
cent. — 3rd Room: old maps; among them the celebrated *Map of the 
World by the Camaldulensian monk Fra Mauro , 1457 — 59; six tablets of 
carved wood by Hadgi Mehcmet, of Tunis (1559), representing the globe; 
Plans of Venice of iOOO and 1728. The next room is entered by a door 
to the right. — 4th K\iou> : 190. Warrior sacrificing; 195. Fragment of a. 
sarcophagus, rape of Proserpine; 196. Another with the destruction of the 
children of Niobe ; 220. Greek tomb relief; 222. Centaurs fighting and a, 
female Centaur asleep; 231. Fragment of a Greek frieze, battle of the 
Greeks and Troj ans around the ships ; 239. Four-sided base of a candelabrum. 

Pal. of the Doges. VENICE.. 38. Route. 211 

We now return to the 3rd room, from which the next is entered to the 
right. — 5th Room: chiefly busts of emperors, the best 292. Vitellius; 
250, 292. Bacchantes. 

III. Upper Story: Sala della Bussola, once the ante-chamber of the 
three Inquisitors of the Republic ; by the entrance is an opening in the 
wall , formerly decorated by a lion's head in marble , into the mouth of 
which (Bocca di Leone) documents containing secret information were 
formerly thrown. This apartment contains two pictures by Aliense: r. 
Taking of Brescia, 1426, and 1. Taking of Bergamo, 1427; chimney-piece 
by Sansovino. — In a straight direction follows the Sala del Consiglio 
dei Dieci. On the wall of the entrance, Pope Alexander III. and the 
Doge Ziani, the ccTnqueror of Emp. Fred. Barbarossa, by Bassano; oppo- 
site, the Peace of Bologna, concluded in 1529 between Pope Clement VII. 
and Emp. Charles V., by Marco Vecellio ; on the ceiling near the entrance, 
portraits of an old man and a handsome woman, by Paolo Veronese, re- 
stored. Large modern ceiling paintings. Fine putto frieze. — We 
now retrace our steps through the Sala della Bussola and enter (to the 
r.) the Stanza dei tke Cati del Consiglio, with ceiling-paintings (an 
angel driving away the vices) by Paolo Veronese ; chimney-piece by San- 
sovino ; caryatides by Pietro da Said ; on the 1. , Madonna and Child, John 
the Baptist , and two saints , by Vine. Catena. — A passage leads hence 
to the Atkio Quadkato , with ceiling-painting by Tintoretto, representing 
the Doge Priuli receiving the sword of justice. On the walls eight por- 
traits of doges. — Sala delle quattro Pokte , restored in 1869; doors 
designed by Palladia, 1575; r. Verona conquered by the Venetians, 1439, 
by Oiov. Contarini; the Doge Ant. Grimani kneeling before Religion, by 
Titian; 1. the Arrival of Henry III. of France at Venice, by Andrea Vi- 
centino; the Doge Cicogna receiving the Persian Ambassadors in 1585, by 
Carletto Cagliari. Magnificent ceiling. — Sala del Senato (door on the 
r.): over the throne, Descent from the Cross by Tintoretto; on the wall 
the Doge Franc. Venier before Venice , the Doge Cicogna in presence of 
the Saviour, Venetia on the Lion against Europa on the Bull (an allusion 
to the League of Cambray, see p. 201), all three by Palma Giovine; the 
Doge Pietro Loredano imploring the aid of the Virgin for Venice, by 
Tintoretto. — Beyond this room (to the r. of the throne) is the Ante- 
chamber to the chapel of the doges, containing five pictures of little 
value. — In the Chapel over the altar a Madonna by Sansovino. To the 
1. of the altar: Paris Bordone, Pieta; *Paolo Veronese, Forest landscape 
with accessories ; Cima da Conegliano (?), Madonna in a landscape ; Titian, 
Crossing of the Red Sea (to the r. of the door). — We return through the 
Sala del Senato and enter "(to the r.) the Sala del Collegio. To the r. 
over the door , the Nuptials of St. Catharine (beneath , the Doge Franc. 
Dona), Virgin in glory (with the Doge Niccolo da Ponte), Adoration of 
the Saviour (with the Doge Aloise Mocenigo), all three by Tintoretto ; over 
the throne a memorial picture of the Battle of Lepanto, *Christ in glory 
(beneath , the Doge Venier , Venetians , St. Mark , St. Justina, etc.), both 
by Paolo Veronese; opposite, the Prayer of the Doge Andrea Gritti to the 
Virgin, by Tintoretto. Ceiling-paintings, Neptune and Mars, Faith, Venetia 
on the globe with Justice and Peace , all by Paolo Veronese. — Anticol- 
legio : 1. *Rape of Europa , by Paolo Veronese ; Jacob's return to Canaan, 
by Bassano ; Forge of Vulcan , Mercury with the Graces , opposite to it 
Minerva driving back Mars , and Ariadne and Bacchus , all four by Tin- 
toretto. — Ceiling-painting, Venetia enthroned, by Paolo Veronese, much 

The handsome E. side the Palace of the Doges towards the canal, 
which presents a more harmonious appearance than the "W. side, 
and lias a basement of facetted stone, is connected with the Careeri 
or Prigioni, constructed in 1512 — 97 by Giov. da Ponte, by means 
of the lofty Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri). The Piombi, or 
prisons under the leaden roof of the Palace, were destroyed in 1797 ; 

212 Route 38. VENICE. Arsenal. 

the Pozzi, or half-ruined dungeons on the farther side of the narrow 
canal on the E. side of the Palace, have been disused since 
the beginning of the 17th cent. These once dreaded prisons, 
where so many victims of a bigoted and tyrannical age have lan- 
guished, contain absolutely nothing to interest the traveller beyond 
the historical associations (application may be made to a custo- 
dian). A good survey of the Bridge of Sighs is obtained from the 
Ponte delta Paglia (PI. F, 4), which connects the Molo with the 

Riva degli Schiavoni, a quay paved with unpolished slabs of 
marble, and presenting a busy scene. Numerous sailors of all 
nations, from the vessels which lie in the vicinity, are seen loung- 
ing here or congregated at the cafe's. From the Riva a view is 
obtained of the Giardini Pubblici (p. 231 J, situated on the prolon- 
gation of the bank at the S. E. end of the city. If the traveller 
diverges from the Riva to the 1. by the church of S. Biaglo (PI. 6) 
and skirts the broad canal , he will soon reach the entrance gate 
of the 

*Arsenal (PI. 3; adm. 9 — 3, on presenting a visiting-card], 
which at the time of the Republic employed 16,000 workmen , but 
now 2000 only. The decline of Venice is nowhere so apparent as 
here. At the outer entrance (handsome gateway of 1460) are the 
four antique lions, brought here in 1687 from the Pirreus ; the large 
one oil the 1. , the body of which is covered with inscriptions no 
longer legible, is conjectured once to have stood on the battle-field 
of Marathon. 

Interior. On the external wall of the magazine is a monument of 
Count Schulenburg, a general of the Republic (d. 1747). The Collection 
of Weapons, a great part of which the Austriyns carried off in 1866, con- 
tains the remains of the Bucentoro, a vessel destroyed by the French, 
from which the Doge was wont annually on Ascension Day to throw the 
ring (p. 209) into the Adriatic, which he thus symbolically wedded. Here, 
too, is a marble monument to Admiral Angel c"> Emo (d. 1792) by Canova; 
opposite to it the suit of armour of Henry IV. of France, presented to the 
Republic; several trophies of historical interest, banners from the battle 
of Lepanto , armour of former doges, revolvers and breech-loaders of a 
primitive description of the 16th cent., a finely executed culverin of steel, 
adorned with reliefs, instruments of torture, iron helmet of Attila, king 
of the Huns, model of an ancient Venetian vessel, model of the piles on 
which Venice is to a great extent built, bust of Xapoleon of 1805. — 
The extensive wharves and workshops are now comparatively deserted. 
The state-barge employed by Victor Emmanuel in 1866 is also shown 
(additional fee). 

The **Accademia delle Belle Arti (PI. 1) in the suppressed 
Scuola della Carith , the assembly-hall of this brotherhood, on the 
Grand Canal, opposite the S. extremity of the iron bridge (p. 216) 
and '/-2 M. from the Piazza of St. Mark, may easily be reached on 
foot (comp. p. 226). The entrance is in the cloisters, to the 1., 
then an ascent to the first floor. Admission on week-days 9 — 3, 
on festivals 11 — 2 o'clock (visitors ring). Trifling fee to the cus- 
todian at the door. Permission to copy is granted , if written 

Academy. VENICE. * 38. Route. 2 1 3 

application be made , coupled with a recommendation from the 
stranger's consul. Full-size copies not generally allowed. The 
gallery contains almost exclusively pictures by Venetian masters : 
Titian, Paolo Veronese , Tintoretto , the elder and the younger 
Palma, Pordenone, Giorgione, Bassano, etc. 

Beyond the Corridor, which contains numerous architectural draw- 
ings, the 5th and 6th saloons (see below) are passed on the 1., and the room 
without number, mentioned at p. 214, on the r., and in a straight direction 
we enter the . 

Sal a I. (degli Antichi Dipinti): Ancient pictures, the handsome original 
frames of which should be noticed. 1. Bart. Vivarini, Mary and four 
saints, painted in 1464 ; 4, 6 (belonging to each other), Marco Basaiti, St. 
James and St. Antony ; 0. Lorenzo Veneziano and Franc. Bissolo , Altar- 
piece in sections, in the centre the Annunciation, above it God the Father 
(1358) ; 8. Giovanni and Antonio da Murano , Coronation of the Virgin in 
an assembly of saints, in the centre 'putti' with instruments of torture 
(1440); 11. Vincenzo Catena, St. Augustine; 10. Bartolommeo Vivarini, St. 
Barbara (1490) ; 18. Aloiso Vivarini, St. Antony ; 21. Bartolommeo Vivarini, 
Sta. Clara; *23. Giovanni oVAlemagna and Antonio da Murano, Madonna 
enthroned , with four Fathers of the church (1446) , interesting also on 
account of the peculiar architecture. 

Sala II. (deW Assunta) , the ceiling richly gilded, in the lunettes 
portraits of painters of the Venetian school, painted in 1849 — 55, the light 
unfavourable (the visitor requires to shade his eyes from the glare of 
the windows). Opposite the staircase : **24. Titian, Assumption (Assunta). 
Farther on, to the r. : 25. Tintoretto, The Fall of man ; *31. Marco Basaiti, 
Call of the sons of Zebedee (James and John) (1510); 32. Tintoretto, Ma- 
donna and Child, with three senators; 33. Titian, Entombment, his last 
picture, with which he was engaged at the time of his death, in his 99th 
year , completed by Palma Giovine , as the inscription records ; 34. Boni- 
fazio , SS. Antony and Mark ; 35. Titian , Assumption , his first picture (a 
comparison of Nos. 35, 24, and 33 is very interesting) ; 36. Tintoretto, Resur- 
rection and three senators; 37. Giorgione (or Palma Vecchio) , Storm at 
sea ; *38. Giov. Bellini, Virgin and Child with six saints ; 39. Palma Gio- 
vine , Vision from the Apocalypse; 40. Palma Giov., The three horsemen 
of the Apocalypse ; *45. Tintoretto, St. Mark releasing a condemned slave ; 
47. Padovanino, Marriage of Cana; 49. Bonifazio, St. Francis and the 
apostle Paul ; 50. Bonifazio., The adulteress before Christ ; 51. Tintoretto, 
Portrait of the Doge Luigi Mocenigo; 53. Tintoretto, Madonna and Child, 
with SS. Joseph , Mark , and Jerome , and the portrait of the doge ; 55. 
Paolo Veronese , Virgin in glory , beneath is St. Dominicus , distributing 
crowns of roses to the pope , emperor and king , doges , cardinals , etc. 
(difficult to see); *55. Bonifazio, Solomon's judgment (1533); 57. Bonifazio, 
Adoration of the Magi ; 59. Palma Vecchio , Assumption ; 60. Rocco Mar- 
coni, Christ, Peter, and John ; *62. Paolo Veronese, Scourging of St. Chris- 
tina; 63. Tintoretto, Death of Abel. 

Sala III. (adjoining the Assunta on the right) : Marble bust of Giov. 
Bellini. Late Venetian masters of no great merit. The following are 
temporarily placed here: Paolo Veronese, The Virgin mourning by the 
Cross ; **Giovanni Bellini, The Supper at Emmaus ; Titian , St. Nicholas ; 
the first two are from S. Salvatore (p. 222), the third from S. Sebastiano 
(p. 231). 

Sala IV. (to the left , up the stair) , academic assembly-hall , with 
numerous old drawings , among them those of Leonardo da Vinci parti- 
cularly interesting; several reliefs, and an urn containing the r. hand of 
Canova (this saloon is open on Tuesd. and Sat. only, 12 — 3 o'clock). 

Sala V. (containing the Pinacoteca Contarini , presented in 1843 by 
Count Contarini): 1. 84. Palma Vecchio, Christ and the widow of Nain ; 
*94. Giov. Bellini, Madonna, painted in 1487; 96. Marco Marziale, Supper 
at Emmaus (1506) ; 101. Giov. Bellini , Madonna ; 107. Sassoferrato, St. Ce- 
cilia; 110. Andrea Cordegliaghi (or perhaps Pordenone), Madonna with 

214 Route 38. VENICE. Academy. 

St. Catharine and St. John: 1LT. Pierfrancesco Bissolo , Body of Christ 
mourned over by angels ; 124. Vine. Catena, Madonna with John the Bap- 
tist and St. Jerome ; 125. Cima da Conegliano , Madonna with John the 
Baptist and St. Peter ; *132. Boccaccino da Cremona, Madonna and saints ; 
133. Polidoro Veneziano , Madonna and Child , with John the Baptist and 
an angel ; 151. Jacques Callot, Market at Impruneta near Florence, a large 
picture with numerous figures and groups; 164. Callot, Pont Neuf at Paris 
(these two doubtful). 

Sala VI. (Gabinetto Contarini), containing 66 small pictures: Nos. 229, 
230, 231, 241, 242, 243, all by Pietro Longhi , are interesting as affording 
samples of the Venetian costumes and habits of last century. Also : 191. 
Antonio Badile, The Samaritan woman at the well ; 234 — 283. Giov. Bel- 
lini , Allegories. The series of pictures attributed to Callot are probably 

The following pictures by Paolo Veronese belonging to S. Sebastiano 
(p. 231) , which is undergoing restoration, are at present in a room with- 
out number opposite Sala V. : Triumph of Mordecai, Esther before Ahas- 
uerus, Queen Esther, ceiling paintings of the church. The four evan- 
gelists , ceiling-paintings of the sacristy. Presentation in the Temple, 
from the organ. ^Martyrdom of SS. Marcus and Marcellinus , from the 
choir. ^Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, altar-piece. 

Sala VII. contains groups of Ethiopian slaves in ebony , bearing Ja- 
panese vases, executed about the middle of last century, and other sculp- 
tures. — We return through the gallery to the entrance, turn to the right, 
and by the first door on the right enter the 

Sala VIII., which contains pictures from the Manfrin Gallery (p. 220) : 
225. Anlonello da Messina, Portrait; 258. Savoldo , Two hermits; 259. 
Niceolb di Pietro, Madonna enthroned (1394); 261. Morr.tlo, St. Peter; 204. 
Anlonello da Messina, Christ scourged; 269. Isaac van Ostade , Snow-clad 
landscape; 270. Portrait of an old woman, mother of Titian (?); 272. 
Morescalco , Three saints; +273. Maniegna , St. George; 274. Jan Steen, 
Genre-picture (1660). 

Sala IX. (long corridor) : +280, *281. Hondekoeter, Hen and chickens, 
Victorious cock; 295. Tintoretto, Portrait of Antonio Capello; 298. Michel- 
angelo Caravaggio , Chess-players; 301. Titian (?) , The master's mother; 
306. Tinelli , Portrait; 312. Lorenzo Canovizio , Christ in the house of the 
Maries; 313. Bellini, Madonna; 315. Corn. Engelbrechtsen, Crucifixion; 318. 
Greg. Schiavone, Madonna ; 319. Titian , Portrait of Jacopo Soranzo ; 324. 
Pordenone , Angels among clouds; 326. Bonifazio , Madonna and saints; 
332. Girolamo Santacroce , Madonna and Child with saints; 337. Bissolo, 
Madonna and four saints; 338. Miereveldt, Portrait of a general; 349. An- 
tonello da Messina, Madonna. We now pass through the first door and 
turn to the left into the 

Sala X.: 361. Moniagna, Madonna and saints; 365. Andrea Schiavone, 
Madonna and Child with the infant John and three saints; *366. Titian, 
John the Baptist in the wilderness; 367. Bassano, Holy Family; 368. Bo- 
nifacio, Adoration of the Magi; 372. G. Bellini, Madonna and the Child 

Sala XI. and XII. chiefly contain early Italian masters of the 13th 
and 14th centuries , interesting to the student of art. 

Sala XIII. (Pinacoleca Renter, presented in 1850 by the widow of 
Count Bernard Renier) : Francesco Vecellio (brother of Titian) , Madonna 
and Child with John the Baptist; 421. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna and 
Child; +424. Giov. Bellini, Madonna with St. Paul and St. George; 425. 
Tintoretto, The adulteress before Christ; *429. Cima, Entombment; 432. 
School of L. da Vinci , Jesus and the scribes ; *436. Giov. Bellini , Mary, 
Magdalene, and Catharine. 

Sala XIV.. +446. L. Bassano, Adoration of the Shepherds; +452. Ga- 
rofalo , Madonna transfigured and four saints (1518); *456. Cima, Christ 
with SS. Thomas and Magnus; 4G4. Tintoretto , Senator; 465. Titian, Por- 
trait of Antonio Capello (1523; see also above). 

Sala XV.: Canova's original model of the group of Hercules and Ly- 

Canal Grande. VENICE. 38. Route. 215 

chas ; 473. Pietro da Cortona, Daniel in the lions' den; 481. Padovanino, 
Descent of the Holy Ghost; 486. Pordenone, Madonna of Carmel and saints; 
*487. Titian, Presentation in the Temple ; 488. Vittore Carpaccio, Circum- 
cision (1510) ; 489. Paolo Veronese, Salutation; *490. Pordenone, S. Lorenzo 
Griustiniani, John the Baptist, SS. Francis and Augustine, and three other 
figures ; *492. Pan's Bordone, The fisherman presenting the doge with the 
ring received from St. Mark ; 493. Carlo Cagliari , Raising of Lazarus ; 
494. L. Bassano, Same subject; 495. Rocco Marconi, Descent from the Cross ; 
*500. Bonifazio, Banquet of Dives ; 503. Tintoretto, Madonna and Child 
with four senators ; 505. Bonifazio, Saviour and saints (1530) ; 516. Boni- 
fazio, Christ and trie apostles; *519. Paolo Veronese, Madonna and saints; 
524. Bonifazio, Slaughter of the Innocents. 

*Sala XVI. : 529. Gentile Bellini , Miraculous finding of a fragment 
of the 'True Cross" in the canal (1500); 533, 537, 539, 542, 544, 546, 549, 
552, 554, 560. Vittore Carpaccio , History of St. Ursula, painted in 1475 
— 1515 ; 534. Marco Basaiti , Jesus on the Mt. of Olives ; 545. Lazzaro Se- 
basliano, Antonio Riccio congratulated by his friends ; *547. Paolo Veronese, 
Jesus in the house of Levi (1572); *555. Oentile Bellini, Procession in the 
Piazza of St. Mark, painted in 1496 (showing the appearance of the Piazza 
at that date, differing materially from its present form); 559. Carpaccio, 
Martyrdom of the 10,000 Christians on Mt. Ararat, painted in 1515 ; 564. Car- 
paccio, Healing of a lunatic, with the old Rialto bridge in the background. 

Sala XVII. : 572. Bonifazio , Adoration of the Magi; 575. Tintoretto, 
Two senators; 582. Cima, Madonna and saints; 586. Bonifazio, Temptation 
of SS. Benedict and Sebastian; 593. Palma Vecchio, Peter and saints. 

Sala XVIII. : Modern pictures by professors and pupils of the Aca- 

Sala XIX. : Pictures from 1700 downwards , most of them mediocre : 
644. Canalelto, Architectural piece ; 656, 661. Carriera, Portraits in chalks. 

Sala XX. : Modern pictures. 

To the 1. is the 4th saloon (p. 213) through which the visitor may 
now pass and descend by a stair to the Sala dell 1 Assunta. 

The **Canal Grande C-Canalazzd 1 ), the main artery of the 
traffic of Venice, nearly 2 M. in length, and 33 — 66 yds. in width, 
intersects the city from N.W. to S.E., dividing it into two unequal 
parts, and resembling an inverted S in shape. The Canal Grande 
occupies the same position at Venice as the Corso at Rome , the 
Toledo at Naples , or the Boulevards at Paris. Thousands of gon- 
dolas and barcas are here seen gliding in every direction, but little 
or no commercial traffic is carried on, as the water is too shallow 
for sea-going vessels. Handsome houses and magnificent palaces 
rise on its banks , for it is the street of the Nobili, the ancient 
aristocracy of Venice. A trip on the canal is most instructive and 
entertaining ; it will bear frequent repetition and afford the 
traveller the best opportunity for examining the architecture of the 
principal palaces. The gondolier points out the most important 
edifices. The posts (pali) were formerly the distinguishing marks 
of the palaces of the nobles, and are still so to some extent, being 
painted with the heraldic colours of their proprietors. The follow- 
ing, beginning from the Piazzetta, are the most striking. 
Left. Right. 

Dogana di Mare (PI. 37), the Palazzo Oiustiniani, now the 

principal custom-house , erected Hotel Europa (PI. b ) , in the 
by Benoni in 1682 ; the vane sur- pointed style of the 15th cent. 

216 Route 38. 


Canal Grande. 

mounting the largo gilded ball 
on the summit of the tower is a 
gilded Fortuna. 

Seminario Patriarcale ( PI. 99 ), 
containing a collection of statues, 
architectural fragments, etc., 
most of them from secularised 
churches and monasteries of Ve- 
nice , a collection of coins , a 
library , and the small (rallery 
Manfredini (open daily). 

To the 1. *3Iadonna and Child 
with a saint and an angel with a 
lyre, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci; 
twn small pictures, Christ and iMary 
Magdalene, and the Samaritan w(i- 
man, probably by Fiiipjdi/o Lippi. 

S. Maria dell a Salute , see 

p. 221). 

Pal. Dario-Angarani (PI. 59), 
in the style of the Lombardi 
(lfitli cent.). 

Pal. Venter, a grand building, 
but the ground-floor only com- 

pointed style 


Pal. Da Mula , 
of the 15th cent. 

Pal. Zichy-Fsterhazy (PI 
Pal. Manzoni- Angarani 
78 ), of the period of the Loin 
bardi (15th cent.), formerly an 
edifice of great magnificence, and 
the sole palace which stood in a 
feudal relation to the republic, 
now in a dilapidated condition 
(undergoing restoration). 

Pal. Emo-Treves (PL 61); in 
one of the apartments is a *group 
of Hector and Ajax, over life- 
size , Canova's last work (fee 
1 fr.j. 

Pal. Tiepolo-Zucchelli(Pl. 91), 
now Hotel Barbesi. 

Pal. Contarini, 15th cent. 

*Pal. Contarini- Fasan, restor- 
ed in 1867; 

Pal. Ferro (PL 47), now Hotel 
New York, both handsome struc- 
tures in the pointed style of the 
14th cent. 

Pal. Fini-Wimpffen (PL 62), 
containing a small collection of 
modern pictures, works of art, 
and curiosities (adm. daily 10 — 4 
o'clock, fee 1 fr.). 

*Pal. Corner della Ca Grande 
(PL 54), erected by Jac. Sanso- 
vino in 1532, with spacious in- 
ternal court, now the seat of the 

Pal. Barbara, 14th century. 

*Pal. Cavalli (PL bO), the pro- 
perty of Count Chambord , in 
the pointed style of the 15th 
cent., with tine, windows. 

Church of S. Vitale. 
Iron Bridge, constructed in 1854 (toll. 2 c). 

('atnpo della CaritH. 
Amuleiiiia delle Belle Arti, see 
. 212. 

Canrpo 8. Vitale. 

Canal Orande. 


38. Route. 217 

Palazzi Contarini degli Scrigni 

(PI. 51), one of the 16th, the 
other of the 15th cent., erected 
by Scamozzi (the picture-gallery 
formerly here has been presented 
to the Academy, see p. 214). 

*Pal. Rezzonice (PI. 88), a 
spacious structure of the 17th 
and 18th cent., erected by Lon- 
ghena and Massari. 

Two Pal. Giustiniani (PI. 68), 
in the pointed style. 

*Pal. Foscari (PI. 66), in the 
pointed style of the 15th cent., 
a handsome structure, situated 
at the point where the Canal 
turns to the E., containing the 
Scuola Superiore di Commercio. 
Pal. Balbi (PI. 42), a Renais- 
sance structure, erected by Aless. 
Vittoria, a pupil of Sansovino. 
This part of the Canal, and 
especially the two palaces, are a 
favourite subject with artists. 

Pal. Qrimani a S. Polo, in the 
Renaissance style. 
Pal. Persico (PI. 83). 
Pal. Tiepolo (PI. 92), begin- 
ning of 16th century. 

*Pal. Fisani a S. Paolo (PI. 
85), in the pointed style of the 
14th ce»t. The celebrated picture 
of Darius and Alexander, by 
Paolo Veronese, formerly here, 
is now in England. 

Pal. Barbarigo della Terrazza 
(PI. 43) was once celebrated for 
its picture-gallery, which in 1850 
became the property of theEmp. 
of Russia. 

Pal. Bernardo (PI. 46), in the 
pointed style. 

Pal. Giustinian-Lolin (PI. 69), 
of the 17th cent., the property of 
the Duchess of Parma. 

Pal. Malipiero, Renaissance. 

Pal. Grassi (PI. 72), of the 
18th cent., the property of Baron 

Pal. Moro-Lin (PI. 82), 17th 
cent., erected by Mazzoni. 

Pal. Contarini delle Figure (PI. 
53), in the early Renaissance 
style, 1504—64, with shields 
and trophies suspended from the 

Pal. Mocenigo (PI. 81), three 
contiguous palaces, that in the 
centre occupied by Lord Byron in 
1815; that on the N. (PI. 80) 
contains the Exhibition of Art 
mentioned p. 199 (with Titian's 
picture, The Saviour's Blessing). 
*Pal. Corner Spinelli (PI. 56), 
early Renaissance, in the style of 
the Lombardi, the property of 
the danseuse Taglioni. 

218 Route 38. 


Canal Grande. 

*Pal. Tiepolo-Sturrner(J?L 90), 
in the Renaissance style. 



Pisani-Morettn . pointed 


*Pal. Cavalll , in the pointed 
style of the 15th cent., now 
occupied by the Consulate of 

*Pal. Grimani (P. 70), a Re- 
naissance edifice, chef d'osuvre 
of Michele Sanmicheli, middle of 
the 16th cent. , now the post- 

*Pal. Farsetti (PL 65, origin- 
ally Dandolo) , in the Venetian 
style of the 12th cent., with an 
admixture of Byzantine and 
Moorish features, now occupied 
by the municipal offices (muni- 

*Pal. Loredan (PL 74) , coeval 
with the last, with coloured in- 
crustation, was once the resi- 
dence of king Peter Lusignan of 
Cyprus, husband of Catharine 
Cornaro (comp. Pal. Corner, p. 
219 ), whose armorial bearings 
are seen on different parts of the 
edifice ; now occupied by muni- 
cipal offices. 

Pal. Dandolo (PL 58), early 
Gothic , once the unpretending 
residence of the celebrated Doge 
Enrico Dandolo (small caftf on 
the ground-floor). 

*Pal. Bembo (PL 45), in the 
pointed style of the 14th cent. 

Pal. Manin (PL 77), with 
facade by Jac. Sansovino , 16th 
cent., was the property of the 
last Doge Lod. Manin , who on 
the approach of the French in 
May, 1797, resigned his office ; 
it is now the Banca Nazionale. 

*Ponte di Rialto (i. e. 'di rivo alto'), 
built in 1588 — 91 by Antonio da Ponte (or perhaps by Andrea 
lioldii), 158 ft. long, 46 ft. wide, consists of a single marble arch 
of 71 ft. span and 32 ft. in height, resting on 12,000 piles. It is 
situated midway between the Dogana di Mare and the railway- 

Canal Grande. 


38. Route. 219 

station, and till 1854 (p. 216) was the sole connecting link between 
the E. and "W. quarters of Venice. On the r. bank, near the bridge, 
is the Fish Market, abundantly supplied on Fridays. On the 1. is 
the Fruit and Vegetable Market, where excellent fruit may generally 
be purchased in the morning. On the 1. bank are also situated 
the Fabbriche Vecchie, erected by Scarpagnino in 1520, and the 
Fabbriche Nuove, by Sansovino in 1555, as offices and warehouses 
for the republic. .A. new edifice in a similar style, adjoining the 
Canal at the back of the Pal. de' Camerlenghi , is destined for the 
reception of the whole of the municipal offices. 

Pal. de' Camerlenghi (PI. 49), 
in the early Renaissance style of 
1525, once the residence of the 
republican chamberlains or offi- 
cers of finance, now the seat of 
a court of judicature, was erected 
by Guglielmo ISergamasco. 

Pescheria (fish-market). 

Pal. Corner della Kegina (PI. 
55) was erected by Rossi in 1724, 
on the site of the house in which 
Catharine Cornaro, Queen of Cy- 
prus, was born ; it is now a 'monte 
di pieta' or pawn-office. 

*Pal. Pesaro (PI. 84), a Re- 
naissance edifice of the 17th cent, 
by Longhena (accessible daily 
9 — 4 o'clock, attendant 1 fr., 
porter 20 c), contains a series of 
sumptuous apartments adorned 
with pictures of no great value. 

Church of S. Eustachio ('S. 

Pal. Tron, 16th cent. 

Pal. Battagia, erected by Lon- 


*Fondaco de 1 Tedesehi (PI. 63), 
an early Renaissance structure 
(1506), erected by Fra Giocondo 
da Verona (p. 173), was once a 
depot of the wares of German mer- 
chants. It was originally deco- 
rated externally with paintings 
by Titian and his pupils, of which 
few vestiges now remain. The 
building is now employed as a 
custom-house (Dogana). 

Pal. Mangilli-Valmarana (PI. 
76), built by Vicentini. 

Corte del Remer, 13th cent. 

Pal. Michieli dalle Colonne 
(PI. 79), 17th cent. 

Pal. Sagredo, pointed style of 
the 14th cent. 

*Ca d'Oro (PI. 48), the most 
elegant of the palaces in the 
pointed style of the 14th cent. 

Pal. Fontana, late Renais- 

Pal. Qrimani 
71), 16th cent., 

della Vida (PI. 
erected by San- 

Pal. Erizzo , in the pointed 
style of the l§th cent. 

*Pal. Vendramin Calergi (PI. 
94) , early Renaissance style, 
erected in 1841 by Pietro Lorn- 

220 Route 38. 


Canal Grande. 


Tondaco de' Turchi (PI. 64), 
Romanesque style of the 10th 
cent., once (after 1621) a Tur- 
kish depot, has now been restored 
in the original style. 

Civico Museo Correr (PI. 57), 
open Mond. , Wed. , and Sat. 
10—4 o'clock. 

The Ground Floor contains ancient 
and modern sculptures in marble, 
among them a fine antique draped 
statue. First Floor: pictures and 
drawings hy old masters , bronzes, 
carved wood and ivory, coins, etc. ; 
also a large bird's eye view of Ve- 
nice, carved in wood by Durer (?) 
in 1500; mementoes of Canova, mo- 
dern statues (Hagar, by Lucardi), 
zoological collection. The following 
pictures deserve mention : 27. Man- 
tegna, Transfiguration ; 14. Gent. Bel- 
lini, Franc. Foscari ; 16. Giov. Bel- 
lini, Mocenign ; 44. Leonardo da Vinci, 
Csesar Borgia ; 127—139. Piet. Longhi, 
Pictures characteristic of Venice; 
several German and Dutch masters ; 
144. Aless. Longhi, Goldoni; 81. P. 
Veronese, Sketch of the Marriage of 
Cana (in the Louvre). The Skcon*> 
Floor contains an insignificant zoo- 
logical collection and valueless pic- 

bardo, one of the finest palaces 
on the Canal Grande , and well 
worthy of a visit, is the pro- 
perty of Count Chambord. Motto 
on the exterior, l non nobis'. The 
interior is magnificently fitted 
up, particularly a room to the r. 
of the reception room, with lea- 
ther tapestry and a fine painted 
frieze by Palma Qiovine repre- 
senting the Triumph of Caesar. 
It also contains some fine paint- 
ings by Palma Giovine, Tintoret- 
to , and Bordone , and modem 
works (accessible daily , porter 
25 c. , attendant 1 f r.). There 
are also two rooms containing pic- 
tures for sale. 

Church of tf. Marcuola. 

Church of S. Qeremia. 

Pal. Labia (PI. 73), 17th cen- 
tury, at the union of the Can- 
naregio with the Canal Grande. 

Near it, immediately beyond the 
bridge (Ponte di Cannaregio) is (1.) 
the Pal. Manfrin (PI. 75), contain- 
ing a picture-gallery, the best works 
of which were sold in 1856. It still 
contains about 200 pictures, some of 
them valuable, in seven rooms : 3. 
Lorenio Lotto, Madonna and Child 
with two saints, and the donor be- 
tween them; 18. Bernardo da Mi- 
lano (?), Madonna enthroned ; 54. Bo- 
nifazio, Allegory ; 42. Girolavto Santa 
Croce, Adoration of the Magi ; 74. Good 
old copy of Titian's Entombment in 
the Louvre; 150. Raphael (?), Noah 
entering the ark ; 152. Filippino 
Lippi , Madonna and Child. All for 
sale (admission daily io — 3, i| 2 fr.). 

Pal. Frangini, Renaissance, 
with facade curiously terminated 
by a half-column. 

*Gli Scalzi (PI. 31) , is the 
sumptuous, picturesque church 
of the order of barefooted monks, 
immediately to the E. of the 
railway-station , erected in 1649 

[Rail. Station) ; omnibus-boats, 
etc., see p. 198. 

S. Zacearia. VENICE. 38. Route. 221 

Left. Right. 

-89 , and affords an excellent 
sample of the decorative style of 
the 17th cent. It was greatly da- 
maged by the bombardment of 
1849, but was restored in 1860. 
Behind the high altar a Madonna 
by Bellini. 

Iron-Bridge, completed in 1858 (toll. 5 c). 
S. Simeone Piccolo (PI. 34), Stazione delta Strada Ferrata 
opposite the railway-station, W. 
of the iron bridge, erected 1718 
— 38 , with a portal resting on 
columns , is surmounted by a 
dome in imitation of the Pan- 
theon at Rome. The interior 
contains nothing remarkable. 

To the 1., near the point where the Canal turns to the N.W., 
is situated the well-kept Giardino Fapadopoli (PI. 40 ; permesso 
to be obtained at the Pal. Papadopoli, Marina). On the N. side of 
the railway-station is the Botanical Garden, Orto Botanico (PI. C, 
2), the cacti in which are said to be the largest in Europe. 

In the following description of the churches and other sights at 
"Venice the Piazza of St. Mark is taken as a starting point (comp. 
also p. 203). 

Skirting the N. side of the Piazza, and passing the Pal. 
Patriarcale, we observe opposite us the Pal. Trevisani, or Bianca 
Capello , built in the style of the Lombardi about 1500. We 
cross the bridge to the r. (fine view of the back of the palace of 
the doges and of the bridge of sighs), then traverse two small 
piazzas to the Campo and the church of 

*S. Zacearia (PI. 36), erected in 1457 — 1515 in the round- 
arch style by Martino Lombardo (or Antonio di Marco), supported 
by six Corinthian columns, and possessing a remarkable and some- 
what discordant fafade. The recess of the high altar is in the 
Gothic style. Over the entrance the statue of St. Zacharias by 
Aless. Vittoria. 

The walls of the Nave are covered with large pictures , all of them, 
except those over the altars, representing memorable events in the history 
of the church. To the r. of the entrance, over the benitier , a statuette 
of John the Baptist by Al. Vittoria. The third arcade leads to the Coro 
delle Monache (choir of the nuns) : *Enthroned Madonna and saints, on 
the wall to the r., by Palma Vecchio (?) ; over the door, Nativity of John 
the Baptist, by Tintoretto. In the Cappella di S. Takasio (2nd on the 
r.) two gilded *altars in carved wood, of 1443—44, with old Italian pic- 
tures by the Vivarini of Murano. Here, too, is the entrance to the Crtpt, 
belonging to the original church , which was burned down in 1105. — 
Third altar in the choir, Circumcision, by Giovanni Bellini. In the 1. 
aisle , the tombstone of Alessandro Vittoria (d. 1605) , with a bust by the 

222 Route 38. VENICE. S. Salvatore. 

master himself, 'qui vivens vivos duxit e mannore vultus". 2nd altar (1.) 
*Madonna enthroned and four saints , by Giov. Bellini. This picture was 
taken to Paris by the French in 1797, but restored in 1815. 

We now retrace our steps , and proceed from the first campo 
direct to the bridge of the Rio della Paglia to the 1. (N.), traverse 
the Calle della Chiesa , cross the Ponte Storto , follow the Ruga 
Giuffa to the 1. (on the r. is the Gothic Arco Bon , with rich or- 
namentation) , and thus reach the considerable Campo S. Maria 
Formosa, in which is situated 

S. Maria Formosa (PI. 18), erected in 1492, a cruciform church 
covered with a dome , and with smaller domes over the sections of 
the aisles. 1st Altar: Palma Vecchio, *St. Barbara and four saints, 
with a Pieta and four lateral pictures above ; 2nd Altar : Bart. 
Vivarini, Mary, Anna and St. Joachim ; 3rd Altar : Palma Giorine, 
Descent from the Cross. S. Transept: L. Bassano , Last Supper. 
Choir : modern frescoes by Paoletti (1844). A chapel , to which a 
stair ascends (shown by the sacristan), contains (l.)a Madonna 
and Child by Sassoferrato. 

Passing to the r. of the church and skirting the canal , we 
observe beyond the bridge the picturesque Porta del Paradiso. 
We then cross the Ponte Ruga Giuffa and proceed past the Pal. 
Querini (now a girls' school) to the Pal. Grimani (PI. 30), 
erected in the 16th cent, under the influence of Pietro Lombardo, 
containing in its court an antique colossal *Statue of Marcus 
Agrippa , brought, as it is supposed, from the Pantheon at Rome. 
The opposite statue of Augustus is inferior, and only partly ancient. 
The Pal. Malipiero in the Campo S. Maria Formosa also dates from 
the beginning of the 16th century. 

The street opposite the church leads direct to the church of 
S. Giuliano (see below) and to the Merceria, the principal business 
street of Venice, containing the best shops after those of the Piazza 
of St. Mark. From the latter the Merceria is reached by passing 
under the clock-tower (p. 207). The first short street to the right 
leads to 

S. Giuliano ('<San Zulians', PL 16), erected by Sansovino in 
1553, consecrated in 1580. In the second chapel to the 1. of 
the high altar is Girolamo Campayna's dying Christ supported by 
angels, a relief in marble. 

Returning to the Merceria , the traveller will soon observe the 
lofty choir of S. Salvatore appearing between the houses. The 
entrance to the church is in the Campo of the same name. 

*S. Salvatore (PL 30), completed in 1534 (facade 1666), sur- 
mounted by three flat domes resting on circular vaulting , is one 
of the finest churches in Venice in this style. It is at present 
undergoing, restoration, and not accessible (pictures in the Academy, 
p. 213). 

S. Aisle. Between the 1st and 2nd altars the monument of Proc. 
Andrea Dulfinn (d. 1602) and his wife; between the 2nd and 3rd, that of 

SS. Apostoli. VENICE. 38. Route. 223 

the Doge Franc. Venier (d. 1556), an architectural *monument by Sanso- 
vino ; over the 3rd altar (also by Sansovino) an Annunciation by Titian. — 
Thansept: r. the monument of Catharine Cornaro (d. 1510), Queen of 
Cyprus , who abdicated in 1489 in favour of Venice. — Choir. Transfigu- 
ration, high altar-piece by Titian; behind it an *altar-piece chased in 
silver, with 27 scriptural representations, executed about 1290. — In the 
Chapel on the 1., *#Christ at Emmaus, by Oiov. Bellini. — N. Aisle. 
Monument of three cardinals of the Cornaro family. — Over the altar to 
the 1. of the organ, statue of St. Jerome, by Tullio Lombardo. Monument 
of the doges Girolamo (d. 1567) and Lorenzo Priuli (d. 1559), with gilded 
recumbent figures of the brothers, a lofty architectural monument. 

Then to the r. (N.J (the street to the 1. leads through the busy 
Calle dei Fabbri back to the Piazza of St. Mark) to the Campo S. 
Bartolommeo (the church of that name is uninteresting) ; to the 1. 
is the Ponte di Rialto (p. 218). We cross the piazza in a straight 
direction, pass the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (p. 219) on thel., and 
reach (on the r.) 

S. Giovanni Crisostomo (PL 14) , erected in the Renaissance 
style in 1483 by Moro Lombardo and Sebastiano da Lugano. 1st 
Altar on the r., Oiov. Bellini, three saints; high altar, *Seb. del 
Piombo, St. Chrysostom and saints (said to have been designed by 
Giorgione) ; base of the altar, Entombment, a relief by an unknown 
master. Altar to the 1., Coronation of the Virgin, and the 12 
Apostles, reliefs by Tullio Lombardo. 

At the back of the church is the Teatro Malibran (PI. 103) ; 
then farther on, beyond the second bridge, the church of 

Santi Apostoli (PL 5) , erected in 1672, containing the Cap- 
pella Corner, which belonged to an earlier church and was erected 
by Ouglielmo Bergamasco in the 16th cent., with two monuments 
of the Corner family. To the r. in the choir : Cesare da Coneg- 
liano, Last Supper; 1. Paolo Veronese, Fall of Manna. 

Opposite is the Scuola delV Angelo Custode (Prot. church). 
Cross the Ponte di Rialto (p. 218) ; immediately to the r. is the 
church of 

S. Giacometto di Rialto (PL 13c), which is said to have been 
erected in 820 (?), a short basilica with a'dome over the cross, the 
most ancient example of this style at Venice. The Fabbriche 
Nuove and Vecchie are situated here (p. 219). On the farther side 
of the vegetable market is a short column of Egyptian granite, to 
which a flight of steps ascends, borne by a kneeling figure termed 
11 Gobbo di Rialto. From this column the laws of the Republic 
were anciently promulgated. Next in a straight direction , past 
the Beccherie , or slaughter-houses , to the church of S. Cassiano ; 
1st altar on the r. , *Palma Vecchio , John the Baptist and four 
saints; 3rd altar r., Leandro Bassano, Salutation. 

To the 1. of the vegetable-market, in the Ruga Vecchia (gate- 
way adjoining the campanile), is S. Giovanni Elemosinario, erected 
in 1527 by Scarpagnino. Bay on the r. , altar-piece by Porde- 
none, SS. Sebastian, Rochus , and Catharine ; *high altar-piece by 

224 Route 38. VENICE. Frari. 

Titian, S. Giovanni Elemosinario ; 1. Marco Vecellio, Doge giving 

We follow the same street, and cross the Campo S. Apollinare 
to the Campo S. Polo (in the neighbouring Rio di S. Polo is the Pal. 
Corner- Mocenigo , with a good facade by Sanmicheli). Passing 
between the church and the ancient campanile of the 14th cent., 
we take the second side street to the r. , and then the fourth to 
the 1., leading to the 

**Frari (5. Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, or Church of the Francis- 
cans, PI. 10), a cruciform church, one of the largest and most beauti- 
ful at Venice, in the Gothic style with the peculiar Italian modifi- 
cations (twelve circular buttresses], erected about the middle of 
the 13th cent., and completed before 1338 by Niccolb Pisano. It 
contains numerous monuments , sculptures, and pictures, and like 
S. Giovanni e Paolo (p. 228) is the last resting-place of many eminent 
men. The rounded terminations of the facade are obviously much 
later than the church itself. 

S. Aisle. Adjoining the 1st altar the *Monument of Titian (d. 1576), 
erected by Erap. Ferd. I., completed by Luigi and Pielro Zandomeneghi in 
1852, a vast architectural group; beneath are two figures with tablets 
bearing inscriptions. In the centre, above the dedication 'Tiziano Ferdi- 
nandus 1. 1852', between four columns Titian sitting by an angel and 
uncovering the statue of Sais; on the columns are figures representing 
Sculpture, Architecture, Painting, and Wood-carving. On the wall are 
reliefs of the three most celebrated pictures of Titian , the Assumption 
(p. 213), Martyrdom of St. Peter (p. 228), and Martyrdom of St. Lawrence 
(p. 228) ; above, 1. and r. of the vaulting, Entombment and Annunciation, 
his last and first pictures; above these the lion of St. Mark. — Over the 
2nd altar: Bassano, Raising of Lazarus; adjacent, the monument of Al- 
merico d'Este of Modena , a general of the Republic (d. 1660) , with a 
statue; 3rd altar, *St. Jerome, a statue by Alessandro Vittoria, said to 
possess the features and figure of Titian when in his 98th year. 

S. Transept. ^Monument of Jacopo Marcello (d. 1484), a sarcophagus 
borne by male figures ; altar-piece in four sections by Bart. Vivarini. 
Over the door of the sacristy the monument of Benedetto Pesaro (d. 1503). 

— In the Sacristy, opposite the door, a shrine with reliefs in marble 
of the 17th cent.; *altar-piece , a Madonna and saints, by Oiov. Bellini. 

— In the church, to the 1. of the entrance to the sacristy, the monument 
of Paolo Savelli (d. 1405) with equestrian statue. 

Choir Chapels. 2nd Chapel on the right : on the r. the monument of 
Duccio degli Albert!, 1. that of an unknown warrior, both of the 14th 
cent. — Choir: r. mausoleum of the Doge Franc. Foscari (d. 1457), 1. that 
of the Doge Niccolo Tron (d. 1473), both by Ant. Rizzo. — Chapels on the 
left: 1st, altar-piece, *Madonna and saints, by Bern. Liciuio ; 2nd, (r.) 
monument of Melch. Trevisano (d. 1500), the altar in coloured and gilded 
carved wood , in the centre John the Baptist in wood, by Donatello ; 3rd, 
altar-piece, St. Ambrose and saints, by Vivarini and Marco Basaiti , r. 
St. Ambrose on horseback expelling the Arians, by Oiov. Contarini. 

N. Transept. Altar-piece in 3 sections, St. Mark with saints, by 
Bart. Vivarini. 

N. Aisle. Baptistery: altar in marble, St. Peter, Mary, and eight saints, 
of the 15th cent. ; over the font a statin- of John the Baptist , by Sanso- 
vino. Farther on: Tomb of .lac. Pesaro (d. 1547); *altar-piece, Madonna 
with saints and members of the Pesaro family , by Titian , who has in- 
troduced a portrait of himself as Joseph; *monument of the Doge Giov. 

S. Rocco. VENICE. 38. Route. 225 

Pesaro (d. 1669) , of a rich and handsome architectural character, occu- 
pying the entire wall , with unpleasing figures of negroes as bearers. 
^Mausoleum of Canova (d. 1822), '■principis sculptorum aetatis suae', erected 
in 1827 from the master's own design for Titian's monument ('ex conlatione 
Europae universae"), executed by Canova's pupils Martini, Ferrari, Fabris, 
and others. — By the W. portal the sarcophagus of Pietro Bernardo (d. 
1538) , by Al. Zeopardo. 

In the Nave a high parapet of marble , covered with two series of 
reliefs, separates the seats of the monks from the rest of the church. 
Elegantly carved stalls , by Marco da Vicenza, 146S, semi-Gothic in style. 
A pleasing glimpse of the apse is obtained through the screen. 

The adjacent monastery contains the Archives , one of the most 
magnificent collections of the kind in the world, which comprise 
about 14 million documents, the earliest dating from 883, deposited 
in 298 different apartments. 

Beyond the archives is the church of S. Rocco (PL 29), dating 
from 1490 and 1725, and like the Scuola di S. Rocco (see belowj 
containing numerous pictures by Tintoretto : on the r., the Annun- 
ciation, beyond it the Pool of Bethesda, and above the latter (St. 
Rochus in the wilderness. Chapel to the r. of the choir : Titian, 
Christ dragged to Golgotha. In the choir, to the r. St. Rochus in 
the hospital, to the 1. *IIoly Martyrs by Tintoretto. On the 1. side 
of the church, Pordenone (?), Expulsion of the money-changers 
from the Temple, above it St. Rochus and St. Martin. 

The church is adjoined by the very interesting *Scuola di S. 
Rocco (PI. 45j, containing the council -halls of the brotherhood, 
begun in 1517. It possesses a most magnificent facade, and hand- 
some old staircase and hall ; small bronze gates in front of the altar 
in the principal hall, by Joseph Filiberti of Florence, 1756 ; on the 
ground-floor, staircase, and first floor, on the ceilings, as well as on 
the walls, are pictures by Tintoretto, among them his chef-d'oeuvre, 
a large *Crucifixion , of 1565; in the staircase an ^Annunciation, 
and in a small room to the r. of the entrance into the great hall 
an Ecce Homo, by Titian (open daily 9 — 4, custodian '/ 2 tr. ; good 
light necessary). 

The low gateway adjoining the Scuola leads to the church of 
S. Pantaleone (PI. 26 ), erected in 1668 — 75. The chapel to the 
1. of the high altar contains (r.) a * Coronation of the Virgin by 
Giovanni and Antonio da Murano , painted in 1444; also an 
*Entombment in high relief, of the same date. 

From this point we may now return to the Piazza of St. Mark 
by boat (1 fr.). 

The passage in the S. corner of the Atrio Nuovo (p. 204) leads 
to the Calle 8. Moise. To the 1. is the church of 8. Moise (PI. 24), 
with overladen facade. We then cross two bridges to the church of 

S. Maria Zobenigo (PL 23) , erected in 1680 by the Barbaro 
family (Jbarbaro monumento del decadimento deW arte 1 , as it has 
been termed). The niches of the facade contain statues of mem- 
bers of the family. At the base of the lower row of columns are 


226 Route 38. VENICE. S. Stefano. 

plans of Zara, Candia , Padua, Rome, Corfu, and Spalato, hewn in 
the stone; on the bases of the columns are representations of naval 
battles. This curious facade is the only part of the church worthy 
of note. 

Leaving this church, we cross the Campo S. Maurizio, where the 
small church of that name is situated , to the larger Campo S. 
Stefano. On the r. rises 

*S. Stefano (PI. 35"), on the way from the Piazza of St. Mark 
to the Academy (p. 212), a Gothic church of the 14th cent., with 
an elegant facade in brick , good window mouldings in terracotta, 
and a peculiarly constructed vaulting of wood, the only one of the 
kind which has been Testored in the ancient style, imparting a very 
pleasing appearance to the interior. 

Entrance-wall, above the principal door, equestrian statue of Dom. 
Contarini, middle of 17th cent.; adjacent, 1. the *tomb of the physician 
Jacopo Suriano (d. 1511). On the Pavement of the nave is the large tomb- 
stone of the Doge Francesco Jlorosini 'Peloponnesiaei' (d. 1694) , the cap 
and baton of office in bronze. — Adjacent to the Sacristy in the r. aisle 
a Jladonna with saints, a relief in bronze of the 16th cent.; in the sa- 
cristy small marble statues of John the Baptist and St. Antony by Pictro 
Lombardo; on the r. Madonna and Saints by Palma Vecchio. — Choir. On 
the lateral walls statues of the 12 Apostles and four saints, and reliefs 
of the four Evangelists and two Fathers of the church. In front of the 
high altar two candelabra in bronze, on marble pedestals, by Al. Vit- 
toria, 1577; behind it choir-stalls carved and inlaid. — 3rd altar, 1. sta- 
tues of St. Jerome and St. Paul by Pictro Lombardo. 

Adjoining the church on the 1. is a haitdsome * Monastery Court, 
restored in 1532, and once adorned with frescoes by Pordenone, of 
which there are remains on the S. and E. wall over the colonnade 
(four saints on the E. wall, particularly those to the 1., very good); 
below the windows putti , the subjects on the S. side being from 
the Old Testament (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, etc.). If the 
traveller cross the court, he will reach the Campo S. Angelo, and 
to the 1. the Post-office in the Pal. Urimani (p. 218). 

To the 1. in the Campo S. Stefano is the Pal. Morosini. In the 
vicinity is the Pal. Pisani, in the small and dreary Piazza of that 
name, with interesting old ships' lanterns and richly adorned mast- 
knobs (symbols of an admiral's residence). 

To the S. of the Campo S. Stefano is the Campo S. Vitale with 
the church of that name, from which the Iron Bridge (p. 216 ; 2 c. ) 
crosses to the Campo della Caritii , where the Academy is 
situated (p. 212). 

We now proceed towards the E., cross several bridges, and reach 

*S. Maria della Salute ( PI. 22), a spacious and handsome dome- 
covered church, at the E. extremity of the Canal (iraude, adjoining 
the. Dogana di Marc (p. 216), erected in 1631—32 by Longhena, 
■a successor of 1'alladio. 

i'h(i[nls on tin: right: 1. Presentation in the" Temple , 2. Assumption, 
3. Nativity of I ho Virgin, all by Lnca. (iionlauo ; in Hie last Chapel on, 
the left: Descent of the Holy Ghost, by Titian, much darkened by age. 
The monolithic columns by which the vaulting of the choir is supported 

S. Maria dell 'Orto. VENICE. 3d. Route. 227 

are from a Roman temple at Pola (p. 66). On the high altar a large 
candelabrum in bronze by Andrea Alessandro da Brescia , of admirable 
workmanship; the Virgin banishing the demons of the plague, a group 
in marble by Le Curt. On the ceiling eight medallions with portraits of 
the evangelists and fathers of the church by Titian; the large pictures 
by Salviati. Outer Sacristy: Pieta, a relief of the 15th cent., by Dcntone (?) ; 

* Titian, St. Mark and four saints ; Marco Basaili, St. Sebastian. — Sacristy : 
by the entrance-door, St. Rochus and other saints, by Girolamo da Tre- 
viso; on the r. and 1. of the door four Madonnas by Sassoferrato (?), Viva- 
rini , and Palma VeccJiio; 1. wall: Tintoretto, Marriage of ('ana; by the 
altar statues and candelabra by C'risto/oro da Parma. Ceiling-paintings : 
Cain and Abel, Abraham and Isaac, David and Goliath, by Titian. 

Adjoining this church are the Seminario Patriarcale (p. 216) 
and the Dogana di Mare (p. 215), which lie obliquely opposite the 
Piazza of St. Mark (traghetti, or ferries, see Plan). 

The more remote quarters of the city are most conveniently 
visited by gondola. Leaving the Canal Grande opposite the Pal. 
Pesaro (p. 219"), we enter the Bio <S. Felice; here, on the 1., is the 
*Pal. Giovanelli (PI. 67) of the 15th cent., with sumptuously 
furnished apartments, a handsome ball-room (with family portraits 
by Titian and Tintoretto), and a room with modem pictures ; in 
the boudoir, *Oiov. Bellini, Madonna; *Titian, St. Jerome; *Paris 
Bordone, Madonna and saints. 

Following the same canal, we pass the Abbadiazza delta Miseri- 
cordia, and turn to the 1. to the church 

*S. Maria dell' Orto (PI. 21), with a beautiful late Gothic 

* Facade erected by Pietro Lombardo soon after 1481, and recently 
restored, and a curious tower. The church contains many good, 

Right, 1st altar: +Cima da Conegliano, St. John the Baptist, with SS. 
Peter, Mark, Jerome, and Paul. Between the 3rd and 4th altars : Monu- 
ment, of Hieronymus Carraccio (d. 1657) in the baroque style. Above the 
entrance of the sacristy, Virgin and Child, high relief by Giovanni de 
Sanctis. — In the Sacristy : 28 portraits of Venetian Saints, and a Descent 
from the Cross, School of Giorgione. — Chapel on the right of the choir: 
+ Girolamo da S. Croce, SS. Augustine and Bonaventura. In the Choir, r. 
the Last. Judgment, 1. Adoration of the golden calf, large works by Tin- 
toretto. Over the high altar an Annunciation, by Palma Giovine , with 
surrounding pictures by Tintoretto. — Chapel on the left of the choir, on 
the wall, r. *Palma Vecchio , St. Stephen and four Saints; altar-piece a 
copy from Bordone. — In the N. Aisle the Capp. Contarini, containing 
busts of six members of the celebrated family of that name ; among them 
that of the Cardinal (d. 1542) , the second on the 1. , by Alessandro Vit- 
toria ; ^altar-piece by Tintoretto , Miracles of St.. Agnes; 2nd chapel on 
the 1., Palma Giovine, Crucifixion. 4th Chapel, to the 1. by the entrance : 
altar-piece by Bellini, Madonna (restored) ; 1. Lor. Lotto, Lamentation over 
the body of Christ. 

We now return along the Fondamenta Nuove (view of Murano, 
the cemetery island, and Torcello) to the church of the 

Gesuiti (PI. 11), erected in 1715 — 30 in the 'baroque' style, 
entirely lined in the interior with marble inlaid with verde antico, 
and sumptuously decorated like all the churches of this order. At 
the high altar are ten spiral columns of verde antico, in the centre 
a globe , with God the Father and the Son. The marble mosaic 


228 Route 38. VENICE. 8. Oiov. e Paolo. 

pavement in trout of the altar resembles a carpet. The chapel to 
the r. of the high altar contains the monument and statue of Orazio 
Farnese (d. 1654) ; in the chapel on the 1. is the *monument of 
the Doge Pasquale Cicogna (d. 1595); then, in the 1. transept, the 
Assumption, an altar-piece by Tintoretto; 1st chapel on the 1. of 
the principal door, the ^Martyrdom of St. Lawrence, an altar-piece 
by Titian, much darkened by age (seen bejt 11 — 12 a. in.). 

We next enter the Ilio dei Mendicanti , skirt the large Spedale 
Civile (PI. 41), and reach 

*S. Giovanni e Paolo, locally termed '.S. Zanipolo 1 (PI. 15), 
begun under Niccolb Pisano's influence in 1240, and completed in 
1430 , a very spacious and magnificent Italian Gothic edilice, 
supported by ten circular columns, and covered with a dome. This 
church, next to St. Mark's the most imposing at Venice, contains 
the burial-vaults of the doges , whose funeral-service was always 
performed here, and may be termed the Westminster Abbey of 

S. Aislk. In front: -* Mausoleum of the victorious Doge Pietro Jlocenigo 
(d. 1476), with fifteen statues by the Lombardi; the sarcophagus is '&r hostium 
inaiuihii^ (from the spoils of his enemies) (see below). Between the 1st 
and '2nd altar, a pyramid to the memory of the painter Melch. Lanza 
(d. 1674) ; monument of Marc Antonio Bragadino (d. 1571) , who long de- 
fended Famagosta in Cyprus against the Turks , and after its surrender 
was barbarously Hayed alive, as the picture above indicates; *altar-piece 
in six sections by Bellini , or Carpaccio ; monument of the Senator Alb. 
Michiel (d. 1589). In the chapel: altar-piece, Descent from the Cross, 
by Pietro Libert. Over the doors the *Mausoleum of Bertucci , Silvestro, 
and Elisabetta Valier with their statues, a rich architectural 'baroque' 
monument in marble of the 18th cent., embellished with numerous sta- 
tues and reliefs. In the chapel below the monument , 1. St. Hyacinth 
crossing a river dry-shod, by L. Bassano. The second door is an egress. 
The following chapel contains six reliefs in bronze and wood, scenes 
from the life of St. Dominicus, 1720. 

S. Tkansept. At the corner, St. Augustine, an oil-painting by Vira- 
rini da Murano (1473) ; tomb of General Niccolo Orsini (d. 1509) with 
equestrian statue; St. Antoninus, an altar-piece by Lorenzo Lotto ; stained 
glass designed by Vinarini (1473, restored in 1814); altar-piece, Christ, 
SS. Andrew and Peter, by Rocco Marconi. — The chapels on the r. and 
1. of the choir, recently restored, contain 1 nothing noteworthy except 
a monument of 134 1. 

Ciioih. Tombs of the Doges, (r.) *Michele Morosini (d. 1382), in the 
Gothic style, and *Leonardo Loredano (d. 1521), (1.) *Andrea Vendramin 
(d. 1478) (by Alessandro Leopardo , perhaps the finest monument at 
Venice), and *Marco Corner (d. 1368), Gothic. 

N. Tkansept. Above , by the entrance to the chapel of the Rosary, 
a *group in marble by Antonio Dentone, of the 15th cent., St. Helena 
presenting General Vittore Capello with the marshal's baton; over the 
door the monument of the Doge Antonio Venier (d. 1400). — The adjacent 
(on the 1.) Cappella del Rosario , founded in 1571 to commemorate the 
victory of Bepanto , was destroyed by fire in Aug., 1867. Of its former 
valuable contents nothing remains but the blackened and mutilated frag- 
ments of admirable reliefs in marble, representing scenes from the life of 
the Saviour and the Virgin, executed by Bonazza , Torcelli , and other 
masters from 1600 to 1732. At the time of the conflagration the celebrated 
picture by Titian, representing St. Petrus Martyr attacked and murdered 
in a wood, and a Madonna by Bellini had unfortunately been deposited 

S. Maria dei Miracoli. VENICE. 38. Route. 229 

in the chapel during the execution of repairs in the church, and also 
became a prey to the flames. — Farther on in the church , Monument 
of the wife and daughter of the Doge Antonio Venier, 1411; monument, 
with equestrian statue, of Leonardo da Prato (d. 1511). 

N. Aisle. Over the door of the Sacristu busts of Titian and the two 
Paimas, by Jac. Albarelli, 17th cent. — ^Mausoleum of the Doge Pasquale 
Malipiero (d. 1402) ; tombstone of the senator Bonzio fd. 1508) , under it 
statues of St. Thomas by Antonio Lombardo and St. Peter the martyr by 
Paolo da Milavo; in the niches, r. the recumbent effigy of the Doge Mi- 
chele Steno (d. 1413), formerly painted, 1. that of Aloise Trevisan (d. 1528) ; 
monument with equestrian statue of General Pompeo Giustiniani ; *monu- 
ment of the Doge Tommaso Mocenigo (d. 1423), Gothic ; monument of the 
Doge Kiccolo Marcello (d. 1474) by Pietro Lombardo; 2nd altar, 1. of the 
principal entrance , early copy of Titian's martyrdom of St. Peter (see 
above), presented by King Victor Emmanuel to replace the destroyed pic- 
ture ; monument , with equestrian statue , of Orazio Baglioni (d. 1617) ; 
over the last altar a statue of St. Jerome by Aless. Vittoria; adjoining it, 
the monument of the Marquis de Chasteler (d. 1825) , who distinguished 
himself in the Tyrolese war in 1809. Mausoleum of the Doge Giov. Mo- 
cenigo (d. 1485) by Tvllio Lombardo. Over the Principal Entrance the 
mausoleum of the Doge Aloise I. Mocenigo, his wife, and the Doge Giov. 
Bembo (d. 1618). This whole side, which is very handsomely arranged 
belongs to the Mocenigo family, and was constructed by Tvllio Lom- 

Adjoining S. Giovanni e Paolo is the rich *Faeade (of 1485) 
of the Scuola di S. Marco, erected by the Lornbardi, with singular 
reliefs in perspective, two lions, and the achievements of St. Mark. 
In the interior the lower hall only is preserved. This building, 
together with the long edifice on the Rio dei Mendicanti, is now an 
immense hospital. To the 8., on a lofty and elegant pedestal of 
marble, rises the equestrian *Statue of Bart. Colleoni (d. 1475), 
general of the repuhlic, modelled by Andr. Verrocchio, cast in bronze 
by Aless. Leopardo. 

We now proceed through the Rio di Marina to the church of 

*S. Maria dei Miracoli (PI. 20), a small, early Renaissance 
structure, erected in 1480, under the influence of Pietro Lombardo, 
and entirely covered on the facade and in the interior with valuable 
marble. The quadrangular choir with a dome, twelve steps higher 
than the nave , is peculiar (below it is the sacristy). On the r, 
and 1. are ambos , or lecterns where the epistles and gospels are 
read, as in the ancient Christian churches. The *decorations are 
by Pietro Lombardo. The coffered barrel-vaulting is sumptuously 
painted and gilded. The church is not expected to be reopen- 
ed till 1879, but the facade and the side next the canal are well 
worthy of a visit. 

We now return through the Rio di S. Giovanni Laterano, S. 
Lorenzo, and Fontego, to 

S. Francesco della Vigna (PI. 9), the interior of which was 
constructed in 1534 by Sansorino, the facade by Andr. Palladio in 

At the entrance a holy water vessel with St. John the Baptist and 
St. Francis , statuettes in bronze by Vittoria. 1st Chapel on the r. , Last 
Supper, by Franc. Santacroce; 3rd chapel encrusted with coloured marble, 
property of the Contarini family ; 4th chapel , Resurrection , by Paolo 

230 Route 38. VENICE. 8. Giorgio Magg. 

VriDiiese. S. Transept, Enthroned Madonna, by Fra Antonio da Negro- 
ponle. To the 1. of the high altar the * Cappella Giustiniani, the altar 
entirely covered with reliefs in marble, Last Judgment beneath, above 
(as altar-piece) St. Jerome and four saints, over them Madonna and angels, 
at the sides of the chapel twelve prophets and the four Evangelists, 
higher the history of Jesus in eighteen sections , below on the altar the 
history of St. Jerome in three sections , the whole a work of the 15th 
cent. — In the chapel of the U. transept a Madonna and four saints, by 
Giur. Bellini. Over the pulpit, God the Father and Christ, by Girolamo 
Sanlacroce, modernised. In the 5th chapel to the 1. (at the principal 
door), a Madonna and four saints, by Paolo Veronese; 3rd chapel, fitted 
up with white marble, containing busts of the Patriarch and the Doge 
Sagredo , erected in 1743; over the altar the statue of S. Gherardo. 

A little to the S. in the Rio della Pieta is the church of S. 
Giorgio degli Schiavoni (PI. 13), with a good Renaissance facade 
of If):")! , a low wooden ceiling, and pictures by Carpaccio, on the 
r. three scenes from the life of St. Jerome, on the 1. three from 
the life of St. George; altar-piece, St. Tryphon and St. Matthew; 
in an adjoining room, on the r., a Madonna by Vine. Catena. 

On the Rio dei Greoi in the vicinity is S. Giorgio dei Greci, 
with an elegant campanile of the 16th cent., and an ikonostasis 
adorned with gorgeous Byzantine mosaics. The head of Christ in 
the dome is said to have been designed by Titian. 

We now proceed to the S. to the Riva degli Schiavoni and the 
Piazzetta (p. 204). Opposite the latter, on an island fortilied in 
1848, is situated 

*S. Giorgio Maggiore (PI. 12) , belonging to the adjacent 
Benedictine monastery, a cruciform church with dome , and apses 
terminating the transepts, begun by Palladio in 1560. 

Over the door in the interior a portrait of Pope Pius VII., in comme- 
moration of an ordination of Cardinals held by him here in 1800. To the 
r. the monument of Lorenzo Yenier (d. 1667 J. Over the 1st altar, Na- 
tivity, by Bassano; 2nd, Crucifix in wood, by Micheloezo; 3rd altar, Mar- 
tyrdom of SS. Cosmas and Damianus and their companions; 4th altar, 
Coronation of the Virgin, the two last by Tintoretto; 5th altar, Adoration 
of the Madonna, by Rizzo, al fresco. — Choir: r. Last Supper, 1. Rain of 
Manna, both by Tintoretto ; over the high altar u *group in bronze by 
(iirolumn Campagna, representing God the Father on a gilded globe borne 
by the four Evangelists, beside them two angels ; two candelabra in bronze 
by Nicolello Roccatagliota (1597); the 48 *choir-stalls, admirably carved in 
wood in the 17th cent, by Alberto de Brule of Flanders, represent scenes 
from the life of St. Benedict. — In the Corridor, to the r. of the choir, 
the mausoleum of the Doge Domenico Michiel (d. 1129), erected in 16it7 ; 
in a chapel behind it , Descent from the cross by Tintoretto. — To the 
1., farther on in the church, the Resurrection, and the Martyrdom of St. 
Stephen , both by Tintoretto; Virgin and Child, a group over life-size by 
(lirolanw Campayna; last altar, Martyrdom of St. Lucia, by Bassano; 
monument of the Doge Mare Antonio Memmo (d. 1616). 

A staircase in 32 spiral windings , well lighted and of easy 
ascent , leads to the summit of the Campanile , which commands 
the linest *view of the city and the Lagune. 

On the adjoining island of (iiudecca is situated the church of 
*Redentore (PI. 28), erected in 1576 by Andr. Palladio, a 
spacious church belonging to the neighbouring Franciscan nion- 

8. Sebastiano. VENICE. ;W. Route. 231 

astery, with a portal borne by columns, chiefly interesting in the 

On the v.: 1st Chape], Nativity, hy Francesco Bassano; 2nd, Baptism, 
Carletto Cagliari ; 3rd, Scourging, Tintoretto. On the 1. : 3rd Chape] , l>e- 
scent from the Cross, Palma Giov.; 2nd, Resurrection, F. Bassano; 1st, 
Ascension 1 , Tintoretto. In front of the high altar, Christ bearing the 
Cross , behind it a Descent from the Cross , reliefs in marble by Massa 
da Bologna; the bronze figures by Caiu/>agiia. — The Sacristy contains 
three admirable * Madonnas by Giovanni Bellini; that with the sleeping 
Child is the most richly coloured, but somewhat still'; that over the door 
is easier. 

We now cross the Cunnle delta Giudecea and skirt the Fonda- 
menta delle Zattere (p. 197j to 

*S. Sebastiano [PI. 33j, containing a number of works by Paolo 
Veronese, and his tomb. It was erected in 1506 — 18, and has 
recently undergone careful restoration. Several of* the pictures 
have been temporarily removed to the Academy [p. 214). 

S. Side. 1st altar, St. Nicholas, painted by Titian in his 86th year; 
2nd, Madonna, a small picture by Paolo; 3rd, *Madonna with John, a group 
in marble by 7'ommaso da Lngano , the only monument in the church; 
4th, Christ on the Cross, and the Maries, by Paolo; ^monument of Bishop 
Livio Podocataro (d. 1555) , by Sansvvino. — Choir. Altar-piece, Madonna 
in glory and four saints , on the wall to the r. ^Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian, 1. ^Martyrdom of SS. Mark and Marcellinus, all three by Paolo. 
— Organ, on the extreme wing the Purification of Mary, on the inner 
the Pool of Bethesda, both by Paolo; to the 1. the bust, and near it the 
tonilj of the master (d. 1588), bearing the inscription: 'Paulo Caliaro Ve- 
ro/icnsi j-ticturi , naturae aeiiiulo , ai'lis miraculo , snperslite falls , faina vic- 
tttro.' — Sacrist//. Ceiling-paintings by Veronese, Coronation of the Virgin, 
in the corners the four Evangelists. Farther on in the church the 'Bust of 
the Procurator Marcantonio Grimam (d. 1565), by t'ittorio ; 2nd altar, 
Baptism of Christ, by Paolo; ceiling-paintings also by Paolo, aided by 
his brother Benedetto Caliari. Beautiful festoons. 

In the vicinity is the Campo di Marte, or esplanade (PI. B, 4), 
a large grassy island surrounded witli trees, and affording a plea- 
sant evening walk. 

At the S.E. extremity of Venice (Punta delta Motta) are the 
Giardini Pubblici [PI. I, 5), laid out by Napoleon in 1807, the 
space having been obtained by the demolition of several monas- 
teries. They are about 300 yds. in length and 100 yds. in width, 
and are planted with six rows of acacias and sycamores. At the 
S. end is a small shrubbery, with a poor cafe". The grounds, 
which are generally almost deserted , afford line views of the city 
and Lagune. On Sundays and Mondays they are much frequented, 
chiefly by women of the lower classes [gondola thither from the 
Piazzetta 50 c.J. They are approached by the Via Nuova del 
Giardini, or Garibaldi [formerly Euyenid), constructed in 1810 by 
Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of Italy, by bridging over a canal. 

S. Pietro di Castello [PI. 27J, a church with a dome, on the 
island to the N. of the Giardini Pubblici, begun by Smeraldi in 
1596, is said to have been designed by Palladio in 1557. Down 
to 1807 it was the cathedral of the Patriarch of Venice, when St. 

232 Route 38. VENICE. Murano. 

Mark's was raised to that dignity by Napoleon I., and the adjoining 
palace converted into a barrack. 

The Interior contains few objects of interest. In the chapel of the 
1. transept are two reliefs in marble, executed by Mich. Ongaro in the 
17th cent., representing the consecration by Pope Paul V. of the Patriarch 
Vcndramin as cardinal, and an allegory of death. To the r. beyond the 
second altar is a marble throne from Antioch, said to be that of St. 

The adjacent handsome and lofty Campanile dates from 1474. 

S. Lazzaro, the Armenian Mechitarist monastery on the island 
of that name, 2 M. to the S.E. of Venice, possesses a valuable 
Oriental library and a large printing-office. 

An excursion to the Lido ( >/? h r - fr° m the Piazzetta ; steamer 
and baths in summer, see p. 191) will enable the traveller to form 
an accurate idea of the topography of Venice and the surrounding 
islands, and should be combined with a visit to S. Pietro in Castello 
and S. Lazzaro (see above). A second rower is recommended for 
this trip, one being insufficient in case of the wind rising. 

Murano lies on an island about W\i M. N. of Venice. The route to 
it. passes the Cemetery Island (Cimilero) , with the church of S. Mi- 
cliele, built by Moro Lombardo in 1466. — The *Cathedral (8. Donato), 
a vaulted church supported by columns, with transept resting on pillars, 
almost vies with St. Mark's in the splendour of its interior, its columns 
of Greek marble, mosaics, etc. An inscription on a marble slab inserted 
in the mosaic pavement of the church bears the date 1111. Over the 
side-door on the r. a Madonna with saints, by Lazzaro ftebastiani. — S. 
Pietro e Paolo is a simple and spacious basilica of 1509. Xear the door 
of the sacristy, to the 1., is an Assumption by Marco Basaili , in bad 
preservation, and a Madonna with saints and angels, by Qiov. Bellini 
(between the 2nd and 3rd altars on the r.). — Murano (4000 inhab.) 
possesses an extensive manufactory of glass beads, mosaics in glass, 
crystal, etc. The Mukeo (adm. 40 c.) contains a good collection of these 

Torcello, situated on an island about. 6 M. to the K. E. of Venice, the 
ancient Altinvm , belonging to the town of Burano on a neighbouring 
island (6000 inhab.), is a poor place, consisting of a few small houses 
only and two well-preserved churches. The *Cathedral (S. Marin), 
erected in the 7th cent., restored in 1008, is a basilica in the early 
Christian style, supported by columns resembling those of Murano. The 
principal object of interest, is the ancient, arrangement, of the semicircular 
seats of the priests on the tribuna, rising in steps and commanded by the 
lofty episcopal throne in the centre. On the W. wall of the interior is a 
large *Mosaic of the 12th cent., representing the Sacrifice of Christ, the 
Resurrection, Last Judgment, etc., recently restored. In the choir a 
Madonna and the 12 Apostles in Byzantine mosaic. An octagonal Baptis- 
tery of 100S adjoins the cathedral. — *S. Fosoa , dating in its present 
form from the 12th cent., is externally octagonal (interior intended for a 
dome, but at present, covered with a flat roof). On five sides it. is enclosed 
by an arcade supported by columns (sixteen in number, and four corner- 
pillars), a structure worthy of the notice of architects. 

Chioggia, 30 M. to the S., an ancient town (26,700 inhab.) at, the end 
of the lagoons, w;\s founded about the same period as Venice by which 
it was soon conquered. During the war with Genoa it was taken by the 
Genoese (1379), but recovered by the Venetians the following year (comp. 
p. 201). The inhabitants have always differed materially in language and 
customs from the other inhabitants of the lagoon-districts. None of the 
churches are worthy of note. The Mvrani (p. 203) are most conveniently 
inspected in the course of an excursion to Chioggia (by steamer of the 
Austr. Lloyd in 2 hrs., p. 199; also pleasure-trips occasionally). 


39. From Venice to Trieste. 

a. By Land, via TJdine. 

134 M. Railway in 10 hrs. (fares 25 fr. 80,ri9 fr. 35, 12 fr. 90 c). 
Austrian custom-house at Cormons. The fare for the Austrian part of the 
journey must he paid in gold. A supply of change is desirable, as cases 
of dishonesty are not unfrequent at the Venice station. 

Bridge across the Lagune, and Fort Malghera, see p. 185. At 
Mestre the line diverges N. from that to Padua. Stations Mogliano, 
Preganziolo ; then 

18 M. Treviso (Stella d'oro; Posta; Aquila; Quattro Corone), 
with 22,000 inhab. , capital of an episcopal diocese. The handsome, 
hut unfinished old cathedral of S. Pietro contains pictures hy Titian 
and Paris Bordone. The Gothic church of S. Niccolb contains pictures 
by Bellini, Paris Bordone, and the Madonna enthroned with saints 
as an altar-piece by Fra Marco Pensabene', commonly attributed 
to Seb. del Piombo. The Town Hall and Theatre are fine edifices. 
The Monte di Pieth (pawn-office) contains a good Entombment by 
Giorgione. The Villa Manfrini possesses extensive gardens. The 
French Marshal Mortier was styled Duke of Treviso. (Route to 
Trent through the Val Sugana, see R. 8. ) 

Stat. Lancenigo. Beyond stat. Spresiano the train crosses the 
Piave and approaches the mountains, which it skirts as far as 
Sacile. The lofty Friaul Mts. continue in sight as far as Monfal- 
eone on the Carso. Stat. Piave. 

17 M. Conegliano (*Posta), birthplace of the celebrated painter 
Lima {A. 1517), surnamed da Conegliano, is commanded by an 
extensive and conspicuous castle on an eminence. The French 
Marshal Moncey bore the title of Duke of Conegliano. 

Fkom Conegliano to Belluno a road leads to the K., via Ceneda, 
S. Croce, and Capo di Ponte (diligence once dailv in 6 hrs.). 

Belluno (1365 ft.) (*Due Torri, R. 1 fr. 60, A. 50 c), capital of a 
province, with 14,600 inhab., situated on a hill between the Ardo and the 
Piave, which here unite, presents all the features of a Venetian town. 
The Cathedral, erected by Palladio, is'the'finest of its fourteen churches. It 
contains several good altar-pieces and an ancient sarcophagus. The massive 
campanile, 216 ft. in height, commands a beautiful prospect. An old 
sarcophagus of some artistic merit adorns the small Piazza in front of the 
church of S. Stefano. The triumphal arch outside the gate, completed in 
1815 and dedicated to the Emp. Francis, was probably originally intended, 
like that at Milan, as a monument, in honour of Napoleon. 

Stat. Pianzano. Stat. Sacile, a town on the Livenza, sur- 
rounded by walls and fosses, with a handsome palace of the Podesta, 
exhibits trace of its ancient importance. Stat. Pordenone, probably 
the Portus Naonis of the Romans, was the birthplace of the painter 
Giov. Ant. Licinio da Pordenone (d. 1540). The cathedral con- 
tains a St. Christopher by him. 

Beyond stat. Casarsa, the train crosses the broad channel of 
the Tagliamento hy an iron bridge, '/ 2 M. in length. The stony 
deposits of the stream have raised its bed so considerably that the 
next stat. Codroipo (Imperatore), situated between the Tagliamento 

234 Route 39. UDINE. From Venice 

and the Corno, lies 28 ft. below the level of the bottom of the 
former river. 

To the r. lies Passeriano, at the chateau of which the pre- 
liminaries of peace between France and Austria were adjusted, 
the treaty being finally concluded on 17th Oct., 1797, at the 
small village of Campo Formio, also situated to the r. of the line. 
By this treaty the Republic of Venice was dissolved. An in- 
significant house where the plenipotentiaries met is still shown. 
Stat. Pasian Schiavonesco. The next important station is 

49 M. Udine (Italia; Stella; Croce di Malta), an ancient 
town with 25,000 inhab., formerly the capital of the Austrian 
province of Friaul, and a place of great importance, surrounded by 
walls of considerable antiquity. In the centre is the old town, 
with walls and fosses. Above it rises the castle, on an eminence, 
which according to tradition was artificially thrown up by Attila, 
in order that he might thence survey the conflagration of Aquileia 
(p. 235). 

Udine may in some respects be termed a miniature Venice, 
as it presents several points of resemblance to the metropolis to 
which it was so long subject. It possesses a town -hall (Palazzo 
Pubblicojoi 1457, resembling the palace of the doges, two columns 
like those of the Piazzetta of Venice, and a campanile with two 
figures which strike the hours. The Romanesque Cathedral 
contains a few interesting pictures, and some fine sculpturing in 
wood and stone. In the Episcopal Palace a ceiling-painting by 
Giovanni da Udine. The Castle, now a prison, commands an 
extensive survey of Friaul. 

Cividale, the ancient Forum Julii, interesting on account of its numer- 
ous Roman antiquities, lies 9 M. to the E. of Udine. 

The train now turns towards the S.E., and at Buttrio crosses 
the Torre by a long bridge, then the Natisone beyond stat. S. 
Giovanni Manzano, the Italian frontier-station (where the luggage 
of travellers coming from Austria is examined). The small Indrio 
forms the frontier. Stat. Cormons (Austrian custom-house), 
beyond which the Isonzo is crossed. 

18 M. Gorizia, Germ. Giirz (Tre Corone ; Trieste; Rail. 
Restaurant) is charmingly situated on the Isonzo in a hilly district 
(13,300 inhab.). Cathedral worthy of notice. In the upper part 
of the town is the dilapidated castle of the former counts of the 
place, partly used as a prison. The preserved fruit of Gorizia is 
highly esteemed; the best is sold by Uedaelli. 

Charles X. of France (d. 1836 ) is interred in the chapel of 
the monastery of Castaynovizza, on a height above the town. In 
the vicinity rises the Monte Santo, with a pilgrimage-church 
commanding a line view. 

The train traverses the broad and beautiful valley of the Isonzo 
and at first runs towards the S.W., skirting the sterile Carso and 

to Trieste. AQUILEIA. 39. Route. 235 

the fertile plain on the 1. bank of the Isonzo. The Wipbacfi, a 
tributary of the Isonzo, is crossed. To the }. of stat. Rubbio is the 
chateau of that name. Fine view of the Alps, beyond the Isonzo. 
Stat. Sagrado. Orudisea with its church lies on a height to the left. 
The train now turns towards the S.E. ; stat. Ronchi. 

To the E. of stat. Monfalcone (Leone d'Oro), the train enters 
the stony wilderness of the Carso, and the Adriatic comes in sight 
on the left. Thus far the Venetian style of church-architecture 
is prevalent throughout the coast-district, the slender campanile 
being always separate from the church as in the case of St. Mark's. 

Aquileia, 18 31. to the W., once a most important Roman colony, and 
at that period strongly fortified, was the principal bulwark of Italy on the 
N. E. frontier. The population at the time of Augustus, who frequently 
visited the town , is computed to have been 100,000. It was then the 
great centre of the traffic between Italy and the N. and E. of Europe, 
and supplied the inhabitants of Illyria and Pannonia with grain, oil, and 
wine, in return for slaves and cattle. The incursions of the Romans into 
these districts were always undertaken from this point. In 452 Attila, 
exasperated by the obstinate resistance he encountered here, caused the 
city to be plundered and destroyed. The sole trace of its ancient glory 
is the Cathedral, erected in 1019 — 42, once the metropolitan church of the 
patriarchs of Aquileia. The place is now a poor village with 500 inhab., 
but interesting on account of the valuable antiquities frequently found in 
the neighbourhood. The collections in the Battislero adjoining the cathe- 
dral, of Count Oassis, and the apothecary Zantonati, may be visited. 
In 1862 a large Caslellum Aqme was discovered between Monaslero and 
Aquileia. One of the principal curiosities is a line mosaic, with the Rape 
of Europa. 

At S. Giovanni the Timavo, the Timavus of the Romans, which 
under the name of Recca (on Kjeka, i. e. river) is lost in the 
grottoes of the Carso near St. Canzian, re-appears after a subter- 
ranean course of 23 M. and falls into the Adriatic l'/j M. lower 
down. A pond formed by the river is crossed by a bridge. Farther 
on is Duino, with an ancient castle of Prince Hohenlohe. 

At Nabresina the line unites with the Vienna and Trieste 
Railway, and the train runs back a short way on the line just 
traversed. From this point to Trieste, see p. 68. 

3'i l /-> M. Trieste, and excursions to Rola and Fiume, see R. 9. 

b. Sea Voyage to Trieste. 

Steamboat three times a week, corresponding with the express train 
to Vienna, usually starting at midnight, and reaching Trieste next 
morning; fare 9 or (i'|2 fl. ; return-ticket, available for a fortnight, 13 or 
10 fl. — Gondolas, etc., see p. 198. 

The steamer starts from the Canal S. Marco, opposite the 
Piazzetta, passes the Qiardini Pubblici (p. 231 J, the small island 
of S. Elena, and the fortified island of S. Andrea del Lido, which 
commands the entrance to the harbour of the Lido [p. 232). The 
navigable channel is indicated by stakes. Beautiful retrospect of 
Venice on moonlight nights. As Trieste is approached, a view is 
obtained of the distant, snow-clad Julian Alps, the light-house of 
Salvore, Pirano, the coast of Istria to the S. E., and Capo d'Istria 
in a bay, and finally of the charmingly situated city of Trieste itself. 


40. From Milan to Bologna. 

135 M. Railway in 53| 4 — 7 hrs. ; fares 24 fr. 70, 19 fr. 15, 14 fr. 15 c. 

At stat. Rogoredo the line to Pavia diverges to the r. (S.). 
Stat. Melegnano, formerly Marignano, is a memorable place in the 
annals of mediaeval and modern warfare. Here, on 15th Sept., 
1515, Francis I. of France, in his campaign against Milan, defeated 
the Swiss allies of the city, 15,000 of whom fell in the action. In 
the environs, and especially in the town itself, a sanguinary 
conflict took place between the French and the Austrians, on 7th 
June, 1859, in consequence of which the latter were compelled to 
retreat. Stat. Tavazzano. Innumerable cuttings for purposes of 
irrigation and drainage here intersect the plain. 

20V2 M. Lodi (Sole; Europa; Tre Re), a town with 18,150 
inhab., 4V-2 M. E. of which lies Lodi Vecchio, the ancient Roman 
colony of Laus Pompeia, was one of the bitterest enemies of Milan 
in the middle ages. It is celebrated as the scene of Napoleon's 
storming of the bridge over the Adda, 10th May, 1796. Excellent 
Parmesan cheese (p. 239) is made in the neighbourhood. The 
Cathedral contains an ancient relief of the Last Supper. The 
Renaissance church of *Incoronata, erected by Bramante in 1476, 
is adorned with frescoes by Calisto Piazza da Lodi, a pupil of 

Stations Secugnago, Casalpusterlengo, Codogno. 

From CasalpusterJengo and Codogno branch-line to Pavia, s«e p. 162, 
to Cremona, p. 162; comp. R. 29. 

Stations <S. Stefano and 

22'/ 2 M. Piacenza {p. 82), where carriages are frequently 

The railway to Bologna now follows the direction of the Via 
Emilia, a Roman road constructed by the consul M. jEmilius 
Lepidus, B. C. 187, and named after him. This great route led 
hence to Parma, Reggio, Modena, Bologna, Forli, and Rimini 
(Ariminum) on the Adriatic, from which the other consul C. Fla- 
minius Nepos simultaneously constructed the Via Flaminia through 
Umbria and Etruria to Rome. These roads are still traceable in 
many places, especially as most of the modern routes in Italy 
follow the same direction as the ancient. 

The train passes S. Lazaro, an ecclesiastical seminary greatly 
enriched in the 18th cent, by the eminent Cardinal Alberoni, who 
was born at Fiorenzuola in 1664 fd. 1752). The church contains 
his tomb and pictures by Procacrini, Zucchero, etc. 

Near stat. Ponte Nure the Nure is crossed. The train passes 
Fontana Fredda, where Theodoric the Great and the Lombard 
kings once possessed a country-residence. The Arda is now 
crossed, and stat. Fiorenzuola reached, a small but thriving place, 
whence a visit may be paid (rough road via Castel Arquato) to the 
ruins of Velleia (p. 83). 

REGGIQ. 40. Route. 237 

Stat. Alseno. Then the small town of (22^2 M.J Borgo San 
Donnino (Croce Bianca; Angelo), the ancient Fidentia Julia, 
which received its present name in 387 from St. Dominicus, who had 
suffered martyrdom about a century earlier, under Maximian, and 
to whom the ancient *Cathedral is dedicated. This church is one 
of the finest in N. Italy ; the admirable facade (the upper 
part unfinished) has three lion portals in the Lombard style ; 
and the interior with its round-arch arcades is of symmetrical 
proportions. Next stat. Castelguelfo , with the Torre d'Orlando, 
a ruined castle erected by the Ghibelline Orlando Pallavicino 
about 1407, for protection against the Guelph Ottone Terzi of 
Parma. The line crosses the river Taro by a bridge of twenty arches, 
constructed in 1816 — 21 (underDuchess Marie Louise, ex-Empress 
of the French), whence a charming view is obtained of the chain of 
the Apennines. The costumes of the peasant-women here are 

14 M. Parma, see p. 239. 

8. Mario is the only station between Parma and Reggio ; be- 
fore it is reached the train crosses the Enza, formerly the boun- 
dary between the duchies of Parma and Modena. The train crosses 
the Crostolo, and next reaches 

17y 2 M. Reggio neW Emilia { Posta, in the principal street ; 
Cavaletto, near the Piazza ; Cafft Aoanzi and della Posta ; cab per 
drive 80 c, per hour l'/ 2 fr-> at night 1 and 2 fr. respectively), 
the ancient Rhegium Lepidi, a town with broad, well-built streets 
with arcades (21,000 inhab.). The house in which the poet 
Lodovico Ariosto (d. 1533) was born in 1474, near the Palazzo del 
Comune, is still shown. In the Piazza is situated the *Cathedral, 
erected in the 15th cent., with Renaissance facade, completed only 
in the lower part, in which interesting traces of the earlier Roman- 
esque church of the 12th cent, are still observable. At the 
principal entrance are colossal statues of Adam and Eve by Cle- 
menti of Reggio (d. 1584), a pupil of Michael Angelo. The other 
statues on the facade are by his pupils. The interior, which has 
a lofty choir and a crypt, contains several statues and monuments 
by the same master, the finest being the monument of *Ugo 
Rangoni, Bishop of Reggio, and nuncio of Paul III. at the court of 
Charles V. (in the chapel to the r. of the choir) ; the monument of 
Horatius Malegutius is also attributed to him. In the 1st chapel 
on the 1. is the tomb of Clementi with his bust by his pupil 
Bacchione (1588). At the entrance to the Municipio is a marble 
bust of General Cialdini, who was born here. — Proceeding to the 
r. past the Municipio, and following a broad street to the r., we next 
reach the church of the * Madonna della Ghiara, built in 1596 from a 
design by Balbi, in the form of a Greek cross covered with a dome, 
and consecrated in 1599. It is adorned with frescoes in the nave 
as far as the dome and in the N. aisle by Luca Ferrari (1605 — 54) 

"2^8 Route -JO. CANOSSA. 

of Reggio, a pupil of Guide K'lii. 'Hie altar in the latter, presented 
by the town in 16'Jl, lias an altar-piece by Quercino. The frescoes 
in the choir are by Tinrini of Bologna of the school of Caracci ; the 
Annunciation at the back of the high altar is by Carlo Caliari 
(brother of Paolo Veronese), and the frescoes in the S. transept by 
Lionello Spada and others. — 8. Prospero (reached by passing 
through the arches to the r. of the cathedral") was entirely re- 
erected in 1504 by Gasparo Bisi on the site of an earlier Lombard 
edifice, to which the six marble lions of the facade originally 
belonged. The choir contains damaged frescoes by Campi and 
Procaccini, and pictures by Tiarini. — The Madonna della Con- 
cezione is a handsome modern church in the main street adjoining 
the theatre, and near the railway-station. The Theatre, the chief 
boast of Reggio . is a remarkably fine edifice for so small a town. 
— Reggio also possesses a Lihrary and a Museum, containing the 
natural history collection of the celebrated Spallanzani, born at 
Reggio in 1729 (d. 1799). 

Diligence from Reggio to Mantim (p. 180) daily in 7 hrs. (fare 6 fr.). 

At Scandiano, 7 M. to the S.E. (if Reggio, is the chateau of the 
Bojardi, afterwards Hi at. of Hie Bentivngli. 

Correggio, 31. to the N.E. of Reggio, formerly the capital (if a 
principality belonging to the Duchy of Slodena , was the birthplace, (in 
1494) of the celebrated painter Antonio AUegri da Correggio. Old copies 
of his two earliest works are preserved here. 

Excursion to Canossa, 8 hrs. there and hack ; carriages at the 'stabili- 
mento di vetture'' at Reggio near the Albergo della Posta (with one horse 
15, with two horses 20—25 fr.). The mule is by the road to Massa (p. 291), 
traversing a fertile and picturesque plain, enclosed by hills which at. first. 
;ire sprinkled with villas, and leading by Pajanello 'and Vezztwo (on the 
hills to the r. lies QnnttrocasteWi '■ , with the ruins of four castles which 
once belonged to the Countess JIatilda of Tuscany, d. 1115) to the small 
village of Pecorile (tavern). The route beyond this point must be continued 
on horseback or on foot. The path cannot, be mistaken. It leads through 
the village, and then to the r. towards the church of Casola , which is 
left tin the hill to the r. ; at the corner of the hill Canossa conies in sight, 
and the path leads in the direction of the village along the dreary bed of 
the Crtmpola. The walk to the foot, of the castle hill occupies 1 hr. ; then 
ascend for i|j hr. in the direction of the church of S. Paolo which lies 
three-quarters of the way up the hill, follow a level path round the 
castle-rock and at. the back of the small village of C'otwtsa (poor tavern), 
and finally mount, to the summit of the rock , which is crowned by the 
scanty, ivy-clad ruins of the castle of Canossa. The castle once belonged 
to the Countess of Tuscany above mentioned, and was afterwards destroyed 
by the inhabitants of Reggio in 1255. The Emp. Henry IV. performed 
penance here in presence of Pope Gregory VII. during three days in 1077. 
The castle-well contains good water. Magnificent, view of the Apennines 
towards the S., with the well preserved castle of Rossena in the foreground 
and of the vast plain jof the Po towards the N., with Parma Rezeio' 
and Modena. ' eb ' 

A little beyond Reggio the railway passes .*?. Mnurizio where 
Ariosto frequently resided at the house of the Maleguzzi. Bubiera 
with a castle of the I'.ojardi, is the only station between Reggio 
:iiiil .Modena. The "ccchiu is then crossed. 

15 M. Modena, . " \i. 4'2. 

The train continues to follow the direction of the Via /Emilia 



\ CaUedrala- 


2. Battisterio . 


3. S. A l&ssanAro 

. $.3. 

(t S. Andrea, . 




6. S. Antonio 


I. (appiitcuu. ( nuooej 


O. S. (ristina. 


9. S. Francesco del Traio . 


10. S. Giovanni F,vanqt>UsUi 


W.Madonna delta Sttccata 




13. S. Paolo tora S. Ludvvico i 

. r.z 

VSt S. Sepolcro 

. E*. 

15. S. Tamnutso 


16 SS Trmiia i peedua.) 

F. 2. 




18.^. Jfucale ( Tarnese.) 


19. " del Giardino 


20 " del Gooerno 


21 " dellti Podesteruv 


Islituti pxibljlici 

TLAccademia. Jelle BelUArU J).I.2.| 



'Vk.CoTUaio LahUlu- t ora Maria 



25.foiufreaa*u>ne delle CarittL 


26.0rk> Botanico 

2 1*. Semintwio 

28. Tipoara/ui-B odoni 

29 ViuversUa. 

30. Teatfo J?arnes&- 
31 < »2Ttu>vo 

yiPosttv deUo Lettere- 
33. ' rf«* Caoalli 

J. 6. 






PARMA. 41. Route. 239 

(p. 236) and crosses the Panaro near S. Ambrogio. Stat. C'astel- 
franco, a small town, supposed to be the Forum Gallorum where 
Antony was defeated by Octavian and Hirtius, B. C. 43. Near 
stations Samoggia and Lavino the train crosses the rivers of these 
names, and then the narrow Reno, the ancient Rhenus, or Amnis 
Bononienxis. As Bologna is approached the country is open and 
richly clothed with vegetation ; the Monte delta Guardia (p. 258) 
is a conspicuous point; and to the r. rises the tower of the Certosa 
(p. 258) with the Campo Santo. The approach to Bologna is 
remarkably picturesque. 

23 M. Bologna (*Rail. Restaurant), see R. 43. 

41. Parma. 

Hotels. At.bergo della Posta , in the principal street , adjacent to 
the post-office, R. l'|2, L. 1 |2, A. l \z, ' omnibus 3 [4 fr. ; Concordia; Leone 
d'oro; Italia, in the narrow Via S. Lucia, near the cathedral, with 
restaurant, R. l l \-z, L. and A. 1 fr. ; Pavone ; Croce Bianca. 

Restaurants. * Italia (see above), entrance from the side-street; Cafi 
Cavotrr, Via S. Lucia. 

Cab to or from the station 1 fr., two-horse 1 fr. 60 c. ; at night l'|» 
or 2 fr. ; per hour 1 fr. 60 c. or 2 fr. ; omnibus 40 or 50 c, trunk 20 c. 

' Parmesan Cheese" (Parmeggiano), here termed Grana, is a misnomer, 
as it is manufactured in Lombardy, in the district between the Ticino, 
Po, and Adda, and not in the neighbourhood of Parma. The most, esteemed 
quality is produced at Gorgonzola, between Milan and Bergamo, about. 2'|4 
31. N. of rail. stat. Melzo (p. 156). 

Parma, situated on the river Parma, a town of entirely modem 
appearance, but of very ancient origin, was founded by the 
Etruscans, conquered by the Romans, and in B. C. 183 constituted 
a Roman colony at the same time with Mutina (Modena). It was 
subsequently extended by Augustus, andtermed Colonia Julia Au- 
gusta Parma. In the middle ages it adhered to the Guelphs, 
in 1245 it was besieged by Emp. Frederick II., and was afterwards 
the scene of a succession of fierce struggles between the rival Vis- 
conti, Scaligers (p. 173), Terzi, etc. In 1545 it became the seat 
of princes of the house of Farnese, who were Dukes of Parma and 
Modena, and in 1731 it was annexed to the dominions of Spain. 
In 1815 it became the capital of the Duchy of Parma under Marie 
Louise, ex-Empress of the French fd. 1847), and she was succeeded 
by Duke Charles II. who was banished in 1848. Charles III. was 
assassinated in 1854, and in 1859 his widow was superseded 
by the new Kingdom of Italy. 

Parma, the capital of an episcopal diocese, with 47,067 inhab., 
possesses an university, many spacious, neglected looking buildings, 
and broad streets. The ancient Via /Emilia (p. 236) ititersects 
the town, from the Porta 8. Michele to the Porta S. Croce, crossing 
the 1 *Piazza. Grande with the Palazzo del Comune, or del Governo 
(PI. 20), whence two streets to the r. lead to the Piazza del 
Duomo. The 

240 Route 41. PARMA. 


"Cathedral (PL 1), an admirable example of the Lombard- 
Romanesque style, begun in 1117, but not completed till the 13th 
cent., is a cruciform structure surmounted by a dome, with 
somewhat raised choir above a crypt, and a broad facade with a 
triple columnar gallery. The three portals are embellished with 
two huge lions and four of smaller size, executed in 1281 by Bono 
da Bisone, and sculptures by Bianchino, 1493. 

The Interior, consisting of nave and aisles, rests on fourteen articulat- 
ed pillars, above which runs a fine triforium. The vaulting of the nave 
was painted by Girolamo Mazzola. 3rd chapel on the r., a Descent from 
the Cross in relief by Benedetto Antelami (1178); 4th chapel r., frescoes of 
the 15th cent.; 5th chapel r., frescoes by Rondani, a pupil of Correggio. 
To the r. of the steps to the choir is the Cappella S. Agata with an altar-- 
piece by Gatti, and on the r. a bust of Petrarch, who was archdean of the 
cathedral, a work of 1713. The octagonal Dome is adorned with an 
f Assumption by Correggio (p. 238), to whom Parma is chiefly indebted 
for its importance in the history of art ; this was one of the last (1526—30) 
great works of the master, but has ^unfortunately been much injured by 
damp. The figures and groups of angels are especially admired. Noon is 
the best hour for inspecting the painting. Persons not liable to dizziness 
may ascend into the dome to examine the painting more closely, but no 
great advantage is thus gained. (Copies in the picture-gallery, see p. 242.) 
To the r. above the tribune are portraits of Correggio and his family. In 
the Choir, David and St. Cecilia, by Camillo Procaccini, and good half 
Gothic stalls by Cristoforo Leudenari (1473). — The Ckypt, a spacious 
cruciform structure with thirty-eight columns, contains monuments of 
the (r.) Canon Montini (1507), the jurist Prati farther on, by Clementi (1542), 
and of Bernardo degli Uberti. Principal altar also by Clementi. 5th Chapel 
to the 1. of the entrance , frescoes of the 14th cent., on the 1. St. Peter, 
on the r. SS. Sebastian and Catharine. The sacristy also contains frescoes 
of the same period, and intarsias by Lucchino Bianco. — In the 3rd chapel 
from the altar a Descent from the Cross , a relief by Benedetto Antelami, 
1178. The Cap. S. Agata, the first beyond the side-entrance, contains a 
monument (1713) to the memory of Petrarch, who was archdeacon of the 
cathedral (see above). 

The *Baptistery (PI. 2), constructed of white marble darkened 
by age, externally octagonal, with four round-arched portals, and 
consisting of six storeys with colonnades, was designed by Benedetto 
Antelitmi, and erected in 1196 — 1270. Around nearly the whole 
building runs a series of medallions, representing various animals 
of symbolical import. The portals are adorned with scriptural 
subjects, the finest being the Last Judgment on the W. portal. 
All these sculptures are probably by Antelami. The flat roof is 
surmounted by eight turrets. 

The Intekiok (closed; key in the house opposite the S. entrance) is 
sixteen-sided, with niches below and two galleries above, and graceful 
columns on the walls. The sculptures have only been partly completed. 
The old frescoes in the dome (13th— 14th cent.) represent the history of John 
the Baptist, with a number of saints below. The whole population of 
Parma since 1210 is said to have been baptized here. The font dates 
from 1294. Altar-piece by Filippo Mazzola (15th cent!). 

At the back of the cathedral is situated the church of 

*S. Giovanni Evangelista (PL 10J, belonging to an ancient 

Benedictine monastery, which has been recently restored. This 

Palazzo Farnese. PARMA. 41. Route. 241 

elegant cruciform structure, covered with a dome, with aisles and 
two series of chapels, was erected in 1510 by Bernardino Zaccagni. 
Interior. In the two first chapels on the 1., ^frescoes by Parmeggia- 
nino (SS. Lucia and Apollonia, two deacons, S. Giorgio and S. Agata); in 
the 1st chapel on the r., a handsome monument of the Countess San- 
vitale-Montenuovo ; in the 2nd a Nativity, by Giacomo Francia, 1519. The 
sombre Dome is adorned with *frescoes by Correggio, representing Christ 
in glory, surrounded by apostles and angels, painted in 1520—24 (the best 
time to see them is at noon or 4 p. m. ; copies in the picture-gallery, see 
p. 242). The half-dome of the Choir containing a Coronalion of Mary by 
Correggio was removed in 1584 (the original of the principal group is in 
the Library, p. 242; copies of other parts of this great composition by Ann. 
and Ag. Caracci are in the picture-gallery, see p. 242). The new dome 
of the choir was adorned with a copy of the complete work by Cesare 
Aretusi. The handsome choir-stalls are by Zucchi and Testa. In the 
archway of the door of the sacristy (N. transept) *S. Giovanni by Correg- 
gio. The picturesque monastery-courts (to the 1. of the church) are not 
now accessible. Among the guests who have been entertained in the 
monastery were King Charles Emmanuel, when a fugitive in 1798, Pope 
Pius VI. as a prisoner of the French in 1799, and Pope Pius VII. in 1805. 

The *Madonna della Steccata (PI. 11), an imitation of St. 
Peter's (a Greek cross with rounded ends), designed by Bernardino 
Zaccugni in 1521, is situated in the street leading from the princi- 
pal piazza to the (formerly) ducal palace. It is adorned with 
frescoes by Anselmi and Parmeyyianino on the archway of the choir, 
and contains monuments of Bertrando Rossi (corner-chapel on the 
r., 1527), Guido da Correggio (corner-chapel to the r. of the choir, 
by Oiov. Franc, da Grado), Count Neipperg, second husband of 
the empress Marie Louise of France, by Bartolini (in the S. 
transept, 1829), Ottavio Farnese, and Sforzino Sforza (corner- 
chapel to the 1. of the choir, by Orado, 1529). In the corner- 
chapel to the 1. of the entrance, a *Madonna of the school of Maz- 
zola (before the time of Correggio). 

In the Piazza di Corte is the Palazzo Ducale (PI. 18), contain- 
ing a collection of French pictures by David, Gerard, Le Gros, etc. 

To the N. E. of the Palazzo Ducale, which is passed on the 1., ' 
is the *Palazzo Farnese, containing a very valuable collection of 
antiquities and pictures, as well as a considerable library (cross the 
court and ascend a broad flight of steps to the 1); open daily 9 — 4, 
and on festivals 10 — 2 o'clock. 

On the half-storey is the Museo di Antichita , containing Roman anti- 
quities, chiefly from Velleia (p. 83). 1st Room : Vases (Peleus and Thetis, 
Bellerophon and the Chimera, *Theft of the tripod), in the centre a 
mosaic representing a gladiator. — 2nd R. : Bronzes : Apollo •, Bacchus ; 
head of a child; Hadrian in gilded bronze; *■ drunken Hercules, a marble 
statuette; the Tabula Alimentaria of Trajan, containing directions for the 
maintenance of poor children. — 3rd R. : Vases and crystal. — 4th R. : 
opposite the entrance, a good torso of a youth; Zeus; four draped female 
statues; torso in basalt; Livia (all these from Velleia); bust of Marie 
Louise by Canova. Finally a collection of coins, containing well-preserved 
gold coins and trinkets of the later Empire. A corridor to the 1. of the 
3rd room contains a few Egyptian antiquities. It also leads to the — 
5th R. : containing a valuable collection of relics of the prehistoric flint 
and bronze periods. To the r. is the — 6th R. : architectural fragments 
from the excavations in the ancient theatre of Parma. A stair from the 

Bmdekrr. Italv I. 3rd Edit. 16 

242 Route 41. PARMA. Conv. S. Paolo. 

1st room leads to an apartment containing Roman inscriptions, arranged 
in accordance with the places where they were found. 

The ^Picture Gallery is on the first floor. The 1st Room contains 
nothing worthy of note. — 2nd R. : (1.) the celebrated * Madonna della 
Scala (formerly in the church della Scala) by Correggio, unfortunately 
much damaged; pictures by Parmesan masters before Correggio (e. g. 
Pierilario Mazzola, Madonna wilh saints; Araldi, Annuncialion), ajid others 
after Correggio (e. g. Girolamo Mazzola, Holy Family; Francesco Mazzola, 
surnamed Parmeggianino , Nuptials of the Virgin ; copy of the Madonna 

del Collo Lungo in the Pitti Palace; others by Anselmi, Rondani, etc.). 

The door opposite the entrance leads to two rooms containing works of 
the 14th and 15th cent.; beyond them is the — 5th R., which with the 
following room contains the best pictures in the collection: *Christ in 
glory, with the Madonna, SS. John, Paul, and Catharine, by Giulio 
Romano, after a sketch by Raphael, in the Louvre; Murillo, Job; * Van 
Dt/ck, Portrait; Van der Heist, Portrait; Garofalo , Madonna among 
clonds. — 6th R. : Correggio, 'Descent from the Cross, and Martyrdom of 
Placidus and Flavia; Fr. Francia (!), Madonna; %Cima da Conegliano, 
two Madonnas; Holbein, Portrait of Erasmus; Head by Leon, da Vinci. — 
The adjoining corridor contains water-colour ^copies of the works of 
Correggio and his pupils by the talented engraver Toschi (d. 18541. — 
7th K.: * Correggio, Madonna di S. Girolamo. — 8th R. : Toschi, Drawings 
after Correggio; bust of Toschi. — 9th R. : * Correggio, Madonna della 
Scodella. — 10th R. : Portraits. — 11th R. : Landscapes. — 12lh (circular) 
R. : Works by modern artists ; two colossal statues of Hercules and Bacchus 
in basalt, found in the imperial palaces at Rome. — 13th R. : Over the 
entrance, on the r. and 1., and also at the farlher end of the room, ^copies 
of Correggio's Coronation of Mary (in S. Giovanni, p. 241) by Annibale 
and Agostino Caracci ; Twelve Apostles by Spagnoletlo. To the r., farther 
on: Fr. Frrmcia, Descent from the Cross, and Enthroned Madonna, 1515; 
Lod. Caracci, Entombment of JIary; Titian, Christ bearing the Cross; Fru 
Paolo da Pisloja, Adoration of the Magi; *Giov. Bellini, Christ as a boy 
with the Scriptures ; 1. Tintoretto, Entombment ; Tiepolo, Heresy conquered 
by Religion; Annib. Caracci, Descent from the Cross; Giovanni da S. 
Giovanni, A merry party. Statue of Marie Louise in a sitting posture, in 
marble, by Canova. The door to the 1. at the upper end of the room 
leads to the studio of Toschi (see above), which contains admirable 
engravings from Correggio, Raphael, etc. 

The door opposite the picture-gallery in the same storey leads to the 
> Library (PI. 23), containing 80,000 vols, and 4000 MSS.; several of the 
latter are of Oriental origin, amongst them the Koran which the Emp. 
Leopold I. found in 1683 in the lent of the grand vizier Cara Mustapha 
after the raising of the siege of Vienna ; the 'livre d'heures' (prayer- 
book) of Henry II.; a Dante written by Petrarch in 1370; the original 
fresco of Correggio' s Coronation of Mary from S. Giovanni (p. 241); a room 
with frescoes from the 'Divine Comedy" by Franc. Scaramuzza , now the 
director of the academy, completed in 1857. 

The dilapidated Teatro Farnese, also situated here (keys kept by the 
custodian of the picture-gallery, fee 30 c), was erected in 1618 — 28 by 
Duke Ranuccio Farnese. The (formerly) ducal Tipograiia (PI. 28), founded 
by Bodoni in 1766, is celebrated for its admirable printing. 

The custodians of the picture-gallery also keep tlie keys (fee 
50 c. ) of the 

*Convento di S. Paolo (PI. 13), formerly a Benedictine nunnery, 
now a school, an insignificant building, but remarkable for the 
charming '-'h'rescoes by Correygio in the Camera di S. Paolo, one of 
the apartments, which was thus decorated by order of the abbess 
Giovanna da Piacen/.a in If) 19 (the best preserved works of the 
master) : over the chimney-piece Diana, on the ceiling Cupids 

C hiese 
1 J)uomo D.5 

1 Campanile o fflarla/uhna D.o 

3 Aqostitto i ora S.Micchele > B.C.4 

| 4- S. Btirlolommeo 
b S.Domemco 

6 Sj'rtmccsco 

7 S.fhovannt deeollaUt 

10 S.Pietro 
\\ S.f'ttfl'tlXO 

Edif ixj ed Istituli yubblici 

12 -Acaulemm ilelle Belle Arii E.3 

13 Ortotiotaniro G34 

14 OsserxmiorioAstrojiomico KJF. 4 

1C Coimuuilf D.5 

17 Arrioescuoile D,,> 

18 Sewamrio \rscopile C6 
10 Ihivcrsita JE.5 

20 *£W« Mcdichv ihll ('mot rst'lti V 3 
£ 1 Tcatro Coitiuriale e <S'ocietu 

del Casino 
l2 TeatroAlinruitdt 

2«> JrcJtivio e Gmdlfntm-e 
at Jt/a/u/a/nealo 

t i" Jionra A Va -donate 

?i> Itoaana 

t'» JUuseoLtti>ul*irio 

'Li (Kfpedalp rtoico 
28 /»//// . 



b . «>". Mar<*> 
*' . MondaJora 
A. Leonardo 

f. Stella d 'Italia 
i . del (ommet't-io 

I »h i-niht«ili, Kd. W.'h»ii 

MODENA. 42. Route. 243 

and emblems of the cliase, on the frieze the Graces, Fortuna, 
Adonis, etc. Tlie most favourable light is in sunny weather, 
10 — 12 a. m. The adjacent room was adorned with paintings by 
Al. Alardi (d. 15'28). 

Quitting the museum and crossing the small river Parma by 
the Ponte Verde, we soon reach the (formerly ) Ducal Garden, at 
the N. end of which is the Palazzo del Giardino (PI. 19), erected 
by Ottavio Famese, and adorned with numerous frescoes. One of 
the apartments contains the Iiape of Europa, the Triumph of Venus, 
the Marriage of Peleus and Thetis, etc., by Ayostino Caracci. 

The garden adjoins the Stradone, a promenade encircling the 
town, and laid out on the site of the former fortifications. 

From Parma to Mantua diligence daily at 5 a. m. (7 fr.), see p. 180. 

42. Modena. 

Hotels. Albekgo Reale (PI. a), R. 2, L. "| 2 , D. 3—4, A. 3 | 4 fr.; 
*Alueuc;o S. Marco (PI. b), commercial, good cuisine; Monoatora (PI. c) ; 
Leotakuo (PI. d). — Caffe Xuzionale , Corso della Via Emilia, opposite 
the Dogana (PI. 25). Bin-aria on the W. ramparts, between the Porta 
S. Agostino and Baloardo di S. Francesco. — Cab with one horse 70, 
with two 90 c. per drive, at night 1 fr. or 1 fr. 20 c. ; per hour 1 fr. 10 
or 1 fr. 70 c, at, night 1 fr. 40 c. or 2 fr. ; each additional half-hour 50 
or 80 c. — Military Music on Sunday forenoons in summer in the Giardini 
Pubblici, and once weekly in the evening in the Baloardo di S. Pietro. — 
Arena Goldoni, an open-air theatre near the Porta Bologna (1 or '(2 fr.). — 
Zanichelli, bookseller, Corso di Via Emilia. 

Modena, a town with 55,000 inhab., situated in a fertile plain 
between the Secchia and the Panaro, formerly the capital of the 
duchy of that name, and now that of the province of Kmilia, pos- 
sesses broad streets, spacious arcades, an university, and an aca- 
demy of art. It was the ancient Mutina, in the dominions of the 
Gallic Boii; it became a Roman colony 15. C 183, and being 
situated on the high road from Rome to Mediolanum (Milan), was 
a place of some importance. 

After the murder of Caesar, Brutus was besieged here by Antony for 
four months, Dec. 44 In April 43 B. C. (Bellnm Mulinense); but. the latter 
was defeated by Octavian with the consuls Pansa and Hirtius, and compel- 
led to raise the siege. — In the middle ages Modena belonged to the 
estates of the Countess Matilda, but eventually obtained its independence 
and became the scene of violent, conflicts between the Guelphs and 
Hhibellincs. In 1288 O biz to (TEste gained possession of the supreme power, 
which his descendants continued to enjoy. In 1452 Borso was created 
Duke of Modena by Emp. Frederick III.,' and in 1470 obtained the title 
of Duke of Ferrara from Pope Paul II. The House of Este now soon 
attained the zenith of its glory. Hercules I. (1471—1505) and his son 
Cardinal Hippolytus d'Este (1479—1520) were the patrons of Ariosto , and 
Alplionso II. (1558—97), the patron of Tasso (comp. p. 192). On the death 
of Alphonso II., without issue, the states of Modena and Iteggio (but. not 
that of Ferrara) fell to his kinsman Gesiire d'Este (1598), husband of 
Virginia de' Medici , daughter of Grand-duke Cosmo I. of Florence. 
Hercules III. (d. 1803), who by the Peace of Luneville lost Modena in 
1801 was the last of the family of Este. Through his daughter Beatrice, 
who married Archduke Ferdinand, the duchy came into the possession of 


244 Route 42. MODENA. 


the younger branch of the House of Austria in 1814. The insurrections 
of 1848 and 1851 were quelled with cruel severity. Francis V., the last 
duke, quitted his dominions in 1859 and went over to the Austrians. 

The *Cathedral (PI. 1), begun in the Romanesque style in 
1099 by Lanfranco, consecrated in 1184, has a superstructure of 
later date. The facade is relieved by a large rose window and a 
simple colonnade (three arches resting on columns in the wall 
and enclosed by a larger arch), which is continued round the 
whole building. The portals are adorned with the often recurring 
marble lions. The rude sculptures of the facade, representing the 
history of the first men and the death of King Arthur, are by Ni- 
colaui, and Ouilelmus (about 1100); on the S. side, to the r. near 
the choir, is the history of St. Geminianus, a relief by Agostino da 
Firenze, 1442 (perhaps Agostino di Duccio). 

The Interior is low and heavy, but of handsome proportions. The 
nave and aisles are supported by alternate pillars and columns, over which 
runs a triforium, and the vaulting is pointed. In the 2nd chapel on the 
1-, a late Gothic *altar of terracotta; 3rd chapel 1., a Coronation of Mary 
with saints on a gold ground, by de Serajinis , the oldest extant 
picture of the school ofModena (1385) ; 4th chapel 1., Madonna in clouds, St. 
Jerome, St. Sebastian , and John the Baptist , by Dosso Dossi. By the 
Opposite pillar is the pulpit by Tommaso di Cmnpione, 1322; very ancient 
font, to the r. of the approach to the choir, adapted for the purpose from 
the capital of a column. Choir-stalls by Cristoforo Lendenari, 1465; in 
the choir, on the r., sculptures of the beginning of the 12th cent, by 
Nicolaus and Quilelmus, representing the Passion. By the 1. entrance to 
the choir, and on the 1. side of the choir, are several monuments of the 
Rangoni family, the best being that (designed by Qiulio Romano) of Claudio, 
Count of Castelvetro (d. 1537), husband of Lucrezia, daughter of the 
celebrated scholar Pico of Mirandola (p. 181); and that of Hercules III. 
of Este (d. 1803). The lofty crypt, with four lions at the entrance, and 
supported by thirty slender columns, most of them with Romanesque 
capitals, the fluted ones in front of the high-altar being antique, contains 
the tomb of St. Geminianus ; over the altar on the r. a Madonna and 
four saints by Mazzoni. 

The ^Campanile, or La Ohirlandina (PI. 2), erected in 1'224 — 
1319, 335 ft. in height, is one of the finest in N. Italy. It leans 
slightly towards the back of the cathedral, which is itself somewhat 
out of the perpendicular. 

In the campanile is preserved an old Secchia , or pitcher , which the 
Modenese (Oeminiani) captured from the Bolognese (Pelronii) at the battle 
of Rapolino, 15th Nov., 1325. Alesscmdro Tassoni of Modena (1565—1635) 
has humorously described this incident in his comic epic poem 'La Secchia 
Rapita' (1616). A monument was erected to him in 1860 in the principal 
street, behind the cathedral. 

S. Pietro (PI. 10), at the S. end of the town, is a spacious 
church with double aisles , a good facade of brick , and groined 
vaulting , partly in the pointed , and partly in the circular style. 
2nd Altar on the r., Pieta by Herri de Bles ; 3rd altar r., Assump- 
tion by Dosso Dossi ; in the chapel to the r. of the choir, *Mourn- 
ing for the dead Christ, in terracotta , by Antonio Begarelli of Mo- 
dena (d. 1555). Six statues in the nave by the same master. The 
Madonna and Child in clouds , with four saints below, a group in 
the S. transept, was begun by Begarelli and completed by his 

Palazzo Ducale. MODENA. 42. Route. 245 

nephew Lodovico. 2nd Altar on the 1., Madonna in clouds with 
two saints by Giambattista Dossi. 

S. Francesco (PL 6) contains a *Descent from the Cross (in 
the chapel to the 1. of the choir) by Begarelli, an imposing compo- 
sition in terracotta, with thirteen life-size figures. 

S. Agostino , now 8. Michele (PI. 3), is uninteresting. The 
old choir of S. Agostino only is now used as a church. The body 
of the church (keys at the Ragioneria of the Ospedale Civico op- 
posite) contains the tombs of the celebrated savants Carolus Sigo- 
nius (1524 — 85) and Lod. Ant. Muratori (1672 — 1750) of Modena, 
the latter chiefly eminent as an historian of Italy (monument to 
him, see below), and a Pieta by Begarelli. 

The Museo Lapidario, in the court to the 1. of S. Agostino, con- 
tains Roman inscriptions and sarcophagi, and in the passage to the 
1. two mediaeval monuments of 1312 and 1309 respectively. 

The Piazza Muratori in the main street is adorned with a 
marble statue to the celebrated historian of that name (see above). 

The *Palazzo Ducale (PI. 15), at the end of the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele , a magnificent edifice with a handsome court , begun 
under Francis I. in 1634 by the Roman Bartolommeo Avanzini, 
contains a Picture Gallery (open daily 9 — 3; entrance at the back 
of the palace, second floor; catalogue 3 fr.). 

2nd Room : 24. Simone Avanzi , Madonna and angels (1370) ; without 
number, Barnaba da Modena, Madonna (14th cent.); 33. Gherardo da 
Haarlem (or rather by an early master of the school of Kologna), Cruci- 
fixion ; *36. Bianchi Ferrari (Correggio's teacher), Annunciation ; 43. Filippo 
Lippi (?), Madonna; 48. Crucifixion, attributed to Andrea Mantegna; 51. 
Bernardino Losco , Madonna and two saints (1515); 58. Marco Meloni, 
Madonna and two saints (1504). — 3rd R. : *60. Correggio , Ganymede 
carried off by the eagle (ceiling-painting); 66. Correggio, Angels. Then a 
number of frescoes, comprising nine scenes from the iEneid (transferred 
to canvas), by Niccolb deir Abbate of Modena (1512 — 71); by the same 
master, the octagonal piece No. 107, with singers and musicians. — 4th R. : 
108 — 112. Ceiling-paintings by Tintoretto from Ovid's Metamorphoses; 
115—118, by the same master; 117. Titian, Portrait of a lady ; 129. Madonna 
and saints after Palma Vecchio; 140. Pahna Giovine, Allegory; 141. Boni- 
fazio, Adoration of the Magi; 143. Cima da Conegliano , Descent from the 
Cross. — 5th R. : *149. Gtiido Reni, Christ on the Cross; 168. Guercino, 
Martyrdom of St. Peter ; in the centre the statue of a wounded warrior 
by Obbigi. This room and the 8th contain a number of drawings. — 
6th R. : 189, 190. Garofalo, Madonna and saints ; 176. Dosso Dossi, Adoration 
of the Child ; 178, 191, 193, by the same master. In the centre a marble 
statue of Psyche by Capelli. — 7th R. : 201. Lodovico Caracci, Flora; 204. 
Annibale Caracci, Venus. — 8th R. : unimportant, and most of the names 
questionable (among the drawings are the ^Judgment of Paris and the 
Flight of Helen). — 9th R. : 297. Madonna , after Andrea del Sarto. To 
the left is the — 10th R. (Sola Grande): Statue of Francis I. by Bernini; 
two landscapes, without, numbers, by Salvator Rosa; 325,346. Tintoretto, 
Mythological pictures; 355. Gnercino, Nuptials of St. Catharine; 348. Lionello 
Spada , Gipsy woman. — 11th R. : 404. Gasparo Pagano, Nuptials of St. 
Catharine. — 12th R. : Nugari, Copy of Correggio\s La Notte ; pictures by 
Malatesta, the director of the gallery. — Room to the r. (generally closed): 
*423. Giorgione (more probably Palma Vecchio), Portrait of a lady; *488. 
Raphael (more probably by another pupil of Perugino), Madonna and 
Child ; 490. Murillo, Portrait of a Benedictine ; 458. Memling, St. Christopher 

246 Route 43. BOLOGNA. 

an old copy of the original at Munich; Bern. Luini, Infant John; Oiulio 
Romano, Study of a head. — Another room contains mediaeval curiosities 
and other objects, among them a fine cabinet attributed to Benvenvto Cellini. 

On the first floor of the palace is the Library (Biblioteca Estense), 
with 90,000 vols, and 3000 MSS. (closed 1st Aug. to 1st Oct. ), 
transferred by Duke Cesare d'Este fromFerrara to Modena in 1598, 
when Pope Clement VIII. claimed the Duchy of Ferrara as a va- 
cant fief. The eminent scholars Znccaria, Tiraboschi, Muratori 
(p. 245) and the archaeologist Cnvedoni (d. 1865) were once 
librarians here. Some of the MSS. are very valuable, e. g. a 
collection of Provencal poems by Ferrari (1254), Dante with 
miniatures of the 14th cent. The same building also contains the 
Cabinet of Coins and the Archives. 

The well-kept Gardens of the palace, now the Giardino Pubblico 
(closed in rainy weather only), as well as the ramparts of the town, 
afford pleasant walks. 

From Modena to Verona by Mantua see R. 34. 

Vignola, 12'|-2 M. S.E. of Modena, on the Panaro , is situated on an 
eminence and commands the landscape far and wide. The celebrated 
Muratori and the architect. Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola were born here. 

Duke Francis III. of Modena constructed (about 1770) a bold and 
interesting, but now neglected road hence to Pisto.ta (diligence three times 
weekly), a distance of 46 M., leading by Formigine , Serra , Paullo, Pieve 
a Pelago , and Fiwnalbo , at the base of the lofty Monte Cim-one , where 
charming views of the Apennines are obtained. — To the W. of this road, 
about lO'Ja M. S.W. of Modena, is situated Sassuolo, a small town on the 
Secchia , with a ducal * Villa, and beautiful park. The Zibio, a neigh- 
bouring volcanic mountain, is remarkable for its naphtha springs. 

43. Bologna. 

Hotels. *Hotel Bkun (Pension Suisse, PI. a), in the Palazzo Malvasia 
(good survey of the town from the loggia), R. 3, L>. 4—5, L. 3j 4] A. 1, 
omnibus I fr. ; S. Makco (PI. b), same charges; Albekgo Bologna (form- 
erly Tre Mori); ^Pellegrino (PI. c), R. 2'| 2 , L. and A. 1 fr. (all these 
hotels are in the Strada Ugobassi); Hotel d'Italie, Portico delle Gabelle 
Vecchie , well spoken of; Albekgo oe 1 The Re, Mercato di Mezzo; 
Commebcio, Via di Petra Fitta. — Pace, Aqlila , in the Calca Yinazzi, 
a side street of the Strada Ugobassi; Europa, Str. Ugobassi; Bella 
Venezia, Mercato di Mezzo; Cannon d'Oro, corner of Via Porta Nova and 
Via Gombruti, R. l'| 4 — 2 fr. 

Restaurants. *Ristoranle Felsineo, Mercato di Mezzo, near the Piazza 
Vitt. Emanuele, on the 1st floor, 1). 2 — 4 fr. ; * Caffe del Corso , Strada S. 
Stefano; also at most of the hotels. (The ^Morladella\ or Bologna sausage, 
and the ' Cervellato^, which is eaten in winter, are much esteemed by the 

Cafes. The most frequented are in the arcades near the Palazzo 
Pubblico, and in the streets to the S. of S. Petronio, most of them sombre 
and uninviting. Majani (confectioner); *delle Hcienze , Via Miola; del 
Commercio, opposite Hotel Brun; *del Corso (see above); Caffe Cacciatori, 
by the leaning tower; Caffe de" Serri, Via Maggiore. — Beer: *Birraria 
delta Ditta Neriani in the side arcade of the Piazza, E. of S. Petronio; 
*Birraria Milano, Via Miola, adjacent to the Cade delle Scienze ; Nuovo 
Caffe del Pavaglione in the Piazza, W. of S. Petronio; Mayr's Fabbrica' 
di Birra, Via Pratello; Brnrerij at the S.W. side of the Piazza d'Armi, etc. 

Railway Station outside the Porta Gulliera , N.W. of the Montagnoba 
(p. 257). Railway to Aucuna see R. 44; to Ferrara (and Ponte Lagoscuro), 




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BOLOGNA. 43. Route. 247 

see R. 37; to Ravenna (by Castel Bolognese), see R. 46; to Florence (by 
Pistoja), see R. 47; to Piacenza, see R. 40. 

Post Office (PI. 80), in the street S.W. of Hotel Brun, adjoining the 
church of S. Francesco. — Telegraph Office in the Palazzo Comunale, 
first tloor. 

Cabs. Per hour li| 2 , each additional i| 2 hr. 3| 4 f r . ; per drive 3| 4 fr. ; 
to or from the station, with or without luggage, 1 fr. To S. Michele, for 
the first hour 2>| 2 , each additional >| 2 hr. »| 4 fr. After 10 p. m., in winter 
after 9 p. m., 50 c. more in each case. 

Baths. Buyni di S. Lucia, Strada Castiglione; alia Car i til , Strada 
Ugobassi; delle Molinc, Via delle Moline, near the Montagnola. Vapour- 
baths, corner of Via Repubblicana and Vicolo della Maddalena. 

Theatres. Tealro del Connine (PI. 72), the largest, erected by Ilibiena 
in 1756 on the site of the Palazzo Itentivoglio. Conlavalli (PI. 73), estab- 
lished in 1814 in the former church of the Carmelites ; del Corso (PI. 74 1 ; 
Teatro Brunetti, in a side-street of the Strada Castiglione; Arena del Sole, 
Via de 1 Malcontenti , near the Montagnola, open-air theatre. Marionette 
Theatre in the evening in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele. 

Shops. The best are in the arcades near the Palazzo Pubblico. 
Ebliardt, Via Mercato di Mezzo, and Zttirichelli, under the arcades, to the 
E. of S. Petronio, booksellers. Dalpini, glover, Mercato di Mezzo, near 
the leaning towers. Serra, Palazzo Tanari, Via Gralliera (PI. 67), dealer in 
old books, curiosities, and pictures. 

The situation of Bologna is considered healthy, although the summer 
is often very hot and the winter keen. The character of the natives is 
generally described as impetuous and restless , but art and science have 
attained a high degree of development here. The town is sometimes 
termed 'Bologna la ar«sxa\ owing to its reputation for wealth and good- 
living. The neighbourhood produces tolerable wines and excellent fruit. 
The grapes are delicious; the yellow Uva Paradisa is a kind which may 
be kept a considerable time. The once favourite lap-dogs of Bologna are 
now almost extinct. Soap, maccaroni, and liqueurs ('bebita') are among 
the most esteemed commodities of the place. — The favourite Giuoco 
di Pallone, or ball-game, always attracts spectators; a large space (PI. 76) 
in the Promenade Montagnola (p. 257) is titled up for the purpose, and 
should be visited (bills are posted up to announce the names of the 
parties to the matches about to be played). 

Principal Attkactions : Piazza Vitt. Emanuele with the Pal. Pubblico 
and del Podesta, *S. Petronio, +S. Domenico, *S. Stefano, S. Giacomo 
Maggiore, S. Cecilia, *Accademia delle Belle Arti, the Leaning Towers, 
Loggia de 1 Mercanti, ^Campo Santo, and, if possible, the 'Madonna di S. 
Luca for the sake of the view. If time remains, the Archiginnasio, the 
University, the Palaces Bacciocchi, Bevilacqua Fava, etc. may be visited. 

Bologna, with 109,000 inhab., one of the most ancient and im- 
portant towns in Italy, the capital of the Romagna, or AZmilia as it 
was anciently termed , is situated in a fertile plain at the base of 
the Apennines, between the Reno, the Aposa, and the Snrena. It 
possesses 130 churches, 20 monasteries, and a venerable and cele- 
brated university, whence the inscription on old coins "Bononia 


The town was founded by the Etruscans and named Felsina, but was 
afterwards conquered by the Gallic Boii , and by them termed liononia. 
In the Punic War it espoused the cause of Hannibal , after which, B. C. 
190 it was converted into a Roman colony, at the same time as Cremona 
and' Placentia, by the consul C. Lselius, and as such was a place of 
a great importance. Under the Empire it was even occasionally the 
residence of the monarchs themselves. It subsequently belonged to the 
Greek Exarchate, then to the Lombards and Franks. Charlemagne 
constituted Bologna a free town (whence its motto '■Libertas'), and its 
commerce and prosperity rapidly increased. In 1119 the Universitv , one 

248 Route 43. BOLOGNA. Palazzo Pubblico. 

of the oldest in the world, was founded, and as a School of Jurisprudence, 
where Irnerius and other celebrated jurists taught , soon attained an 
European repxitation, and was visited by many thousand students annually. 
In 1262 the number is said to have attained to nearly 10,000; at, the present 
day there are 400 only. Irneriiis introduced the study of the Roman Law, 
while his successors the Glossators devoted their energies to its inter- 
pretation. The study of medicine and philosophy was introduced at a 
later period, and a theological faculty established by Pope Innocent VI. 
The anatomy of the human frame was first taught here in the 14th cent., 
and galvanism was discovered here by Jos. Galvani in 1789. It is a 
remarkable fact that the university of Bologna has numbered members of 
the fair sex among its professors. Thus in the 14th cent. Kovelht d' Andrea, 
a lady of great personal attractions, who is said to have been concealed 
by a curtain during her lectures ; at a subsequent period Laura Bassi 
(mathematics and physical science), Mme. Manzolina (anatomy), and more 
recently (1794—1817) Clotilda Tambroni (Greek). 

Bologna acted a very prominent part in the contests of the Guelphs 
and Ghibellines, espoused the cause of the former, and allied itself with 
the Pope against Emp. Frederick II. In a sanguinary encounter at 
Fossalta, in May, 1249, King Enzio, son of the Emperor, was captured by 
the Bolognese,